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AP Euro Chapter 12 & 13: Renaissance and Humanism

Medici family
most famous dynasty of Florentine merchants/bankers; used wealth to govern city-states & patronize arts
individualism
“man is the measure of all things”; human power over religious awe; involvement (life of activity); all-around Renaissance man
Brunelleschi
Renaissance architect; Greco-Roman influence; Florence Cathedral & Basilica di San Lorenzo (didn’t overwhelm worshiper)
Masaccio
Renaissance painter; “Tribute Money”; light/shadow; nude figures; perspective
Botticelli
Renaissance painter; “Primavera”; mythological subjects
Raphael
Renaissance painter; “School of Athens”; Madonnas epitomized idealism;
da Vinci
“Renaissance man”= painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, writer, scientist; “Mona Lisa” & “Last Supper”; perfection & beauty
Michelangelo
Primarily a sculptor; marble “David” sculpture showed human form; painted Sistine Chapel ceiling; glorified God; nicknamed Il Divino
Humanism
inspired by Greco-Roman antiquity; studied ancient texts; wrote in Italian (vernacular) over Latin
Petrarch
Father of humanism
Bruni
wrote 1st modern history; history of Florence; “New Cicero”
Castiglione
“The Book of the Courtier”; outlined skills to epitomize civic humanism (in service of prince & state); polite, skilled in arms/sports, educated, musically talented, good-humored
Machiavelli
“The Prince”; precursor for modern statecraft; mainly concerned with Italy’s separated, vulnerable state; “the end justifies the means”
Christian Humanism
turned to Hebrew and Greek texts of church fathers; originated because northern students traveled to Italy to study and returned with new ideas/ideals; strongest in Germanic areas & Low Countries (Belgium and Holland)
Gutenberg
printing press; changeable moveable type; spread Reformation ideas; cheaper books=increased literacy; Bible printed in vernacular, widespread
Copernicus
developed heliocentric system, upsetting Ptolemaic (geocentric) universe; contradicted Catholic church’s views
Mysticism
belief that the individual alone could communicate with god; inner piety
Thomas a Kempis
mysticism; “Imitation of Christ”
Brothers of the Common Life
stressed personal virtues of Christianity over doctrine; modern devotion; love, tolerance, humility
Erasmus
“The Christian Gentleman”; admired antiquity and emphasized purified Latin; advocated gradual reform; ridiculed hypocrisy; satirized clerical abuses in “The Praise of Folly”; “Handbook of Christian Knight” showed practical Christianity; tolerance/reform
Thomas More
“Utopia” criticized abuses of contemporary institutions, offering a perfect version of society; beheaded for not supporting King Henry VIII against Pope during English Reformation
dowry
sum of money presented by wife’s family to the husband upon marriage; depended on whether the bride was moving up or down in society
Florence
cultural and commercial center of 15th century Italy
Isabella d’Este
daughter of duke of Ferrara; “first lady of the world”; effectively ruled Mantua; attracted artists and intellectuals
Peace of Lodi
ended about 50 years of war in Italy; alliance system (Milan, Florence, Naples vs. Venice and papacy); failed to create lasting cooperation
liberal arts
grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy, history; all based on classical writings
civic humanism
15th century Florentine humanism; based on service to state
Valla
emphasized pure Latin; literary criticism of ancient texts
Platonic love
all people are bound by love
Ficino
Neoplatonism; hierarchy of substances, spiritual love; Hermeticism
Mirandola
“Oration on the Dignity of Man”
Hermeticism
alchemy, astrology, magic; some parts pantheistic (God in all things); humans created divine but chose to freely enter material world, must purify soul to regain original divinity
Donatello
Renaissance sculptor; bronze David was first since antiquity
Bramante
Renaissance architect; designed Tempietto on supposed site of St. Peter’s martyrdom; columns, dome, sanctuary inspired by antiquity; later designed St. Peter’s Basilica (Pope Julius II)
van Eyck
Northern Renaissance painter; “Giovanni Arnolfini & Wife”; meticulous detail
