Lorenzo established the first art school in Florence
Botticelli’s painting La Prima Vera (the spring), which was based on classical mythology rather than the Bible, explore new and possibly dangerous artistic ground
Botticelli’s paintings like The Birth of Venus are religious rather than humanistic
Girolamo Savonarola was a Dominican priest who worked for Lorenzo
Savonarola believed that nude paintings and non-religious art were evil.
Michelangelo and Botticelli fought against Savonarola.
Eventually Botticelli either changed his mind about what subjects are appropriate for painting or he feared the repercussions his art might bring because he threw some of his own paintings on Savonarola’s “Bonfire of the Vanities.”
When Lorenzo’s banks began to fail, the ‘amici delle amici’ (friends of friends) system of influence began to break down because there weren’t enough personal favors to go around
When Lorenzo died in 1492, Savonarola forgave him in his deathbed.
After Lorenzo’s death, Savonarola gained control of the city; his bands of “skinhead” teens roamed the city beating up prostitutes, burning homosexuals, and harassing anyone wearing jewelry, makeup, or elaborate clothes as well as anyone still owning dice or cards.
In the “Bonfires of the Vanities,” Savonarola and his followers burned books, makeup, clothes, wigs, art, and jewelry.
Six years after his fundamentalist backlash against the Renaissance an Lorenzo de Medici, Savonarola was excommunicated
All of the artists that the Ninja Turtles were named after (Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael, Donatello) worked for the Medici family
The system of patronage used by the Medici family to operate Florence and Tuscany, in which people are personally loyal to a family that looks out for
(1276-1337) Florentine Painter who led the way in the use of realism; sometimes called the “father of renaissance painting”.
(1304 – 1374) Italian scholar and poet known as the Father of Humanism; wrote Italian sonnets; created the concept of the Middle Ages by nostalgically looking back to glory of ancient Rome.
(1377-1436) architect and sculptor; created the Duomo; could balance an egg on end; developed (or rediscovered linear perspective); friend of Donatello.
(1386-1466) Sculptor. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature.
(1406-1457) Father of textual criticism. Wrote On Pleasure and On the False Donation of Constantine, which challenged the authority of the papacy, especially their claim to land in northern Italy.
Cosimo de’ Medici
(1389-1464) banker who became a wealthy Florentine and an astute statesman; brought power back to Florence in 1434 when he ascended to power; controlled the city behind the sceneby skillfully manipulating the constitution and influencing elections; grandfather of Lorenzo the Magnificent
Lorenzo de’ Medici
(1449-1492) Italian statesman and scholar who supported many artists and humanists including Michelangelo and Leonardo and Botticelli (1449-1492)
(1452-1498) Became the unofficial leader of Florence between 1494-1498 who pledged to rid Florence of its decadence and corruption, oversaw a theocracy in Florence. When France was removed from Italy in 1498, Savonarola was imprisoned, tried, and burned at the stake.
(1444 – 1510) Florentine painter known for vivid colors; painted both mythological works (“The Birth of Venus” & “Primavera”) & religious works (“The Adoration of the Magi”); burned his own works during the “Bonfire of Vanities” sponsored by Savonarola.
Leonardo da Vinci
(1452-1519) Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
(1475-1564) Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, and poet mainly known for his work on the Sistine Chapel and his sculptures David and the Pieta; career began at the age of 12, was forced to paint by his father; completed many pieces for the Medici Family and Pope Julius II; apprentice to the painter Domenico Ghirlandaio and the sculpture school in the Medici gardens; served as the supervising architect of St. Peter’s Basilica; spent most of his life working on commission for powerful people he was not able to refuse.
(1475-1507) member of the Spanish Borgia family and illegitimate son of Pope Alexander VI who inherited much power and territory from his father, known as Duke Valentino. This “new monarch” reasserted the church authority in the papal lands of Italy. Cesare began uniting the peninsula by conquering and invading the principalities making up the papal states. He is considered by Machiavelli to have been a most capable leader and the embodiment of what a prince should be. Machiavelli suggests that an ambitious prince looking for a recent model to follow should imitate Cesare Borgia. Machiavelli uses many events of Cesare Borgia’s life to illustrate how and why he was successful. Machiavelli believes that Cesare Borgia would have succeeded in uniting all of Italy had he not fallen ill. Examining Cesare Borgia’s life, Machiavelli concludes that in order for a prince to ultimately succeed, he needs both ability and fortune.
