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APUSH 1920’s Social/Economic

Bolshevik Revolution 1917
revolution led by Lenin and Trotsky in Russia, seized control of Petrograd, which sent Russia into a state of anarchy
Seattle Strike 1919
when over 65,000 supported by the IWW and AFL striked for higher wages, due to their displeasure w/ WWI wage controls; strike lasted almost a week
Palmer Raids 1920
operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
A Mitchell Palmer
appointed to Attorney General in 1919 by Wilson; led Palmer Raids, where he attempted to deport radicals in response to their threats on his life; he deported 556
Wall Street Bomb Sept 16 1920
timed bomb, supposedly set up by Galleanist anarchists, kills 38 and causes $2 million in property damage to JP Morgan bank
Criminal Syndicalism Laws
several states passed laws outlawing the advocacy of violence to secure social change during Red Scare
NY State Legislature Socialists
Jan 7, 1920 – NY State Assembly speaker Thaddeus Sweet suspends Samuel DeWitt, Samuel Orr, Louis Waldman, Charles Solomon, August Claessens (the 5 socialist members of the Assembly)
Nicolo Sacco Bartolomeo Vanzetti
2 Italian, atheist, anarchist, draft dodgers who were convicted in 1921 of murdering a MA paymaster; liberals and radicals defended these 2, who were given unfair treatment; executed in 1927, known as martyrs in “class struggle”
KKK
anti-foreign, -Catholic, -black, -Jewish, -pacifist, -Communist, -internationalist, -evolutionist, -bootlegger, -gambling, -adultery, -birth control; extremist ultraconservatives; 5 million members in mid 1920s; collapses during the late 1920s due to public recoil, embezzlement charges of Klan officials
Emergency Quota Act 1921
established limited # of immigrants at 3% of people of same nationality living in US in 1910
speakeasies
illegal saloons that sold liquor during prohibition, used passwords to retain secrecy
rumrunners
smugglers of alcohol illegally to circumvent prohibition
Al Capone
American gangster dedicated to bootlegging and smuggling liquor; waged 6 years of gang warfare; convicted of St Valentine’s Day massacre in 1929
organized crime
caused by prohibition, systematic crime activity for profit on a city wide/interstate/international level; secret illegal operations organized by gangs, who worked in prostitution/gambling/narcotics; charged merchants “protection money”, used bribery and blackmail
St Valentine’s Day massacre 1929
conflict between 2 powerful gangs in Chicago, led to huge fight and death of 7; was the Italian gang, led by Al Capone vs Irish gang, led by Bugs Moran; Capone convicted
Charles Lindbergh
1st person to fly a plane solo West to East across the Atlantic; a national hero, nicknamed ‘Spirit of st Louis’
Lindbergh Law 1932
interstate abduction in certain circumstances was considered a death-penalty offense; created after Charles Lindbergh’s infant son was kidnapped and murdered
John Dewey
professor at Columbia; “learning by doing, education for life”; urged progressive education
fundamentalists
anti teaching of evolution
modernists
pro teaching of evolution
Scopes Monkey Trial
John Scopes, a high school biology teacher, was charged for teaching evolution
Henry Ford
creator of the assembly line and standardization; invented the Model T, a cheap, rugged, reasonably but noisy car; sold 20 million cars by 1930
Ransom E Olds
famous inventor alongside Ford, helped develop infant automotive industry; creator of Oldsmobile
Orville Wright
took off at Kitty Hawk in 1903, remained airborne for 12 seconds and flew 120 feet
KDKA Pittsburgh Nov 1920
1st radio station, broadcasted results of 1920 election
Great Train Robbery 1903
1st movie
Birth of a Nation
silent film by DW Griffith, defamed blacks (used blackface)
DW Griffith
groundbreaking American film director, directed The Birth of a Nation
The Jazz Singer 1927
1st “talkie”
Margaret Sanger
advocated for/coined term “birth control”; founded American Birth Control League, served as president International Planned Parenthood Association from 1952-1959; smuggled in contraceptives from Europe for women
flapper
