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7 Renaissance

Proto-Renaissance
1300-1400 Advanced use of space, foreground mid, back. More depth between and in figures, Better use of light, better composition, not everything is centered, Use of figures in framing device. Focal point by gaze, leading lines from hills. More Color range, Fresco painting (wet paint into wet plaster) Still used halos, Some depth but not a lot of atmospheric perspective. Giotto. Intuitive perspective, (lorenzetti)
Saint Francis Altarpiece by Berlinghieri, Maniera Greca
- 1235 tempura on wood, earliest known signed/dated painting of St.Francis 
- Franciscan order - everyone join in his sect, wear his look
- shows off stigmata/wounds in hands and feet - like christ's wounds
-flanked by 2 angels in byzantine style, frontal style, lack modeling, halo
-gold leaf emphasizes flatness, flat style 
-other scenes suggest byzantine illuminated manuscripts,
- right: preaching to birds, believed that Francis could talk to animals through connection w/God, stippling tech in mountains/birds, used to make appear as if plants are twinkling 
-philosophy, be closer to god through nature
-upper right: receiving wounds from angels from christ, role of religious order, allieviate suffering of mankind
-believed in simplicity, not fall pray to material goods, so francis went around nude everywhere herp derp
-flattened space, strict frontality, very flat but livened w/stippling, emotional resonance, narratives contrast rigid form of francis w/action
Saint Francis Altarpiece by Berlinghieri, Maniera Greca
– 1235 tempura on wood, earliest known signed/dated painting of St.Francis
– Franciscan order – everyone join in his sect, wear his look
– shows off stigmata/wounds in hands and feet – like christ’s wounds
-flanked by 2 angels in byzantine style, frontal style, lack modeling, halo
-gold leaf emphasizes flatness, flat style
-other scenes suggest byzantine illuminated manuscripts,
– right: preaching to birds, believed that Francis could talk to animals through connection w/God, stippling tech in mountains/birds, used to make appear as if plants are twinkling
-philosophy, be closer to god through nature
-upper right: receiving wounds from angels from christ, role of religious order, allieviate suffering of mankind
-believed in simplicity, not fall pray to material goods, so francis went around nude everywhere herp derp
-flattened space, strict frontality, very flat but livened w/stippling, emotional resonance, narratives contrast rigid form of francis w/action
Pulpit of Pisa Cathedral by Nicola Pisano, Proto-Renaissance
-15', more architecutal work, sculpture on inside
- Nicola Pisano exposed to pulpits, marble reliefs, so piece was open pulpit hah
- Medieval tradition/techniques: trilobed arches like in Doge's Palace, lions supporting columns
- Classical tradition/techs: large bushy capitals, rounded not pointed arches, large rectangular relief panels, like roman sarcophagi
Pulpit of Pisa Cathedral by Nicola Pisano, Proto-Renaissance
-15′, more architecutal work, sculpture on inside
– Nicola Pisano exposed to pulpits, marble reliefs, so piece was open pulpit hah
– Medieval tradition/techniques: trilobed arches like in Doge’s Palace, lions supporting columns
– Classical tradition/techs: large bushy capitals, rounded not pointed arches, large rectangular relief panels, like roman sarcophagi
Annunciation & Nativity by Nicola Pisano, Proto-Renaissance
- framed in arches, part of Pulpit of Pisa
- Inspiration Classical sarcophagus, no spacial recession, few shadows
- Gestures: 2 figures in corner, 2 angels pointing at Mary, pointing to herself in disbelief, no body contour, little recession into space
- Posture: Like sarophagus, like lounging, but tilted on one hip, very unnatural pose 
- Faces are types, except for facial hair, heavy draperyand figures, sustematic folds
-Third bottom sceene, women washing, farm animals, people coming to see christ, nativity scene
Nativity and Annunication to the
Annunciation & Nativity by Nicola Pisano, Proto-Renaissance
– framed in arches, part of Pulpit of Pisa
– Inspiration Classical sarcophagus, no spacial recession, few shadows
– Gestures: 2 figures in corner, 2 angels pointing at Mary, pointing to herself in disbelief, no body contour, little recession into space
– Posture: Like sarophagus, like lounging, but tilted on one hip, very unnatural pose
– Faces are types, except for facial hair, heavy draperyand figures, sustematic folds
-Third bottom sceene, women washing, farm animals, people coming to see christ, nativity scene
Nativity and Annunication to the
Annunciation and Nativity by Giovanni Pisano, Proto-Renaissance
- More loosely/dynamically arranged figures, different use of space 
- Motion suggested because of deep open spaces between figures, more mobility 
- deeply drilled background, not as congested 
- contrappasto, natural w/more body contour
- nervous agitation, as if spiritually moved sans shepherd and sheep 
- swiftly turning bodies, more natural, emotional 
- virgin shrinking away from angel, doesn't want to hear news, idea of emotion, personal emotion
Annunciation and Nativity by Giovanni Pisano, Proto-Renaissance
– More loosely/dynamically arranged figures, different use of space
– Motion suggested because of deep open spaces between figures, more mobility
– deeply drilled background, not as congested
– contrappasto, natural w/more body contour
– nervous agitation, as if spiritually moved sans shepherd and sheep
– swiftly turning bodies, more natural, emotional
– virgin shrinking away from angel, doesn’t want to hear news, idea of emotion, personal emotion
Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets by Cimabue, Proto-Renaissance 
- Tempura on wood
- Formality of style dignifies theme presented, modeled after Byzantine examples, structural balance/background, gold accents to pull out detail to show folds, natural, 3D
- deeper space to sit in, but no/little body contour
- 2/3 tilt of head to viewers by lower people, more awareness/faith
- Christ-child unnatural
Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets by Cimabue, Proto-Renaissance
– Tempura on wood
– Formality of style dignifies theme presented, modeled after Byzantine examples, structural balance/background, gold accents to pull out detail to show folds, natural, 3D
– deeper space to sit in, but no/little body contour
– 2/3 tilt of head to viewers by lower people, more awareness/faith
– Christ-child unnatural
Madonna Enthroned by Giotto, Proto-Renaissance
- Love for Madonna, more naturalistic, opened background despite gold background
- Representational art, weightiness, naturalism, 
- Sturdy mother, earthly woman w/bulk, projection w/light, very real
- Thone extension of gothic cathedral w/gables, pinnacles, space as she is seated in niche
Madonna Enthroned by Giotto, Proto-Renaissance
– Love for Madonna, more naturalistic, opened background despite gold background
– Representational art, weightiness, naturalism,
– Sturdy mother, earthly woman w/bulk, projection w/light, very real
– Thone extension of gothic cathedral w/gables, pinnacles, space as she is seated in niche
Arena Chapel by Giotto, Proto-Renaissance 
-built for wealthy merchant near palance
-rectangular barrel-vaulted hall, six windows, well-illuminated 
-real play of light/shadow from real window painted into panels
- north wall: christian redemption, other pictures w/life of christ, many 
- top-mary and parents, middle-life and mission of christ, 3rd-crucifixion and resurrection, last-made to look like painted marble, grisalle, like illusion supposed to represent virtures/vices 
- ceiling blue w/stars representing heaven, blue unifies w/use throughout chapel, medallions of christ, mary, prophets
-black rods to support walls
Arena Chapel by Giotto, Proto-Renaissance
-built for wealthy merchant near palance
-rectangular barrel-vaulted hall, six windows, well-illuminated
-real play of light/shadow from real window painted into panels
– north wall: christian redemption, other pictures w/life of christ, many
– top-mary and parents, middle-life and mission of christ, 3rd-crucifixion and resurrection, last-made to look like painted marble, grisalle, like illusion supposed to represent virtures/vices
– ceiling blue w/stars representing heaven, blue unifies w/use throughout chapel, medallions of christ, mary, prophets
-black rods to support walls
The Lamentation by Giotto, Proto-Renaissance
- Mary and Christ disciples mourning death, sky of angels hysterical w/grief
- Mary Magdalene looking sadly at feet
- Mary cradels body, nearby head
- St John the Baptist hands back in grief 
- Event on Earth, set in blue background
-Pictorial elements to draw eyes - off center layout but wall draws eyes to christ, creates 'stage' and drama - steep angle of wall links w/other panels - scupturesque, weighty figures, very simple - cluster tech of heads w/out bodies, even backs of individuals, closing off scene, deliniating figures w/different fabric weights, emphasizing w/folds, light and shadow 
- spacial depth, bodily mass, perspective, compositional complexity + emotional resonance, rhythmic order 
- dead tree at end of wall - alludes to fall of adam/eve, starts w/fall of man, ends w/redemption of man
- contradicts old front style