(1469-1527) Italian historian, statesman, and political philosopher of the Renaissance. His greatest work is The Prince, a book of political advice to rulers in which he describes the methods that a prince should use to acquire and maintain political power. This book was used to defend policies of despotism and tyranny. Machiavelli wrote that a ruler should take any action to remain in power, or that “the ends justifies the means.”
(1475-1521) Giovanni, son of Lorenzo de’ Medici; became pope in 1513 and quickly emptied the papal accounts on his extravagant lifestyle; sold indulgences to continue his profligate spending; excommunicated Martin Luther and who in 1521 bestowed on Henry VIII the title of Defender of the Faith; died in 1521
(1466-1536) Dutch humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Widely respected intellectual in Europe. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not support the idea of a Reformation. Wrote In Praise of Folly. Published his translation of the NT in Latin along with a Greek text which was widely used by the Reformers to translate into vernacular languages. Sparred with Luther.
means “rebirth”, an era which emphasises education, art and critical thinking.
a city that with its surrounding territory forms an independent state.
Italian city-state was the birthplace of the Renaissance.
rich banking family in Florence and controlled the government also.
a way of thinking and learning that stresses the importance of human abilities and actions.
An artistic technique that creates the appearance of three dimensions on a flat surface.
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian Renaissance artist that painted The Last Supper and Mona Lisa, he was also an engineer, architect, sculptor, and scientist.
Italian Reniassance sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect; famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and the sculpture of the David
Italian Renaissance painter who painted members of the Medici family and religious figures.
Inventor of the printing press, Gutenberg Bible and movable type.
Renaissance invention; made possible the mass production of printed books and other texts,; increased literacy.
Italian Reniassance writier and politician; observed political events that lead to the essay he wrote called “The Prince”.
The art and science of building
Renaissance astronomer; first person to state that Earth and the other planets travel around the sun.
Renaissance astronomer; explained how the planets travel around the sun.
Renaissance astronomer; provided evidence that the sun is the center of the solar system; conflicted with the church and placed under house arrest.
Renaissance astronomer and physicist, showed how gravity controls the motion of the planets around the sun as well as the motion of the Moon.
study of the structure of the human body
idea to paint and sculpt subjects realistically. It involves a number of techniques that make the subjects and background look like they would in real life.
Who is Cosimo Medici’s father?
What did Giovanni Medici (first one) value?
Who did Giovanni Medici (first one) patron? What was he and what did he want to do?
Baldasarre Cossa was an ex-pirate and wanted to enter the Vatican and become the pope
What did Giovanni Medici (first one) tell Cosimo to do?
To stay out of the public’s eye and wait to be summoned if something bad was to happen – don’t automatically step up to fix the problem
Who is the first client of Giovanni (first one)?
What does Giovanni open? What does this take him to in regards to class?
The Medici Bank, takes him from a merchant to part of the elite
Baldasarre Cossa becomes what? What does he do for the Medici family because they backed him?
He becomes pope and will make the Medici Bank the official bank of the church
What is Cosimo looking for? Where is he looking?
He is looking in churches for lost secrets of ancient times and architecture
Who does Cosimo publicly support?
Why is Cosimo tried by the Albizzi? What is the outcome?
He had moved money out of Florence into other banks because the Albizzi family’s power was decreasing – precautionary measure. He was tried and found guilty of treason so then he was exiled
Where is Florence located?
In Italy in the heart of Tuscany
What was the Medici’s first big task? Why did they try do accomplish this?
To try and fix the problem of the dome on the cathedral. They thought that if they could do this then they could gain political power for the family
What impact did the unfinished dome have on the people of Florence?
It was humiliating to them that it wasn’t finished
Who sparked the classical architectural period?
What was offered to the person who came up with the solution of the dome?
A big cash prize
What did Brunelleschi do with regards to his architectural drawings? Why?
He put them in code so that no one could steal them
Who did Brunelleschi turn to for inspiration?
What is the Panthion? Why is it significant here?
The largest free-standing dome in Rome that Brunelleschi looked at for inspiration
What was a major difference between Brunelleschi’s dome and the Panthion?
Brunelleschi could’t use scaffolding like the Panthion – there was none in Tuscany and couldn’t use concrete
What did Brunelleschi use in his dome in replacement of the materials the Panthion used?