new style and actions characteristic of a generation of young women, wore short bobbed hair, drank and smoke freely, drove cars, wore lots of makeup, engaged in casual flirtation
Jelly Roll Morton
Creole pianist, composer, songwriter, and hustler from New Orleans; “First Jazz Composer.; recorded with the “Red Hot Peppers” in the mid 1920’s; bridged that gap between the piano styles of ragtime and jazz
Joseph King Oliver
jazz cornet player and bandleader, began the use of “mute” notes (used plungers, cups, bottles) and was teacher of Louis Armstrong
Louis Armstrong
horn and cornet player from New Orleans; key figure of Jazz Movement, during Harlem Renaissance
George Gershwin
versatile pianist from Brooklyn; played range of styles including concert, broadway, pop, jazz; famous Broadway composer
Bessie Smith
an influential jazz vocalist; nicknamed “Empress of Jazz”; along w/ Louis Armstrong, she was a key influence on later jazz vocalists
Harlem Renaissance
black intellectual movement of 1920’s; origins and endings are disputable; Langston Hughes was a key figure
Langston Hughes
black writer, namely a poet, novelist, columnist; famous for work w/ Harlem Renaissance, and once commented that “Harlem was in vogue”
Marcus Garvey
west Indian messianic leader of Harlem; founded UNIA and Black Star Line Steamship Company; convicted of fraud and imprisoned in 1929
United Negro Improvement Association
founded by Marcus Garvey to promote settlement of American blacks in Africa
Black Star Line Steamship Company
established by Marcus Garvey to transport American blacks to Africa, went bankrupt in 1923
F Scott Fitzgerald
author of the Great Gatsby 1925
Ernest Hemingway
author of Sun Also Rises (1926), and Farewell to Arms (1929)
Theodore Dreiser
author of An American Tragedy 1925
An American Tragedy
written by Theodore Dreiser; dealt with the murder of a young pregnant working girl by her socially ambitious lover
TS Eliot
poet, wrote “Waste Land” 1922
Waste Land 1922
written by TS Eliot
Robert Frost
poet, Nothing Gold Can Stay 1923
Frank Lloyd Wright
architect of Prairie Houses and Falling Water
Empire State Building
102 story building in NYC, was tallest building for 30 years; built 1930
Bureau of the Budget 1921
primary task is to prepare annual budget for presentation every January; also controls the administration of the budget, improving it and encouraging government efficiency
Andrew Mellon
American financier, appointed Sec of Treasury by Harding in 1921, served under Coolidge and Hoover; he reduced the WWI by $9 billion and Congress cut income tax rates substantially; is often the greatest sec of treasury, after Hamilton
Bruce Barton
advertising executive, wrote “The Man Nobody Knows” in 1925; called Jesus and the founder of modern business b/c he picked men up from the bottom ranks and built successful empire
Madison Avenue
north-south avenue in borough of Manhattan; location of advertising industry
Babe Ruth
American MLB player; played for Red Sox as pitcher, but sold to Yankees in 1919; converted to right fielder and one of the league’s most prolific hitters
Jack Dempsey
heavyweight champion who knocked out French heavyweight Georges Carpentier
buying on credit
people bought items using this method, and would then pay later; many went into debt
Sheppard Towner Act 1921
act that provided federal funding for maternity and child care
Samuel Gompers
founder of AFL, worked w/ government during WWI to avoid strikes and boost morale
Buck vs Bell 1927
upheld statute instituting compulsory steriliziation of the unfit including the mentally challenged
Red Scare
(HT) , Most instense outbreak of national alarm, began in 1919. Success of communists in Russia, American radicals embracing communism followed by a series of mail bombings frightened Americans. Attorney General A. MItchell Palmer led effort to deport aliens without due processs, with widespread support. Did not last long as some Americans came to their senses. Sacco/Vanzetti trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20’s. Accused of armed robbery & murder, had alibis. “Those anarchists bastards”. Sentenced to death and executed.