Durer
Northern Renaissance painter; “Adoration of the Magi”; combined Renaissance perspective and proportion with Northern Renaissance detail
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
Charles VII; agreement with papacy that strengthened French church’s liberties at expense of papacy; king assumed control of French church
Charles VII
taille without Estates-General; established royal army
hermandades
Spanish medieval town organizations; “brotherhoods”; corregidores replaced municipal officers
conversos
Jews who converted to Catholicism in Spain
Henry VII
England’s 1st Tudor king; “livery and maintenance” (aristocrats couldn’t raise private armies); relied on commissioned armies; helped economy (thrifty); used diplomacy instead of war
Court of Star Chamber
Henry VII; punished nobles without juries; used torture
War of Roses
English civil war; aristocratic houses of Lancaster (red rose) vs. York (white rose)
King Louis XI
Louis the Spider; kept taille as income; couldn’t repress nobility (Charles the Bold, Burgundy)
Wyclif
English Lollardy; disgusted with clerical corruption; Bible was the sole authority; condemned external religion
Hus
Hussites; criticized papacy’s excessive power
Council of Constance
tried to suppress heresy
sacrosancta
church received authority from God
frequens
provided for regular holding of councils to continue church reform
execrabilis
Pope Pius II’s bill, condemned appeals to council over head of pope as heretical
Julius II
“Warrior Pope”; led armies into battle
Sixtus IV
used nepotism (giving church offices to family)
Leo X
patron of Renaissance; son of Lorenzo de Medici
Luther
disgusted by sale of indulgences; justification through faith alone, but good works out of goodness of heart; 95 Theses; Leipzig Debate vs. Eck; “Babylonian Captivity” attacked sacraments; “On Freedom of Christian Man”; emphasized Bible; ecclesiastical hierarchy
Tetzel
sold indulgences to fund construction of St. Peter’s Basilica
Diet of Worms
Charles V called Luther to recant heresy; Luther refused, resulting in Edict of Worms (deemed him heretic and outlawed)
Melanchton
follower of Luther
Peasants’ War
caused by social discontent; turned to Luther, but Luther condemned it (encouraged princes to kill revolutionary peasants)
Muntzer
inflamed peasants of Peasants’ War
Peace of Augsburg
recognized Lutheranism, same rights as catholicism; German rulers determined their subjects’ religion; ended German religious wars
Zwingli
Swiss; Communion was only symbolic; movement died after he died in war against Catholics
Anabaptists
militant Protestantism; adult baptism; separation of church and state
Melchiorites
adhered to millenarianism; Munster was “New Jerusalem”
Henry VIII
Divorced Catherine of Aragon to marry Anne Boleyn due to lack of male heir
Cranmer
divorced Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon
Act of Supremacy
Henry VIII controlled English Church; broke from papacy
Treason Act
forced English to accept Henry VIII as head of English Church
Book of Common Prayer
new Protestant prayer book imposed by Cranmer during Edward VI’s reign
Mary
“Bloody” (burned heretics); attempted Catholic restoration, failed; England became more Protestant by end of reign
Calvin
Geneva; “Institutes”; predestination (eternal decree); justification through faith alone; God’s absolute sovereignty
Ecclesiastical Ordinances
special body (Consistory) for moral discipline in Geneva
Jesuits
Ignatius Loyola; absolute obedience to papacy; instrument of Counter-Reformation
Council of Trent
called by Pope Paul III; reaffirmed both faith and good works, sacraments, transubstantiation, clerical celibacy, purgatory, indulgences, established theological seminaries (train priests)
Index
forbade “unwholesome” books for Catholics

AP Euro Chapter 12 & 13: Renaissance and Humanism
Artscolumbia
Artscolumbia
Medici family
most famous dynasty of Florentine merchants/bankers; used wealth to govern city-states & patronize arts
individualism
"man is the measure of all things"; h
2017-09-06 05:42:47
AP Euro Chapter 12 & 13: Renaissance and Humanism
$ 13.900 2018-12-31
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