He used sandstone rings and layered his bricks in a vertical and horizontal pattern
What did Brunelleschi have his men do at lunchtime? Why? What did he allow them to do?
He had them eat at the job site to conserve their energy and he allowed them to drink diluted wine
How did Cosimo get his family out of the shadow of Giovanni’s death?
He backed Brunelleschi and his dome
What two families were fighting in video one?
The Albizzi family and the Medici family
What did Brunelleschi create so that the oxen could continue to always walk forward?
A gear that could change direction to either pull things up or lower them down
How did the Albizzi learn that Cosimo had transferred money out of Florence?
They had captured some of his friends and tortured the information out of them
Where did the Albizzi keep Cosimo confined in?
The top floor of the government building
What did the Albizzi family need from the people in order to decide Cosimo’s fate?
The people’s consent
How did Cosimo escape his sentence of execution?
He had friends on the enemy side and bribed his way out
When Cosimo was getting into trouble with the Albizzi, what happened to Brunelleschi and his dome?
He was thrown in jail and the work on the dome came to a halt
When Cosimo was exiled, the money flow in the Medici Bank slowed down to a halt. What did this cause?
This caused the people to beg Cosimo to come back, but he didn’t for what his father had told him. They then were so fed up of not having money, they rebelled, causing Cosimo to come back
When Cosimo came back after being exiled, what did he accept? What did this make him?
Rule over Florence – king in everything except for name
When Cosimo came back what happened to the dome and the bank?
Money came back, bank grew bigger, Brunelleschi went back to work on the dome
Under Cosimo, what did the church threaten to people if they didn’t pay their taxes?
What is excommunication? Who would do it?
Not being able to go to heaven – distributed by the pope
Cosimo spent a ton of money on art patronage. Why? What was it a form of?
It was a political strategy – he was investing in something so that he would get political power and prestige in return
There were no art markets in this time, so how were did artists make their money?
They were commissioned
What did Cosimo allow artists to do on their free time?
To do whatever they liked
What did Brunelleschi invent? What was it?
He invented perspective – allowed pictures to look 3D
What was Donatello? Example?
Violent – he would smash his artwork instead of sell it
Who backed Donatello?
What did Cosimo commission Donatello to make?
The David (first one) that was the first free-standing bronze statue of a nude man
What was the dome a symbol of?
What was Cosimo declared when he died?
The Father of the Fatherland
When the dome was finished, who did Cosimo invite to do the consecration? What about come to see it?
The pope; artists and churchmen from all over
Who are Giuliano and Lorenzo Medici? Who is older?
Heirs to the throne, brothers, Lorenzo is older
On the way home from their summer home what do enemies of the Medici try to do? Do they succeed? Why or why not?
They try to murder Lorenzo’s father but don’t succeed because Lorenzo is clever and takes his father in a different direction
What is the purpose of Lorenzo’s marriage to the daughter of the Roman Baron?
They needed allies in places outside of Florence and political expedience, class, connections, etc.
Who is Botticelli?
An artist who Lorenzo patroned
What did Botticelli do in his nativity scene painting?
He placed Lorenzo, Giuliano and their father in it – wasn’t historically correct
When Lorenzo’s father died he took his place. Was he excited about it?
No, he took the position unwillingly
Who did Lorenzo offer help to?
What does Lorenzo get away with in government?
Exercising more power than he has
Botticelli is described as a very _______ artist.
What did Botticelli invent? What was it?
A new type of art called the “Primavera” or the “Springtime.” It was fantasy and inspired by imagination and poetry
Who are the Pazzi?
A rival banking family of the Medici
What does Lorenzo make sure about the Pazzi?
He made sure they were kept out of the leading office in Florence
The Pazzi wanted to take the Medici down. Who was on their side and why?
The Catholic church – they owed money to the Medici bank
On Easter Day the Medici and everyone else go to mass. What do the Pazzi do to Lorenzo and Giuliano?
Attack them – Giuliano stabbed 19 times and dead and Lorenzo wounded
What did Lorenzo become known as?
Lorenzo goes to consult with enemies in the south and strikes a deal with them. This deal causes the pope to do what?
Call off the troops he had sent to attack Medici
After Giuliano dies, what does Lorenzo do with regards to an heir?
Lorenzo didn’t have an heir, so he adopts Giuliano’s son as his own
Who was Leonardo da Vinci? What did he use in his art? Where was he discovered?
Discovered in Verrochio’s art studio and used bright oils in work
Who was Savonarola?