Immigration Act 1924
set immigration quotas of 2 percent of the number of foreign-born persons from a given nation, based on the Census of 1890; drastically cut immigration from south and east Europe, as well as Asia
Chicago
city where mob activity was prominent, Al Capone had gang here
Darwinian evolution
general theory of evolution (see also “macro-evolution”) named after Charles Darwin, the British naturalist who expounded this theory in 185
John Scopes
high school biology teacher in Tennessee who was arrested for teaching evolution; this trial represented the Fundamentalist vs the Modernist; trial placed a negative image on fundamentalists, and it showed a changing America
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver; prosecuted John Scopes for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school
Clarence Darrow
famed criminal defense lawyer for Scopes, who supported evolution; he caused William Jennings Bryan to appear foolish when Darrow questioned Bryan about the Bible
recession of 1920-21
Europe back to normal, US prices down, demand for goods down, price down, unemployment up to 12%
Model T
first affordable car built by Henry Ford; sturdy, reliable, inexpensive, only came in black
Detroit
location of car industry
assembly line production
system of workers and machinery in which a product is assembled in a series of consecutive operations; typically the product is attached to a continuously moving belt; perfected by Henry Ford and Ransom E Olds
“highways”
Spirit of St Louis
nickname for Charles Lindbergh
Thomas Edison
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures
peep show
Thomas Edison created the kinetoscope, a precursor to the motion picture viewer; featured short films could be viewed by looking through a view finder on a machine the size of a piano
The Man Nobody Knows
published in 1925 by Bruce Fairchild Barton. Barton presents Jesus as “the founder of modern business,” in an effort to make the Christian story accessible to businessmen of the time; one of the best selling non-fiction books of the 20th century; the book was controversial because it depicted Jesus as being “the world’s greatest business executive”, the opposite description usually given
Babbitt
written by Sinclair Lewis in 1922
Sinclair Lewis
American novelist who satirized middle-class America in his 22 works, including Babbitt (1922) and Elmer Gantry (1927). He was the first American to receive (1930) a Nobel Prize for literature
WC Handy
this was a Memphis bandleader who added blues to ragtime and influenced popular music. He is often described as “The Father of the Blues.”
Eugene O’Neill
his play ‘Strange Interlude’ debuted on Broadway in 1928
The Waste Land
written by TS Eliot in 1922
Winesburg, Ohio
written by Sherwood Anderson dissecting various fictional personalities finding them all in some way warped by their cramped psychological surroundings
Sherwood Anderson
author of Winesburg, Ohio
Benny Goodman
twentieth-century American jazz clarinetist and bandleader; was known as the “King of Swing”
Duke Ellington
born in Chicago middle class. moved to Harlem in 1923 and began playing at the cotton club’ composer, pianist and bandleader; most influential figures in jazz
Adelaide Hall
this singer was introduced in Lew Leslie’s “Blackbirds of 1928”
Paul Robeson
African American concert singer whose passport was revoked; was blacklisted from the stage, screen, radio and television under the McCarran Act of the red scare of the 1950s due to his public criticism of American racist tendencie
Cab Calloway
a talented drummer, saxophonist, and singer, formed another important jazz orchestra, which played at Harlem’s Savoy Ballroom and the Cotton Club, alternating with Duke Ellington; made “scatting” famous
Zora Neale Hurston
African American writer and folklore scholar who played a key role in the Harlem Renaissance; sang “Their Eyes Were Watching God”

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APUSH 1920's Social/Economic
Artscolumbia
Artscolumbia
Bolshevik Revolution 1917
revolution led by Lenin and Trotsky in Russia, seized control of Petrograd, which sent Russia into a state of anarchy
Seattle Strike 1919
when
2019-01-11 07:49:06
APUSH 1920's Social/Economic
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