- dramatic narrative, truth to human experience, holy lesson 
- angels each individualistic reaction, chaotic, moving
The Lamentation by Giotto, Proto-Renaissance
– Mary and Christ disciples mourning death, sky of angels hysterical w/grief
– Mary Magdalene looking sadly at feet
– Mary cradels body, nearby head
– St John the Baptist hands back in grief
– Event on Earth, set in blue background
-Pictorial elements to draw eyes – off center layout but wall draws eyes to christ, creates ‘stage’ and drama – steep angle of wall links w/other panels – scupturesque, weighty figures, very simple – cluster tech of heads w/out bodies, even backs of individuals, closing off scene, deliniating figures w/different fabric weights, emphasizing w/folds, light and shadow
– spacial depth, bodily mass, perspective, compositional complexity + emotional resonance, rhythmic order
– dead tree at end of wall – alludes to fall of adam/eve, starts w/fall of man, ends w/redemption of man
– contradicts old front style
– dramatic narrative, truth to human experience, holy lesson
– angels each individualistic reaction, chaotic, moving
Death of St. Francis by Giotto, Proto-Renaissance
- Lamentation, grieving over St Francis
- longer, taller figues 
- profiles, hand gestures, groupings of people, etc still very same as 'Lamentation'
- solemnity, less dramatic emotion
Death of St. Francis by Giotto, Proto-Renaissance
– Lamentation, grieving over St Francis
– longer, taller figues
– profiles, hand gestures, groupings of people, etc still very same as ‘Lamentation’
– solemnity, less dramatic emotion
Maesta Altarpiece by Duccio, Proto-Renaissance
- tempura on wood w/scenes on both sides, 7' tall 
- duccio's prayer at bottom for himself, siena, siena's churches, all churches 
- predella raised shelf, main part of altar
- madonna enthroned as queen of heaven w/throngs people around her
- figures are types
- more relaxation, less rigidity, softened contours/drapery, much more fluid, flow with more curves, more loose, softness of foldings
- related to life of virgin, modeling of forms in images 
- color and texture manipulation, learn by observation, 
- back: scenes from life of christ, passion, ressurection and etc
Maesta Altarpiece by Duccio, Proto-Renaissance
– tempura on wood w/scenes on both sides, 7′ tall
– duccio’s prayer at bottom for himself, siena, siena’s churches, all churches
– predella raised shelf, main part of altar
– madonna enthroned as queen of heaven w/throngs people around her
– figures are types
– more relaxation, less rigidity, softened contours/drapery, much more fluid, flow with more curves, more loose, softness of foldings
– related to life of virgin, modeling of forms in images
– color and texture manipulation, learn by observation,
– back: scenes from life of christ, passion, ressurection and etc
Betrayal of Christ by Duccio, Proto-Renaissance
- Betrayal of Jesus by judea's false kiss, st peter chopping ear of hight priest servants, disciples fleeing
- elongation, shadow, modeling, drapery as very convincingly depicted - 3-dimensional form, shades of color
- motion of figures w/planting of feet, so sway is in body 
- little recession into space, background by everything pushed forward - emotion in faces, huumanization of religious subject matter
Betrayal of Christ by Duccio, Proto-Renaissance
– Betrayal of Jesus by judea’s false kiss, st peter chopping ear of hight priest servants, disciples fleeing
– elongation, shadow, modeling, drapery as very convincingly depicted – 3-dimensional form, shades of color
– motion of figures w/planting of feet, so sway is in body
– little recession into space, background by everything pushed forward – emotion in faces, huumanization of religious subject matter
The Annunciation of the Death of the Virgin by Duccio, Proto-Renaissance
- implied space w/coffered ceiling, but little actual space w/tilting, awk perspective 
- movement in fabric depicted, modeling used for this
- mary taken as more frail, thin, as she is about to die
The Annunciation of the Death of the Virgin by Duccio, Proto-Renaissance
– implied space w/coffered ceiling, but little actual space w/tilting, awk perspective
– movement in fabric depicted, modeling used for this
– mary taken as more frail, thin, as she is about to die
Annunciation by Martini, International 
- adapts styles from French Gothic to Siena 
- colors, ornamentation, very expressive, elongation of figures, theatrical
- combined french gothic w/italian renaissance to new ideals 
- frame reconstructed around piece 
- tempura and gold leaf on wood 
- elegant shapes, radiant colors, flowing lines, weightless figures in spaceless setting 
- angel gabriel landed, breeze lifting mantle (cloth)
- iridescent colored wings, gives movement/flow, edges w/ornamentation 
- heraldic/royal gold on cloth, spirituality of angel
- gold background, spiritual realm
- frame shape considered ornate style of gables/spires, multilobed w/edging 
- main arch to frame flock of doves creating holy spirit from above
- mary demur, puts down book of devotions, respect for royalty, though she is royalty in deep blue garmet, gold hem, modesty emphasizes angel's message, subordinate drama, surface splendor 
- lilies in center represent crucifixion/resurrection, symbolic iconography 
- side figures are saints, painted by student? more gothic like portal scuptures
Annunciation by Martini, International
– adapts styles from French Gothic to Siena
– colors, ornamentation, very expressive, elongation of figures, theatrical
– combined french gothic w/italian renaissance to new ideals
– frame reconstructed around piece
– tempura and gold leaf on wood
– elegant shapes, radiant colors, flowing lines, weightless figures in spaceless setting
– angel gabriel landed, breeze lifting mantle (cloth)
– iridescent colored wings, gives movement/flow, edges w/ornamentation
– heraldic/royal gold on cloth, spirituality of angel
– gold background, spiritual realm
– frame shape considered ornate style of gables/spires, multilobed w/edging
– main arch to frame flock of doves creating holy spirit from above
– mary demur, puts down book of devotions, respect for royalty, though she is royalty in deep blue garmet, gold hem, modesty emphasizes angel’s message, subordinate drama, surface splendor
– lilies in center represent crucifixion/resurrection, symbolic iconography
– side figures are saints, painted by student? more gothic like portal scuptures
Birth of the Virgin by Pietro Lorenzetti, Proto-Renaissance
- pictorial realism, spacial recession
- altarpiece in Siena
- tempura on wood 
- virgin as queen of the republic, part of 3-panel piece yet only 2 scenes
- scene from life of virgin w/parents, delivering Mary w/mother and midwives
- weariness, emotional side
- boxlike stage setting, yet more of a home
- italian palatzo - palace depiction, altarpiece of 3 sections 
- opened up, very architectural, recession into space
- propagandistic with recurring crusades, oriental rug underneath people - take over world
Birth of the Virgin by Pietro Lorenzetti, Proto-Renaissance
– pictorial realism, spacial recession
– altarpiece in Siena
– tempura on wood
– virgin as queen of the republic, part of 3-panel piece yet only 2 scenes
– scene from life of virgin w/parents, delivering Mary w/mother and midwives
– weariness, emotional side
– boxlike stage setting, yet more of a home
– italian palatzo – palace depiction, altarpiece of 3 sections
– opened up, very architectural, recession into space
– propagandistic with recurring crusades, oriental rug underneath people – take over world
Allegory of a Good Government by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Proto-Renaissance
- part of room
- what good govt should be
- allegory of good gov in center, virtues around him: justice, prudence, temperance, foritude, peace, magnanimity, faith, hope, charity all part of what is good
- Siena and other towns represented what could be good, even in dark ages, people needed reminders of what was just and fair 
- wanted to reform entire city, people painted as if coming to admire
Allegory of a Good Government by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Proto-Renaissance
– part of room
– what good govt should be
– allegory of good gov in center, virtues around him: justice, prudence, temperance, foritude, peace, magnanimity, faith, hope, charity all part of what is good
– Siena and other towns represented what could be good, even in dark ages, people needed reminders of what was just and fair
– wanted to reform entire city, people painted as if coming to admire
The Peaceful City by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Proto-Renaissance
- clustered buildings within city walls, creates sense of business, people working, festives, radiant maidens, celebratory 
- outer - effects of good government on people
The Peaceful City by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Proto-Renaissance
– clustered buildings within city walls, creates sense of business, people working, festives, radiant maidens, celebratory
– outer – effects of good government on people
The Peaceful Country by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Proto-Renaissance
- view of undulating countrside w/buildings, peasants, people living peacefully