A Dominican monk that believed Lorenzo was leading Florence on a path of destruction
What did Savonarola believe art should be?
What did Lorenzo establish?
The first school of art
Who does Lorenzo find and take under his wing?
Michelangelo and who have a very intimate patron-client relationship?
What did Savonarola say he could do?
See the future
Lorenzo let some of his business slip and this caused what to happen?
He lost a lot of money
Lorenzo asked Savonarola for absolution from his sins. What happens?
Savonarola damns him to Hell
Which artist seemed to embrace Christianity and be listening to Savonarola?
What did Savonarola organize after Lorenzo died?
A public burning of all books and accessories deemed unnecessary. This bonfire was called the the “Bonfire of Vanities”
Who threw his painting into the bonfire in fear of damnation?
Giovanni and Giulio are raised as what?
Cousins raised as brothers
To guide his work on his sculpture, what did Michelangelo do?
He submerged a clay doll in water and dropped the water level everyday in – whatever was out of the water was what he carved
What did Michelangelo devise in order to keep the dust down and keep his body cool?
A constant shower of water
Who was Michelangelo raised alongside?
Giulio and Giovanni
Giulio and Giovanni were marked out for what since a very young age?
Sparked by the hate of the Medici wealth and power, a civil war occurred. What happened to Giulio and Giovanni?
They were exiled
Michelangelo’s “David” was originally commissioned for what purpose?
To be put on top of the church – why it was so big
When the authorities went to see Michelangelo’s “David” what did they say? Where did they put it?
They said it was too good to be put on top of a building where no one would see it, so they put it in front of the government building instead
What did Michelangelo’s “David” become a symbol of?
Resistance of the Medicis
Giulio and Giovanni arrived in Rome to take their case to the pope. What did he say?
He was sympathetic and helped them assemble an army and they went back to Florence
What did artists do in the third video that was against the church’s wishes? Why?
They took bodies from the city morgue and used them for investigation and learning
What artist was notorious for taking dead bodies?
Leonardo da Vinci
Michelangelo was the rival of who?
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo and Michelangelo were both given walls in the Council Chamber to paint on. What did they do with them? Moods?
They both picked different battles to commemorate. Leonardo’s mood was violence and Michelangelo’s showed panic
Was Florence outnumbered by Giulio and Giovanni’s armies?
Who had “governed” the city in the absence of Giulio and Giovanni?
Nicole Machivelli began preparations for the incoming armies of Giulio and Giovanni. What did he do?
He put together an army comprised of men from all over Tuscany
What did Giulio and Giovanni do to the city of Prattle? What did it serve as? What happened afterwards with regards to Florence?
Killed the entire town – served as a warning to Florence – Florence surrendered power to the Medici in fear because they knew they were no match
Giovanni was a cardinal and learned that the pope had died. What did he have to do?
Go to Rome and elect the new pope with the other cardinals
Who was elected the new pope in the third video? What did he change his name to?
Giovanni – changed name to Pope Leo X
When Giovanni came back to Florence after being elected pope how did the people respond to him?
They forgot their previous problems and welcomed him back wholeheartedly
What does the pope occupy with regards to God?
He occupies the God’s position on earth
Where did Michelangelo paint on the ceiling?
Michelangelo was afraid that he wouldn’t finish the Sistine Chapel on time, so what happened?
He had assistants help him in secret
What technique did Michelangelo use on the Sistine Chapel?
What is the hardest art technique?
How many people were on the Michelangelo’s ceiling?
The Medici asked what of Michelangelo?
To make tombs for Lorenzo and Giuliano
Despite previously fighting against the Medici, Nicolo sought out what from them? How did they respond?
He sought out a job from them – they exiled him
What did Nicolo do when exiled?
He wrote a future dictators handbook in hopes that the Medici would recognize him – didn’t, continued to refuse him a job and kept him exiled
A group of cardinals tried to commit the ultimate crime. What did they try to do? Why did it fail?
They tried to murder the pope, Giovanni, but he had been warned and was able to escape
What did Giovanni do to the cardinals that tried to conspire and murder him?
He had them killed
After Giovanni was tried to be murdered, what did the Medici want to insure? What did they do in order to do so?
They wanted to insure the people around them were trustworthy so they made new jobs in the Vatican and sold them to the people
When Giovanni owed money to every bank, what did he do to make money?