- allegory of security - angel in left, overhead flying w/scroll promises safety to all who live under rule 
- first appearance of true landscape since ancients
- truth to what eye holds
The Peaceful Country by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Proto-Renaissance
– view of undulating countrside w/buildings, peasants, people living peacefully
– allegory of security – angel in left, overhead flying w/scroll promises safety to all who live under rule
– first appearance of true landscape since ancients
– truth to what eye holds
Triumph of Death by Triani, Proto-Ren 
- fresco 
- 18 ft high, 49 ft wide 
- new theme appearing after corrosive black death
- wealthy men and ladies riding up to 3 coffins: 3 decomposed states of death, terrible stench, still try to observe and help what has happened
- all walks of life attacked by death, social statement that death is universal
- portrayed hermit, but even isolated cannot escape from death
Triumph of Death by Triani, Proto-Ren
– fresco
– 18 ft high, 49 ft wide
– new theme appearing after corrosive black death
– wealthy men and ladies riding up to 3 coffins: 3 decomposed states of death, terrible stench, still try to observe and help what has happened
– all walks of life attacked by death, social statement that death is universal
– portrayed hermit, but even isolated cannot escape from death
15th Century Northern Renaissance
Later gothic, ends of feudalism, etc, unam class structure, 100 years ware, black plague, new european capitolism, french manuscriptal illumination, now more secular, stained glass, lumniosity
Les Tres Riches Heures du duc de Berry by Limbourg Brothers, 15th Cen. Northern Ren 
- Book of hours replaced gospels, used for recitation of prayers 
- Pages illumines, 6 pages of blah and blah
- Center - office of blessed virgin, part of religious references, devotional 
- decentralisation of government, later afected reformation
-lunettes w/chariots of sun with monthly cycles, yearly cycle 
- power of duke and power w/peasants 
- propagandistic as it pushed power of duke
Les Tres Riches Heures du duc de Berry by Limbourg Brothers, 15th Cen. Northern Ren
– Book of hours replaced gospels, used for recitation of prayers
– Pages illumines, 6 pages of blah and blah
– Center – office of blessed virgin, part of religious references, devotional
– decentralisation of government, later afected reformation
-lunettes w/chariots of sun with monthly cycles, yearly cycle
– power of duke and power w/peasants
– propagandistic as it pushed power of duke
May, October,January, February by Limbourg Brothers, 15th Cen. Northern Ren
October - Horse and sewer near capital, near louvre
- people going about lives
- cast shadows ,people persoective
May - turus and gemini/w
- realistic costume, domestric setting, February - Aquarius and Piisces, winter, prtection from harsh winers ,illuminate images
May, October,January, February by Limbourg Brothers, 15th Cen. Northern Ren
October – Horse and sewer near capital, near louvre
– people going about lives
– cast shadows ,people persoective
May – turus and gemini/w
– realistic costume, domestric setting, February – Aquarius and Piisces, winter, prtection from harsh winers ,illuminate images
Well of Moses by Sluter, 15th Cen. Northern Ren 
- super philosophical, 1395 limestone w/ some paint traces, 6' tall figures 
- In charge of Philip Bold's workshop 
- Sculptural fountain in well giving water for whole monastary 
- Carthusian belief/commitment to silence and prayer, no sound allowed
- surrounding base: moses, david, other prophets, supported group of crucifixion above (pedastle) 
- fountain of life, blood of christ from above flows down crucifixion, wash away sins of those below, promises of everlasting life
- each recall jamb statues, but more realistic renderings, details 
-deep undercut drapery, foldings,
Well of Moses by Sluter, 15th Cen. Northern Ren
– super philosophical, 1395 limestone w/ some paint traces, 6′ tall figures
– In charge of Philip Bold’s workshop
– Sculptural fountain in well giving water for whole monastary
– Carthusian belief/commitment to silence and prayer, no sound allowed
– surrounding base: moses, david, other prophets, supported group of crucifixion above (pedastle)
– fountain of life, blood of christ from above flows down crucifixion, wash away sins of those below, promises of everlasting life
– each recall jamb statues, but more realistic renderings, details
-deep undercut drapery, foldings,
Ghent Altarpiece by Jan Van Eyck, 15th Cen. Northern Ren 
- luminous enamel-like surface from oil paintings, much more layering and realism, deep tonality, sharp edge and clarity, render appearances SO realistic
- tempura and oil paint on wood 
- outside just surface, real truth on inside 
- Vyd was diplomat retainer, lots of connections, Vyds = doners, represented in bottom outside niches, in prayer, gaze illusionistic stone sculptures versus patron saints 
- John the Evangelist 
- grisalle style in niche
- top: annunciation, flemish landscape of town
- lily flowers in angel's hands - resurrection, crucifixion, etc
- upper arched panels - old testament prophets writing about coming of christ, pagan figures in center see coming of messiah , minaturistic 
- pearls on clothing, super realistic 
- inner panels : adam and eve, singing angels, god, mary, st john the baptist and redemption of sin w/ god's infinite love, sacrifices own son for redemption of mankind 
- god inscription on robe, states sacrificing love, hand up as teacher, temporal worldly crown, tiara on head. 3-tiered, various inscriptions about sacrifices of god, kindly father - tapestry over throne has stylized pelicans representing self-sacrificing love, symbolized sacrifice 
- Mary, queen of heaven, detailed w/alternating flower types, love/sacrifice, crown w/12 points : 12 apostles, above her head, virtue/purity
- St John the Baptist has quote about how great he is 
- Eve - pear-shaped body, holding apple, bad but still all forgiven
- bottom - lamb in center w/holy spirit above, rays of divine light, bleeding into chalice to symbolize eucharist, entire altarpiece read, lamb = christ 
- around: community of saints, back w/holy virgins, other side w/representatives of church, martyrs, apostles, people on knees reading gospels
- outer bottom panels - 4 virtues symbolized in groups of people: knights/fortitude, church judges=justice, hermits/temperence, pilgrims=prudence
Ghent Altarpiece by Jan Van Eyck, 15th Cen. Northern Ren
– luminous enamel-like surface from oil paintings, much more layering and realism, deep tonality, sharp edge and clarity, render appearances SO realistic
– tempura and oil paint on wood
– outside just surface, real truth on inside
– Vyd was diplomat retainer, lots of connections, Vyds = doners, represented in bottom outside niches, in prayer, gaze illusionistic stone sculptures versus patron saints
– John the Evangelist
– grisalle style in niche
– top: annunciation, flemish landscape of town
– lily flowers in angel’s hands – resurrection, crucifixion, etc
– upper arched panels – old testament prophets writing about coming of christ, pagan figures in center see coming of messiah , minaturistic
– pearls on clothing, super realistic
– inner panels : adam and eve, singing angels, god, mary, st john the baptist and redemption of sin w/ god’s infinite love, sacrifices own son for redemption of mankind
– god inscription on robe, states sacrificing love, hand up as teacher, temporal worldly crown, tiara on head. 3-tiered, various inscriptions about sacrifices of god, kindly father – tapestry over throne has stylized pelicans representing self-sacrificing love, symbolized sacrifice
– Mary, queen of heaven, detailed w/alternating flower types, love/sacrifice, crown w/12 points : 12 apostles, above her head, virtue/purity
– St John the Baptist has quote about how great he is
– Eve – pear-shaped body, holding apple, bad but still all forgiven
– bottom – lamb in center w/holy spirit above, rays of divine light, bleeding into chalice to symbolize eucharist, entire altarpiece read, lamb = christ
– around: community of saints, back w/holy virgins, other side w/representatives of church, martyrs, apostles, people on knees reading gospels
– outer bottom panels – 4 virtues symbolized in groups of people: knights/fortitude, church judges=justice, hermits/temperence, pilgrims=prudence
Deposition by Van Der Weyden, 15th Cen. N Ren
- fluid/dynamic composition, human action and drama to relate people to suffering of christ, center panel of triptych commissioned by archer's guild, patrons recognized w/little accents actually crossed bow spandrels
- mimicking of body posture w/christ and mary, s-shaped cross shared, grief 
- closure to composition w/ mary magdalene and st john. 
- color ties composition together, brings view together, reds tie together
- relief carving w/ crisply modeled human forms, individualized, emotional impact, realism
Deposition by Van Der Weyden, 15th Cen. N Ren
– fluid/dynamic composition, human action and drama to relate people to suffering of christ, center panel of triptych commissioned by archer’s guild, patrons recognized w/little accents actually crossed bow spandrels
– mimicking of body posture w/christ and mary, s-shaped cross shared, grief
– closure to composition w/ mary magdalene and st john.
– color ties composition together, brings view together, reds tie together
– relief carving w/ crisply modeled human forms, individualized, emotional impact, realism
Portinari Altarpiece (Triptych) by Hugo Van Der Goes, 15th Cen. Norther Ren
- discontent of religious apathy 
- oil on wood 
- italian ship owner, contractor for medici, different family members 
- realistic, detailed landscape - truth in landscape 
- symbolic architecture, northern landscape
- allusion to suffering over birth 
- mary kneeling on tilted ground, slight aerial view 
- flower/iris - leaves blades pointing up at mary, like she is being stabbed 
- columbine symbolic of sorrows of mary - sheath of wheat - bethlehelm and eucharist 
 - 15 total angels - 15 joys of mary, figures contrast = homely and divine, wonder piety, curiosity 
- hearth = king david christ jewish position, revived medieval pictoral devices - flight to egypt, annunciation, arrival of magi, all in background scene
- sizes relate to individual importances 
- common humanity - divine and holy images
Portinari Altarpiece (Triptych) by Hugo Van Der Goes, 15th Cen. Norther Ren
– discontent of religious apathy
– oil on wood
– italian ship owner, contractor for medici, different family members
– realistic, detailed landscape – truth in landscape
– symbolic architecture, northern landscape
– allusion to suffering over birth
– mary kneeling on tilted ground, slight aerial view
– flower/iris – leaves blades pointing up at mary, like she is being stabbed
– columbine symbolic of sorrows of mary – sheath of wheat – bethlehelm and eucharist
– 15 total angels – 15 joys of mary, figures contrast = homely and divine, wonder piety, curiosity
– hearth = king david christ jewish position, revived medieval pictoral devices – flight to egypt, annunciation, arrival of magi, all in background scene
– sizes relate to individual importances
– common humanity – divine and holy images
Merode Altarpiece by Campin, 15th Cen. N Renaissance
- humanizing prescence of a religious scene 
- aristrocratic, ornamental, romantic mood over sobered realism, everyday setting, religious figures without halos 
- left: donors - man and wife of middle class, hat off because of divinity, enclosed garden w/many flowers specifically representing purity - strawberry plants / irises - humility w/violets 
- center panel: annunciation theme, patron's name has to do w/'angel bringer', angel announcing to angel
- mary very normal, reading, architectural scene, components of a flemish household, symbolism of theme: book, extinguished candle, lilies, basin, towels, fire screen, bench all tied to purity and mission of the virgin - luminous draping clothing, heavy folds w/light and shadow - starburst light on dress = references exact moment of conception - next to hearth = pregnant, 2 stained glass crests detailed easily seen, families who commissioned the piece 
- right, shrine bringer in upstairs room, joseph as carpenter making shrine, window: lots of minature detail, mousetrap essentially Jesus's trap to catch the devil, protects people in house 
- oil painting allowed for better blending, layers, realism, shine, intensities of color, etc
Merode Altarpiece by Campin, 15th Cen. N Renaissance
– humanizing prescence of a religious scene
– aristrocratic, ornamental, romantic mood over sobered realism, everyday setting, religious figures without halos
– left: donors – man and wife of middle class, hat off because of divinity, enclosed garden w/many flowers specifically representing purity – strawberry plants / irises – humility w/violets
– center panel: annunciation theme, patron’s name has to do w/’angel bringer’, angel announcing to angel
– mary very normal, reading, architectural scene, components of a flemish household, symbolism of theme: book, extinguished candle, lilies, basin, towels, fire screen, bench all tied to purity and mission of the virgin – luminous draping clothing, heavy folds w/light and shadow – starburst light on dress = references exact moment of conception – next to hearth = pregnant, 2 stained glass crests detailed easily seen, families who commissioned the piece
– right, shrine bringer in upstairs room, joseph as carpenter making shrine, window: lots of minature detail, mousetrap essentially Jesus’s trap to catch the devil, protects people in house
– oil painting allowed for better blending, layers, realism, shine, intensities of color, etc
Arnolfini and his Bride by Jan Van Eyck, 15th Cen. N Ren
– 32″ by 23″ very small
– actual moment where he pledges life to marriage, possibly conferring legal rights so she can run his business
– record/sanctify marriage, but also textures, shadow, etc
– woman’s eyes lowered to him, feminism
– placement: symmetrical positioning however: man closer to window/worldy affairs, woman next to bed: childbirth, yet balanced
– dog = loyalty and fidelity
– shoes off to side = holy sacred ground
– oranges on window = golden apples of hesperities (sp) = long fruitful marriage, fertility
– chandelier w/one candel lit = holy spirit
– background : goddess of childbirth into bed post, w/whisk broom hanging off (domesticity), writing on wall = ‘jan van eyck was here’ haha, salvation to self and people in room
– convex mirror – super-detailed depictions of room from behind, w/12 medalions around – alluding to life of christ – rosary beads on side, very specific
Man in the Red Turban by Jan Van Eyck, 15th Cen. N Ren
– objectified portrait, focus on what things actually look like, very careful / detail and realism, observation
– leveled gaze = observation of artist into mirror
– 3/4 head position, gaze seems to follow – observant face of science
– VERY DETAILED: blood vessels in eyes, slight stubble, tiny wrinkles .. just wow. Done as if only by someone who knows face best > very good proof of a self-portrait
A Goldsmith in His Shop by Christus, 15th Cen. N Renaissance 
- possibly st Eligius, who was originally goldsmith 
- religious and secular realms 
- importance/sacredness of marriage
- couple being showed set of rings, bride's girdle on table - chastity .. discarding chastity to be married 
- crystal container for eucharistic wafers, next to scales w/last judgement
- pattern of commerce - goldsmith's guild commission/advertising? - special stones, various pieces of jewelry, pewter jugs as gifts, importance of guild
- meticulous detail, minaturistic 
- convex mirror in foreground, better involvement shows reflection of viewers
A Goldsmith in His Shop by Christus, 15th Cen. N Renaissance
– possibly st Eligius, who was originally goldsmith
– religious and secular realms
– importance/sacredness of marriage
– couple being showed set of rings, bride’s girdle on table – chastity .. discarding chastity to be married
– crystal container for eucharistic wafers, next to scales w/last judgement
– pattern of commerce – goldsmith’s guild commission/advertising? – special stones, various pieces of jewelry, pewter jugs as gifts, importance of guild
– meticulous detail, minaturistic
– convex mirror in foreground, better involvement shows reflection of viewers
Garden of Earthly Delights (Closed) by Hieronymous Bosch, 15th Cen. N Ren 
- theme of doom - satire or pornography? heresy? orthodox fanatic most popular idea. 
- triptych 
- visionary world - devastated earth, what earth was to look like
- figure in corner = god or angel? 
- early surrealism/sex? 
- marriage/sex/procreation ideas? 
- painted for palace of Henry 3rd
Garden of Earthly Delights (Closed) by Hieronymous Bosch, 15th Cen. N Ren
– theme of doom – satire or pornography? heresy? orthodox fanatic most popular idea.
– triptych
– visionary world – devastated earth, what earth was to look like
– figure in corner = god or angel?
– early surrealism/sex?
– marriage/sex/procreation ideas?
– painted for palace of Henry 3rd
Garden of Earthly Delights (inside) by Hieronymous Bosch, 15th Cen. N Renaissance
- left: creation of eve: cult for Adam/Adamists - anti-feminists, blamed women for basically everything 
- Eve : incarnation of original sin, she is presented to Adam in a way that Adam is almost excited 
- man in center presenting = christ or god
- very calm, false/odd paradise, real/fantastical animals: horned giraffe?, elephant, unicorn. Also weird rocks, space odyssey, etc
- Center panel : Garden of Earthly Delights - false paradise on Earth 
- things contributing to sin, what will eventually send people to hell 
- ravens= evil, owls= witchcraft, egg= sex and alchemy (latter especially w/glass references), 
- alchemy: glass and beakers - glass = good fortune, but easily broken .. people wanted to create gold, failed, sent to hell, very temportal 
- afterlife is more important 
- ladies scheming in pool, generally being evil
- fruits = prostitution, etc
- rodents = lies
- birds = demonic themes, sitting watchful 
- dead fish = lost promises, memories of joy 
- interracial couples, ooh how scandalous 
- shellfish = aphrodesiacs 
- Hell: right panel: actual hell, music theme pervading, as wickedness is in music
- punished people w/instruments 
- generally people being hurt w/ different instruments, various stabbings, eating, mockery of copper pot
- if man is left to his own devices, he shall be damned 
- lots of details despite not being extremely ... normal
Garden of Earthly Delights (inside) by Hieronymous Bosch, 15th Cen. N Renaissance
– left: creation of eve: cult for Adam/Adamists – anti-feminists, blamed women for basically everything
– Eve : incarnation of original sin, she is presented to Adam in a way that Adam is almost excited
– man in center presenting = christ or god
– very calm, false/odd paradise, real/fantastical animals: horned giraffe?, elephant, unicorn. Also weird rocks, space odyssey, etc
– Center panel : Garden of Earthly Delights – false paradise on Earth
– things contributing to sin, what will eventually send people to hell
– ravens= evil, owls= witchcraft, egg= sex and alchemy (latter especially w/glass references),
– alchemy: glass and beakers – glass = good fortune, but easily broken .. people wanted to create gold, failed, sent to hell, very temportal
– afterlife is more important
– ladies scheming in pool, generally being evil
– fruits = prostitution, etc
– rodents = lies
– birds = demonic themes, sitting watchful
– dead fish = lost promises, memories of joy
– interracial couples, ooh how scandalous
– shellfish = aphrodesiacs
– Hell: right panel: actual hell, music theme pervading, as wickedness is in music
– punished people w/instruments
– generally people being hurt w/ different instruments, various stabbings, eating, mockery of copper pot
– if man is left to his own devices, he shall be damned
– lots of details despite not being extremely … normal
Italian Renaissance
A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a ‘rebirth’ of Greco-Roman culture. From roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century followed by this movement spreading into the Northern Europe during 1400-1600
Sacrifice of Isaac by Brunelleschi, 15th Cen. Italian Ren 
- Giovanni Pissano emotional agitation
- presented as lunging at son as he has finally decided, exposes throat to knife, very energetic 
- lunging figure of angel to stop father from sacficing, equal energy 
- faithful interpretation of narrative
- space not used that well, 2 different scenes kind of awkward
- pop out of frame, fit not too good.