He started to sell indulgences, which were pieces of paper that cleared sins, for affordable prices
Indulgences could even be bought for who?
Who was Martin Luther?
A German monk that was horrified by the sale of indulgences and thought the Catholic church was corrupt
Martin Luther wrote what? How was it printed? Did his word spread fast?
He wrote the 95 Thesis, and was published with a printing press, word spread fast because more copies of the book could be made faster
What was the 95 Thesis about?
It was a direct attack on the pope for the indulgences
When word about Martin Luther’s 95 Thesis got back to Giovanni, what did he do?
He didn’t care because he was just a monk, but he did excommunicate him
When Martin Luther was excommunicated, what did he do? What did this cause?
He refused to repent and this caused the Protestant Revolution
What was the Protestant Revolution?
German princes were protesting about the pope, so the peace of Augsberg happened, splitting the church into 2 – Lutheran and Catholic
When Giovanni dies, who becomes pope? What was his name changed to?
His cousin Giulio, becoming Pope Clemont VII
Followers of Martin Luther go to Rome and attack it and Clemont was there at the time. What did he do?
He hid in the top of a tower and remained there for awhile, until he changed into rags and bribed and sneaked his way out
After Clemont left Rome, what did the people in Florence do? What happened to the “David”?
They rioted and the arm of David got knocked off
Clemont had a niece, Katherine. What she threatened to if there was no truce/cease of fighting in Florence?
They said we will murder her if you don’t end the fighting, so he called for a truce
What was the ruling of the popes described as?
Clemont married her niece off to who? What did this cause?
The son of the King of France, which caused religious hate to go to France as well
After the popes, where was there religious hate occurring?
France, Germany, Italy
Who was Cosimo I descended from? Was he directly descended from the Medicis?
One of Giovanni’s cousins, so he was not directly descended from the Medicis
What the church’s responsibility with regards to education?
They were to interpret the bible and then teach it to others, non-clergymen were not to read the bible
What does Giovanni do with regards to spending the church’s money?
He spends it as his own
With the invention of the printing press, what does this increase?
The number of books and education
What does Martin Luther say is ridiculous?
The notion that clergymen are favored more by God than non-clergymen – he said Jesus never said that
Was Cosimo I properly educated?
Cosimo I wasn’t from a noble family, so why was he insecure?
Because people thought “what does he know about ruling?”
Cosimo I was summoned when the duke of Florence died, and was soon elected duke. Why?
He was the only family member that was around
Giorgio Vasari studied under who? What did he collect after it was broken off?
Michelangelo; The arm of the “David”
Cosimo I needed good publicity. Who knew this and wanted to capitalize on it?
Cosimo I ordered repairs to what?
Michelangelo filled his “Last Judgment” with what? Where was it? What happened to it?
It was a mural on the church filled with nudes – church had it fixed to be more “modest”
Cosimo I begins to court who?
A spanish princess
Cosimo I builds Florence’s first what?
How did Cosimo I build up his reputation?
By using Bazarri’s art
Where did Cosimo I have Vasari paint the victories of the Medici family?
The government building
Cosimo I has what because he has so many enemies?
What was unique about Cosimo I?
He knew everyone by name and if you were a stranger, he would want to know who you are
What was Vasari more of than an artist?
He was an organizer and manager – had connections to artists
Cosimo I founded what for artists? What was the point of this?
He founded a school of the arts so young artists could come to Florence to study
When Michelangelo died, what did Cosimo I do?
Brought his body back to Florence, made him the best artist, and gave him a huge commemorative ceremony
Vasari wrote a book called “Lives of the Most Excellent Painter, Sculptors, and Architects”. What did it define and say? Who was it dedicated to?
Dedicated to Cosimo I, defined the period of Renaissance and said that the world had been dark for 1000 years until the artists
Bazarri’s book offended who? What did they create because of this?
The Catholic church – created the Roman Inquistion
Why was Vasari’s book so crucial?
First time someone gave a definition of the Renaissance
What was the Roman Inquisition’s mentality?
“We find you guilty, so please confess”
The church had a list of books that were heretical and Cosimo I owned a lot of them. What happened because of this?
A public book burning
What was Cosimo I crowned by the pope?
The duke of Tuscany
What was Galileo Galile appointed?
The mentor and tutor of young Medici princes
What did Galileo discover?
How did Galileo teach?
What did Galileo say was incorrect that people had believed for so long? Who did this upset?