Sacrifice of Isaac by Brunelleschi, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– Giovanni Pissano emotional agitation
– presented as lunging at son as he has finally decided, exposes throat to knife, very energetic
– lunging figure of angel to stop father from sacficing, equal energy
– faithful interpretation of narrative
– space not used that well, 2 different scenes kind of awkward
– pop out of frame, fit not too good.
Sacrifice of Isaac by Ghiberti, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
- good golsmithery, very good/better use of space, incision of detail, more realistic spacial illusion 
- grace/smoothness of piece 
- gothic s-shaped curved
- curved father, still unsure of what to do 
- isaac - classicizing nude, curved body, super dramatic, almost sort of hellenistic 
- deep interest in muscular system and movement w/body
- placed on podium - antique model, acanthus scroll
- classical reference, increasing idea of humanism, greco-roman techniques 
- rocky emergent landscape, diagonal split of 2 scenes, more naturalistic division 
- space w/recession and projection 
- cast in 2 pieces, lighter design impervious to weathering 
- less overtly emotional, more unified, spacial illusion
Sacrifice of Isaac by Ghiberti, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– good golsmithery, very good/better use of space, incision of detail, more realistic spacial illusion
– grace/smoothness of piece
– gothic s-shaped curved
– curved father, still unsure of what to do
– isaac – classicizing nude, curved body, super dramatic, almost sort of hellenistic
– deep interest in muscular system and movement w/body
– placed on podium – antique model, acanthus scroll
– classical reference, increasing idea of humanism, greco-roman techniques
– rocky emergent landscape, diagonal split of 2 scenes, more naturalistic division
– space w/recession and projection
– cast in 2 pieces, lighter design impervious to weathering
– less overtly emotional, more unified, spacial illusion
The Feast of Herod by Donatello, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
- characterization to varying groups of people - single and in groups 
- character dancing as head of john the baptist is presented to king, everyone shrinks back 
- split yet balanced groups, open to distance, arched courtyards and balance - floor also contributes to perspective - division into fore, middle, and backgrounds, back wall is point of horizon, 1pt perspective 
- different levels of relief also contribute
The Feast of Herod by Donatello, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– characterization to varying groups of people – single and in groups
– character dancing as head of john the baptist is presented to king, everyone shrinks back
– split yet balanced groups, open to distance, arched courtyards and balance – floor also contributes to perspective – division into fore, middle, and backgrounds, back wall is point of horizon, 1pt perspective
– different levels of relief also contribute
Gates of Paradise by Ghiberti, 15th Cen. Italian Ren 
- 17' tall, very massive, present old and new testament
Gates of Paradise by Ghiberti, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– 17′ tall, very massive, present old and new testament
Isaac and His Sons by Ghiberti, 15th Cen. Italian Ren 
- space, pictorial perspective, modeled figures for mass/volume 
- figures bottom half, create recession into space, movement w/columns 
- graceful women: controppasto, twisted slightly 
- own segment of women positioned in front of arches, planes of space created 
- scenes of genesis on different levels
Isaac and His Sons by Ghiberti, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– space, pictorial perspective, modeled figures for mass/volume
– figures bottom half, create recession into space, movement w/columns
– graceful women: controppasto, twisted slightly
– own segment of women positioned in front of arches, planes of space created
– scenes of genesis on different levels
Quattro Santi Coronati by Nanni Di Banco, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
- Or San Michele cathedral 
- originally meant to be viewed from outside inside 
- group of sculptors, masons, etc w/classical attire and serious folding 
- controppasto pose, protruding
- feet project out, begin to enter viewer's space, integration of human figures in space, monumental size .. saved w/semicircular positioning 
- entire section carved into space itself
- individuality 
- right: open mouth = speaking, other pointing, 2 listening/pondering .. psychological linking of characters 
- reduced incised shrunken columns, really miniscule, changing 
- humanism and roman form, intensity of saints reverts back to earlier portrayal 
- imperial portraiture
Quattro Santi Coronati by Nanni Di Banco, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– Or San Michele cathedral
– originally meant to be viewed from outside inside
– group of sculptors, masons, etc w/classical attire and serious folding
– controppasto pose, protruding
– feet project out, begin to enter viewer’s space, integration of human figures in space, monumental size .. saved w/semicircular positioning
– entire section carved into space itself
– individuality
– right: open mouth = speaking, other pointing, 2 listening/pondering .. psychological linking of characters
– reduced incised shrunken columns, really miniscule, changing
– humanism and roman form, intensity of saints reverts back to earlier portrayal
– imperial portraiture
St. Mark by Donatello, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
- Inside of niche, sculpture, 7'9
St. Mark by Donatello, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– Inside of niche, sculpture, 7’9″
– fundamental step to depicting motion w/overemphasis of controppasto in figure, more fludity and ponderation
– anticipation as if he could really step forward
– drapery gives off impression of movement
– independent of architectural setting, like moving outside of niche
– folds irregular and not stylized, sense of fabric weights
– bearded – aging wisdom, classic portrature
– not in the round, not finished in back
St. George by Donatello, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
- proud, idealistic man, individualised st George in armor
- bold firmness, erect concentrated pose 
- slightly contorted position, readiness and challenge, ready to fight and win, intensity
St. George by Donatello, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– proud, idealistic man, individualised st George in armor
– bold firmness, erect concentrated pose
– slightly contorted position, readiness and challenge, ready to fight and win, intensity
Mary Magdalene by Donatello, 15th Cen. Italian Ren 
- wood carving
- more of the impression of the soul and not physical body, emotional expressionism 
- emaciated, vacant-eyed hermit, closed only by own hair 
- physical deterioratiion of aged, sinful woman, rejection of classical form, but to capture emotional personality 
- deep-sunken cheeks, eyes, yet soul is what is really revitalized
Mary Magdalene by Donatello, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– wood carving
– more of the impression of the soul and not physical body, emotional expressionism
– emaciated, vacant-eyed hermit, closed only by own hair
– physical deterioratiion of aged, sinful woman, rejection of classical form, but to capture emotional personality
– deep-sunken cheeks, eyes, yet soul is what is really revitalized
David by Donatello, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
- Bronze, commissioned by Medicis for palace 
- freestanding nude statue since classical era 
- forgetting some of realism, but more of symbol of florentine love of liberty - medici responsibility for freedom and prosperity, more political than biblical 
- opposing axes of intense and relaxed 
- 15th cen boots and hat, like god Mercury 
- hand on hip - very self-contented ooh - s-curve weight shift 
- high patina
- goliath = milan
David by Donatello, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– Bronze, commissioned by Medicis for palace
– freestanding nude statue since classical era
– forgetting some of realism, but more of symbol of florentine love of liberty – medici responsibility for freedom and prosperity, more political than biblical
– opposing axes of intense and relaxed
– 15th cen boots and hat, like god Mercury
– hand on hip – very self-contented ooh – s-curve weight shift
– high patina
– goliath = milan
David by Verrocchio, 15th Cen. Italian Ren 
- Medici commission, teacher of Leonardo da Vinci 
- quiet aesthetic of donatello
- david = sturdy apprentice, prideful but individual, posed like hunter w/kill, opposing axes
- thin, adolescent musculature w/prominent veins, close reading of bibilical text, psychology of young david 
- youthful appearance 
- sword, elbows breaak through idea of curved, inward sculpture, very open
David by Verrocchio, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– Medici commission, teacher of Leonardo da Vinci
– quiet aesthetic of donatello
– david = sturdy apprentice, prideful but individual, posed like hunter w/kill, opposing axes
– thin, adolescent musculature w/prominent veins, close reading of bibilical text, psychology of young david
– youthful appearance
– sword, elbows breaak through idea of curved, inward sculpture, very open
Hercules and Antaeus by Pollaiuolo, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
- Medici commission, glory of florentine republic 
- humanist imagery and learning
- stress and strain of human figure
- introduction of pagan mythology
- nervous movement, emotional expressiveness, linear mobility, spacial complexity, dramatic immediacy 
- baroque idea of action, drama, energy, dealing with lines of planes and movement related 
- extreme emoition
- tension in coil, suppressed movement
- flickering light over musculature
Hercules and Antaeus by Pollaiuolo, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– Medici commission, glory of florentine republic
– humanist imagery and learning
– stress and strain of human figure
– introduction of pagan mythology
– nervous movement, emotional expressiveness, linear mobility, spacial complexity, dramatic immediacy
– baroque idea of action, drama, energy, dealing with lines of planes and movement related
– extreme emoition
– tension in coil, suppressed movement
– flickering light over musculature
Gattamelata by Donatello, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
- equestrian statue erasmo danarni
- bronze sculpture outdoors in piattza, commissioned by officials
- rivals marcus aurelias statue
- horse leg rests on orb for stability
- solid positioning, plow horse
- high-seated position for erasmos, liberated from rest of architecture
- strength unlimited power
- daughtless untiring resolution, will 
- intelligent courageous, ambitious, humble 
- man advances in society under own power
Gattamelata by Donatello, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– equestrian statue erasmo danarni
– bronze sculpture outdoors in piattza, commissioned by officials
– rivals marcus aurelias statue
– horse leg rests on orb for stability
– solid positioning, plow horse
– high-seated position for erasmos, liberated from rest of architecture
– strength unlimited power
– daughtless untiring resolution, will
– intelligent courageous, ambitious, humble
– man advances in society under own power
Bartolomeo Colleoni by Verrocchio, 15th Cen. Italian Renaissance 
- Commissioned by Colleoni after death
- equestrian statue on high pedastle
- self-awareness, looking for enemies, very animated
- horse prancing style, curved neck
- anger in face, twist/shift of horse, prescence
Bartolomeo Colleoni by Verrocchio, 15th Cen. Italian Renaissance
– Commissioned by Colleoni after death
– equestrian statue on high pedastle
– self-awareness, looking for enemies, very animated
– horse prancing style, curved neck
– anger in face, twist/shift of horse, prescence
Dome of Florence Cathedral by Brunelleschi, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
- Semi-circular dome based on ellipse
- two-shelled dome
- 24 ribs on inside, 8 on outside 
- lantern on top, pushes ribs down and holds into place
Dome of Florence Cathedral by Brunelleschi, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– Semi-circular dome based on ellipse
– two-shelled dome
– 24 ribs on inside, 8 on outside
– lantern on top, pushes ribs down and holds into place
Santo Spirito (Plan) by Brunelleschi, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
Santo Spirito (Plan) by Brunelleschi, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
Santo Spirito by Brunelleschi, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
- Little chapels originally on ends of huge cross made by nave and transept 
- build first to have solid wall
- converted front to have 3 entrance doors
- 1:4 ratio
- flat ceiling, cofferened 
- very rounded arches
- open, continuous space
- floor accentuates module system w/squares in marble 
- aisles make it feel central plan church 
- shallow dome in vaults 
- 'cold', focued on math
Santo Spirito by Brunelleschi, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– Little chapels originally on ends of huge cross made by nave and transept
– build first to have solid wall
– converted front to have 3 entrance doors
– 1:4 ratio
– flat ceiling, cofferened
– very rounded arches
– open, continuous space
– floor accentuates module system w/squares in marble
– aisles make it feel central plan church
– shallow dome in vaults
– ‘cold’, focued on math
Pazzi Chapel by Brunelleschi, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
- plan done mathematically 
- circle in center, semicircular sides
- square/rectangular bases
- white w/ornamentation pietra serena on inside - balance and symmetry w/geometry
- dual archways opposite each other, with 2 barrel vaults, typanum matching archways
- power to withold walls 
- medalions match in parallels, englazed terracotta relief
- 12 apostles in panels 
- dome 4 evangelists, ribbing
Pazzi Chapel by Brunelleschi, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– plan done mathematically
– circle in center, semicircular sides
– square/rectangular bases
– white w/ornamentation pietra serena on inside – balance and symmetry w/geometry
– dual archways opposite each other, with 2 barrel vaults, typanum matching archways
– power to withold walls
– medalions match in parallels, englazed terracotta relief
– 12 apostles in panels
– dome 4 evangelists, ribbing
Palazzo Medici-Riccardi by Bartolomeo, 15th Cen. Italian Ren.
- boom of palace-building
- heavy cornice line, solid and fortress-like
- focus on 3 registers on facade, descending height
- rough stone on bottom, clear-cut near top 
- arches relief around windows 
- built around open-colonnaded courtyard
Palazzo Medici-Riccardi by Bartolomeo, 15th Cen. Italian Ren.
– boom of palace-building
– heavy cornice line, solid and fortress-like
– focus on 3 registers on facade, descending height
– rough stone on bottom, clear-cut near top
– arches relief around windows
– built around open-colonnaded courtyard
Alberti
Realization of central-plan building, philosophy of – walls are flat, therefore columns should not be added, peers do. Architecture = order on human forme. Vetruvius form – proportion = beauty and order. Concept of classical forms, but applied to religion – dominance of Christian religion.
Palazzo Rucellai by Alberti, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
- shell over preexisting buildins based on classical study
- 3 levels of peers w/capitals, flattened. Tuscan orders 
- composite ionic flutes w/acanthus 2rd level
- top = corinthian 
- 3 registers, heavy entablature, rect flat structures emphasize flatness
- rhythm in building - pattern 
- floor to top plasters
Palazzo Rucellai by Alberti, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– shell over preexisting buildins based on classical study
– 3 levels of peers w/capitals, flattened. Tuscan orders
– composite ionic flutes w/acanthus 2rd level
– top = corinthian
– 3 registers, heavy entablature, rect flat structures emphasize flatness
– rhythm in building – pattern
– floor to top plasters
Santa Maria Novella by Alberti, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
- not really unified: top and bottom half - top more rounded elements 
- flattened facade w/2D quality
- niches in front wall, created originally for tombs
- plasters flatten space
- however, columns around door, column before plaster
- side scroll design, attempt to connect halves w/scrolls
- breakdown man squares into smaller squares, quite geometric
Santa Maria Novella by Alberti, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– not really unified: top and bottom half – top more rounded elements
– flattened facade w/2D quality
– niches in front wall, created originally for tombs
– plasters flatten space
– however, columns around door, column before plaster
– side scroll design, attempt to connect halves w/scrolls
– breakdown man squares into smaller squares, quite geometric
San Francesco by Alberti, 15th Cen. Italian Ren 
- love of classical learning, neo-pagan style architecture created, built as shrine for scholars, and one mistress?
- 3 recesssed arches - triumphant arch 
- arched window at top
- doorway built out from building 
- rounded elements, reduced medalions, 
- columns over peers, illusion to sculptura look of triumphant arches
- flat sharply projecting entablature, rythm, calls past
San Francesco by Alberti, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– love of classical learning, neo-pagan style architecture created, built as shrine for scholars, and one mistress?