He said the earth orbited the sun, but everyone had believed it had been the other way around for a very long time – this upset the church
Galileo made sure all of his discoveries were through the Medici. What did this bring both of them?
Fame and power
Medici discovered what with the telescope?
Craters on the moon and Jupiter’s moons – named them the Medici stars
Galileo wrote a book about his accomplishments and published it, upsetting the church. What did the pope do?
Summoned Galileo for the Roman Inquisition
What did Galileo do in his inquisition?
He recanted (took back) what he said so that the worst he got would be house arrest
When Galileo died, the Medici wanted a funeral for him, but what did the pope say?
No way, no celebrating of him in any way
Why was the church so offended by Galileo?
Because the fact that the sun orbited the earth was very key in religion then
What was patronage used for?
Who was the most famous scientist?
What “extraordinary” piece of art was Michelangelo engaged in early in the 1500s?
Statue of David
What family had adopted Michelangelo 15 years earlier?
To what world was the young artist exposed?
What did this art serve to promote?
The Medici brand
At what age was Giovanni de Medici marked out for the church?
In the years since Giovanni’s childhood, what had happened to the Medici family?
They were cast into exile
When did Michelangelo expose his statue of David to the outside world?
What was the work of David originally commissioned as?
The cathedral of Florence
What political statement was behind the statue of David?
The symbol of the city itself
After nine years in exile, where did Giovanni and Guiliano de Medici arrive?
What two artistic rivals received simultaneous commissions to paint the City Hall building in Florence?
Leonardo de Vinci, Michelangelo
Who invaded Florence in 1512? (With whose backing?)
Papal army led by the Medici cousins
Whose guidance did the city’s leaders call upon?
Chief advisor, Niccolo Machiavelli
What did Machiavelli assemble throughout Tuscany?
Describe the sack of Prato.
A blood bath
In response to the Massacre of Prato what did the leaders of Florence decide to do?
Shortly after taking control of Florence, what news did Giovanni receive?
Pope Julius II died
Why were the Medici’s welcomed by the cardinals as potential new popes?
They already established an international profile
Which cardinal cast the decisive vote in the election?
What did Giovanni de Medici now become known as?
Pope Leo X
What was the reaction in Florence to Giovanni’s ascension to the papacy? Why?
They were proud of him because he became Pope
What new positions did Guiliano de Medici receive shortly after the coronation of his cousin as pope?
Arch Bishop of Florence and later a cardinal
Why was the papacy above every other office on earth?
Pope occupied God’s position on earth
What project was Michelangelo engaged in at this time in Rome?
Papal chapel (Sistine chapel)
What was the challenge of painting the ceiling on fresco (plaster)?
It dried quickly
How many figures covered the ceiling?
Where did Michelangelo find inspiration for many of the scenes on the Sistene Chapel ceiling?
Why did the Medici make Michelangelo an offer he dare not refuse (despite Michelangelo having earlier ended his association with the Medici while the former were in exile)?
Medici tombs for their ancestors and it was hard to say no to the Pope
What happened to Machieavelli? Why?
Thrown in jail because having led the National army
What “handbook” did Machiavelli begin writing for future leaders?
What family did Machiavelli dedicate his work to?
What ultimate crime did a group of cardinal decide to commit in 1516?
The assassination of the Pope
What new policy did the Medici now employ in regard to filling RCC offices?
Sold people into positions (Simony)
After exhausting the RCC coffers with his lavish lifestyle, what fundraising strategy did Leo X now employ?
Sale of indulgences
Describe the sale of indulgences.
Sale of forgiveness; remission (cleanse) for sins
What German monk spoke out against the sale of indulgences in 1517?
Why had no idea ever traveled farther and faster than Luther’s 95 Theses?
Invention of the printing press
What did Leo X do to Luther in response to Luther’s criticism of the RCC?
Excommunicated with him and denied his access into heaven
How and when did Leo X die?
1521, killed by a cold simple winter chill
Within two years of Leo X’s death, Guiliano de Medici was crowned as which pope?
Pope Clement VII
What did followers of Luther do to Rome?
Despite its growing conflict with Rome, what trump card did Florence hold?
Catherine de Medici
What plans did Clement VII have for Catherine de Medici?
Threaten her to be thrown in a brother to marry a French king
What final art project did Pope Clement VII commission Michelangelo to do?
The last judgment
When did Guiliano de Medici (Pope Clement VII) die?