– 3 recesssed arches – triumphant arch
– arched window at top
– doorway built out from building
– rounded elements, reduced medalions,
– columns over peers, illusion to sculptura look of triumphant arches
– flat sharply projecting entablature, rythm, calls past
Sant Andrea by Alberti, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
- playing with eyes so looks taller than is wide, top rounded piece 
- blending of 2 subjects - temple-front facade plus triumphant arch
- floor to ceiling plasters, sits on pedastles .. unifies registers up
- 3 pattern, though central more empahsized 
- emphasized veerticality, deep entrance w/fronal arches 
- pediment creates heavy crowning element 
- plan latin cross sytle, alternating columns (coffered building) 
- huge peers
- lighting
- use of recuced medalions again
Sant Andrea by Alberti, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– playing with eyes so looks taller than is wide, top rounded piece
– blending of 2 subjects – temple-front facade plus triumphant arch
– floor to ceiling plasters, sits on pedastles .. unifies registers up
– 3 pattern, though central more empahsized
– emphasized veerticality, deep entrance w/fronal arches
– pediment creates heavy crowning element
– plan latin cross sytle, alternating columns (coffered building)
– huge peers
– lighting
– use of recuced medalions again
Tribute Money by Masaccio, 15th Cen. Italian Ren 
- true money for fov
- simple frandou tet spychology 
- cicular/ellipital shaape 
- lighting alnist sshugb
- high presco, imortaj perspectivce - haad
- sharper/quality of bach 
- very individualistic interpretiojn
Tribute Money by Masaccio, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– true money for fov
– simple frandou tet spychology
– cicular/ellipital shaape
– lighting alnist sshugb
– high presco, imortaj perspectivce – haad
– sharper/quality of bach
– very individualistic interpretiojn
The Holy Trinity by Masaccio, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
 - awkwar barrow space a top of chapel 
- light contribues 
- adam's feet: escence of humabs on earth 
- eve screaming of this 
- psychology - creates emotion and mocement 
- simple conposition
- realsim based on observation
 applied maths, science of perspective 
- 2 levels unequal height
- virgiin mary and st john - barel-vaulted chapel
- medalions also reduced 
- holy spirit as dove, trinity 
- donors near outside, edge of pedastle, very essential 
- masonry - marble base, floor progectn - center of eyes bekiwhrist's feet
The Holy Trinity by Masaccio, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– awkwar barrow space a top of chapel
– light contribues
– adam’s feet: escence of humabs on earth
– eve screaming of this
– psychology – creates emotion and mocement
– simple conposition
– realsim based on observation
applied maths, science of perspective
– 2 levels unequal height
– virgiin mary and st john – barel-vaulted chapel
– medalions also reduced
– holy spirit as dove, trinity
– donors near outside, edge of pedastle, very essential
– masonry – marble base, floor progectn – center of eyes bekiwhrist’s feet
Battle of San Romano by Ucello - 15th Cen. Italian Ren 
- victory over siena 
- bbright organce fruit - medicci apples
- spears unbroker - power
- foreshortening to shopw positions, movement, creates lines of 1 pt perspective 
- lines line up to create base, pull foward
- orthogonals - converging lines, created w/lances here
Battle of San Romano by Ucello – 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– victory over siena
– bbright organce fruit – medicci apples
– spears unbroker – power
– foreshortening to shopw positions, movement, creates lines of 1 pt perspective
– lines line up to create base, pull foward
– orthogonals – converging lines, created w/lances here
Battle of the Ten Nudes by Pollaiuolo, 15th Cen. Italian Ren 
- 10 nudes fighting each other - humans in violent actions 
- carved print 
- foreshortening
- stiff/frozen figures
- muscle groups at maximum tension
Battle of the Ten Nudes by Pollaiuolo, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– 10 nudes fighting each other – humans in violent actions
– carved print
– foreshortening
– stiff/frozen figures
– muscle groups at maximum tension
Birth of Venus by Bottecelli, 15th Cen. Italian Ren 
- sense of beauty of soul - mmysticism and spirituality 
- at birth, perfection is corrupted, must be regained through god's love
- neoplatonist ideal beauty 
- based on poem
- zephers represent winds blowing venus to shore to island cyprus 
- figre of pomona
- lightness/bodilessness, sense of energy
- undulating clothing 
- perfume of rose petals falling with wind 
- man better chance understanding divinity as seen as this form 
- illusion to the virgin 
- full figured classical nude
Birth of Venus by Bottecelli, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– sense of beauty of soul – mmysticism and spirituality
– at birth, perfection is corrupted, must be regained through god’s love
– neoplatonist ideal beauty
– based on poem
– zephers represent winds blowing venus to shore to island cyprus
– figre of pomona
– lightness/bodilessness, sense of energy
– undulating clothing
– perfume of rose petals falling with wind
– man better chance understanding divinity as seen as this form
– illusion to the virgin
– full figured classical nude
Primavera by Botticelli, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
- Neoplatonist and esoteric references to classicism
- Esoteric references - Classical allusions reference Christianity 
- two natures to venus - terrestrial human love side, one celestial love side (universal)
- Venus equated to virgin mary 
- Venus figure in arch of trees, 
- Medici apples on background trees, lush = fertility 
- flanked by Flora roman goddess flowers and fertility, three graces/musees
- above venus = cupid, aiming at graces
- zephyr = wind god
- chloris being blown on, flowers starting to grow from mouth
- left: messenger mercury, snake-wrapped wand, twisting to create clouds overhead, sign of May, looking to turn into summer 
- venus in contemporary clothing w/marriage wreath on head 
- terrestrial earthly nature, presiding over love 
- cupid = romantic desire, inspiration 
- rich quality of season, but also rich rebirth of classical era in humanist condition 
- flora : sexual overtones, sex and birth
Primavera by Botticelli, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– Neoplatonist and esoteric references to classicism
– Esoteric references – Classical allusions reference Christianity
– two natures to venus – terrestrial human love side, one celestial love side (universal)
– Venus equated to virgin mary
– Venus figure in arch of trees,
– Medici apples on background trees, lush = fertility
– flanked by Flora roman goddess flowers and fertility, three graces/musees
– above venus = cupid, aiming at graces
– zephyr = wind god
– chloris being blown on, flowers starting to grow from mouth
– left: messenger mercury, snake-wrapped wand, twisting to create clouds overhead, sign of May, looking to turn into summer
– venus in contemporary clothing w/marriage wreath on head
– terrestrial earthly nature, presiding over love
– cupid = romantic desire, inspiration
– rich quality of season, but also rich rebirth of classical era in humanist condition
– flora : sexual overtones, sex and birth
St. Lucy Altarpiece by Veneziano, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
- pastels = blond palate
- composition of sacred individuals, not typically together because of different time frames
- imagine their conversations 
- madonna/child, st francis, st john the baptist, st lucy, 
- opulent setting, elongation yet individualized, very solid/weighty 
- solemn dignity
- detatchment between mother and child 
- indoor setting opened to outside/outdoors 
- pointed gothic arches, groin vaulted
- ceiling open to sky, natural sunlight, atmospheric luminosity, less severe modeling
St. Lucy Altarpiece by Veneziano, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– pastels = blond palate
– composition of sacred individuals, not typically together because of different time frames
– imagine their conversations
– madonna/child, st francis, st john the baptist, st lucy,
– opulent setting, elongation yet individualized, very solid/weighty
– solemn dignity
– detatchment between mother and child
– indoor setting opened to outside/outdoors
– pointed gothic arches, groin vaulted
– ceiling open to sky, natural sunlight, atmospheric luminosity, less severe modeling
Annunciation by Piero Della Francesca, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
- 4 legends from Legend of the true cross, true one was magical
- mathematical precision, geometry
- light and color 
- darker, but hint of blond palate
- shadows not grey or black, but instead blues and purples 
- geometry in organization, shape of figures, 3D
- bodies larger than heads = trying to focus on triangles over proportioning
- Virgin has vacancy, detatchment 
- scene flooded with light, center is darkest
Annunciation by Piero Della Francesca, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– 4 legends from Legend of the true cross, true one was magical
– mathematical precision, geometry
– light and color
– darker, but hint of blond palate
– shadows not grey or black, but instead blues and purples
– geometry in organization, shape of figures, 3D
– bodies larger than heads = trying to focus on triangles over proportioning
– Virgin has vacancy, detatchment
– scene flooded with light, center is darkest
Annunciation by Fra Angelico, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
- Fresco
- top of stairs leading to friar's quatrters
- inscription warnig heysayers 
- architectural settibg, pointed arxches
- composite
- mary frail, concave, defined space
- detailm nature 
- faavric really beutiful, spirituall
Annunciation by Fra Angelico, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– Fresco
– top of stairs leading to friar’s quatrters
– inscription warnig heysayers
– architectural settibg, pointed arxches
– composite
– mary frail, concave, defined space
– detailm nature
– faavric really beutiful, spirituall
The Last Supper by Castagno, 15th Cen. Italian Ren.
- made to look like own architectual
- 15 X 32 feet 
- commitment to biblical narrative
- ceiling reccresses - but still 1 pt.
- not parallel, bad spacong
- segregates Judas from table
- figures not inspiring, 
- static, sculptural, solid figures
- conventional layout
- sel absorption in most
- panels of marble behind
The Last Supper by Castagno, 15th Cen. Italian Ren.
– made to look like own architectual
– 15 X 32 feet
– commitment to biblical narrative
– ceiling reccresses – but still 1 pt.
– not parallel, bad spacong
– segregates Judas from table
– figures not inspiring,
– static, sculptural, solid figures
– conventional layout
– sel absorption in most
– panels of marble behind
Madonna and Child w/Angels by Fra Filippo Lippi, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
- huamnization of religious subject matter 
- movement throughh shape of drapery 
- linear style, look, very fluid composition 
- everything connects 
- model used, wordly and earthly 
- landscape behind, seated nxt to window
- intimate memonm, showcare rekationshios
- natural/realistic cupids, very mischievioys
- sentuous beauty?
Madonna and Child w/Angels by Fra Filippo Lippi, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– huamnization of religious subject matter
– movement throughh shape of drapery
– linear style, look, very fluid composition
– everything connects
– model used, wordly and earthly
– landscape behind, seated nxt to window
– intimate memonm, showcare rekationshios
– natural/realistic cupids, very mischievioys
– sentuous beauty?
Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to St Peter by Perugino, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
- calm geometric order of pictorial space
- lower part of sistine chapel 
- papacy uses this as basis of claim over church 
- stage-like space that opens into backround 
- 1 point perspective aligns w/central basilica
- open background - more emphasis
- orthogonals
- figures complement forground people, solidty, ordered
- 2 triumphal archs in background, compositional triangle space
- modeled cathedral after constantine's
- interlock of 2 and 3D space
- placement of central figures emphasizes axes, 3D illuminated 
- conversational, placing of body not dire
Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to St Peter by Perugino, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– calm geometric order of pictorial space
– lower part of sistine chapel
– papacy uses this as basis of claim over church
– stage-like space that opens into backround
– 1 point perspective aligns w/central basilica
– open background – more emphasis
– orthogonals
– figures complement forground people, solidty, ordered
– 2 triumphal archs in background, compositional triangle space
– modeled cathedral after constantine’s
– interlock of 2 and 3D space
– placement of central figures emphasizes axes, 3D illuminated
– conversational, placing of body not dire
Saint James Led to Martyrdom by Mantegna, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
- condemned saint stopping to bless a man, despite on way to own excecution
- not narrative .. historical authenticity 
- worm's eye view perspective, lines plunge down dramatically, extreme perspective
- 3rd vanishing point make up for disorganization
- diagonal lines point to st james
- figures blocked by banner
- barrel vaulted ceiling, orthogonals
Saint James Led to Martyrdom by Mantegna, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– condemned saint stopping to bless a man, despite on way to own excecution
– not narrative .. historical authenticity
– worm’s eye view perspective, lines plunge down dramatically, extreme perspective
– 3rd vanishing point make up for disorganization
– diagonal lines point to st james
– figures blocked by banner
– barrel vaulted ceiling, orthogonals
Dead Christ by Mantegna, 15th Cen. Italian Ren 
- feet smaller - tempering naturalism, more artistic, looks perportional
- line engraving style
- hyperrealism - unmerciful view of the dead 
- people must atone for stuff like this 
Camera Degli Sposi by Mantegna, Italian Ren 
- fresco over entire room, gonzaga famility to bring gradeur, celebrations of courtly lifestlye
- high grandiose 
- garlnds and medallions over everything, triumph of classical era
Dead Christ by Mantegna, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– feet smaller – tempering naturalism, more artistic, looks perportional
– line engraving style
– hyperrealism – unmerciful view of the dead
– people must atone for stuff like this
Camera Degli Sposi by Mantegna, Italian Ren
– fresco over entire room, gonzaga famility to bring gradeur, celebrations of courtly lifestlye
– high grandiose
– garlnds and medallions over everything, triumph of classical era
Ceiling of Camera Degli Sposi by Mantegna, 15th Cen. Italian Ren 
- looking up 
- optical illusion - di sotto in su
- trompe l'oil - decieving the eye 
- made to look like oopen oculus, all way around, small cupidss/figures looking down : painted over bed - ... hah?
- peacock = Juno/Hera - goddess of women/marriage
- foreshortening tech
- research more
Ceiling of Camera Degli Sposi by Mantegna, 15th Cen. Italian Ren
– looking up
– optical illusion – di sotto in su
– trompe l’oil – decieving the eye
– made to look like oopen oculus, all way around, small cupidss/figures looking down : painted over bed – … hah?
– peacock = Juno/Hera – goddess of women/marriage
– foreshortening tech
– research more
High Renaissance
16th century Italian ren, artistic development – maturing of perspective, depictions.
Leonard Da Vinci
Leonard Da Vinci
Total renaissance man, did serious everything. Ambitions in science and art, contributed to everything. Reality inaccessible, only known through what is seen. Sight is most essential, through what is grasped. Paint man, intention of soul, light and dark, physicallity
Virgin of the Rocks by Leonardo da Vinci, High Ren 
- Linear significance, yet softened contrasts
- Weighty pyramidal composition
- Chiarroscurro, own sense of lighting, 'sfumato', atmospheric haziness, hazy light and dark 
- modeling in light/shadow creates emotion, they move out of darkness = very dimentional
- undulating rocky setting
- gestures unite figures, they point at Christ
Virgin of the Rocks by Leonardo da Vinci, High Ren
– Linear significance, yet softened contrasts
– Weighty pyramidal composition
– Chiarroscurro, own sense of lighting, ‘sfumato’, atmospheric haziness, hazy light and dark
– modeling in light/shadow creates emotion, they move out of darkness = very dimentional
– undulating rocky setting
– gestures unite figures, they point at Christ
Last Supper by Leonardo Da Vinci, High Ren
- Oil and tempura on fresco 
- First great figural composition of high ren
- Parallel to picture frame
- simple, spacious room, highly dramatic action piece
- christ perfect repose, balanced amidst chaos 
- isolated w/windows also 'natural halo' w/rounded tympanum and window of light around jesus's head
- perspective lines meet above christ's head, creates physical and psychological focus at wider areas
- four groupings : wide range emotions, united through gestures - groups of 3, each different response to who will betray christ, gesturing to christ
- judas same side of table as christ, face in shadow, clutching money bag, leaning on table: when christ declares 'hand betrayeth me is on tale with me', so.. links christ and judas
- two disciples at end also linked and close off scenes, like (parentheses) dramatic composition
- monumentality/mathematically ordered space, linked w/freedom of movement at expense of monumentality and controlled space 
- eye level allows viewer to truly see actions
- coffered ceiling, panels on side all contribute to 1-pt perspective
Last Supper by Leonardo Da Vinci, High Ren
– Oil and tempura on fresco
– First great figural composition of high ren
– Parallel to picture frame
– simple, spacious room, highly dramatic action piece
– christ perfect repose, balanced amidst chaos
– isolated w/windows also ‘natural halo’ w/rounded tympanum and window of light around jesus’s head
– perspective lines meet above christ’s head, creates physical and psychological focus at wider areas
– four groupings : wide range emotions, united through gestures – groups of 3, each different response to who will betray christ, gesturing to christ
– judas same side of table as christ, face in shadow, clutching money bag, leaning on table: when christ declares ‘hand betrayeth me is on tale with me’, so.. links christ and judas
– two disciples at end also linked and close off scenes, like (parentheses) dramatic composition
– monumentality/mathematically ordered space, linked w/freedom of movement at expense of monumentality and controlled space
– eye level allows viewer to truly see actions
– coffered ceiling, panels on side all contribute to 1-pt perspective
Mona Lisa by Leonardo Da Vinci, High Ren
- ridiculously small
- wife of banker named Giocondo
- Mona = italian contraction of 'madonna', Lisa = first name
- individual representation, not iconostasis
- originally framed w/columns
- half-length portrait 
- quietly folded arms as she looks out at viewer, disturbing because her look is so direct 
- mysterious quality: smile w/chiaroscuro lighting, reveals human psychology - disguises her here
- light subtle enough that planes look blurred - sfumato 
- ambiguous landscape - blended into it w/light and shadow in her garmet
- light and shadow on veil 'caressses' face 
- right: more light, left: shadow, very sly, no eyebrows=more shadow
- hands are beautiful - very smooth, delicate - took out creases, graceful
Mona Lisa by Leonardo Da Vinci, High Ren
– ridiculously small
– wife of banker named Giocondo
– Mona = italian contraction of ‘madonna’, Lisa = first name
– individual representation, not iconostasis
– originally framed w/columns
– half-length portrait
– quietly folded arms as she looks out at viewer, disturbing because her look is so direct
– mysterious quality: smile w/chiaroscuro lighting, reveals human psychology – disguises her here
– light subtle enough that planes look blurred – sfumato
– ambiguous landscape – blended into it w/light and shadow in her garmet
– light and shadow on veil ‘caressses’ face
– right: more light, left: shadow, very sly, no eyebrows=more shadow
– hands are beautiful – very smooth, delicate – took out creases, graceful
Plan for new Saint Peter's by Bramante, High Ren
- To be in Vatican, colassal splendor? 
- cross w/equal length arms, end in apse
- crossing = large dome w/additional domes over side chapels
- main dome meant to be size of pantheon
- inside: intricate deisgn similar to crystal, 9 interlocking crosses .. 5 domed 
- sculpted onto medal showing grandeur
- bramante died in middle, michelangelo finished it off 
- houses julius's tomb, marks st.peter's grave
Plan for new Saint Peter’s by Bramante, High Ren
– To be in Vatican, colassal splendor?
– cross w/equal length arms, end in apse
– crossing = large dome w/additional domes over side chapels
– main dome meant to be size of pantheon
– inside: intricate deisgn similar to crystal, 9 interlocking crosses .. 5 domed
– sculpted onto medal showing grandeur
– bramante died in middle, michelangelo finished it off
– houses julius’s tomb, marks st.peter’s grave
Il Tempietto by Bramante, High Ren 
- 'little temple' small pagan temple from antiquity, this is a version
- king ferdinand and queen isabella, spain - marks point of st peter's crucifixion
- conjectural?
- known to be sculpture
- inside of round, colonnaded courtyard
- relies on effect of composition of volumes and masses, solids and voids 
- formal/rational first glance
- circular sytobate, uses tuscan ordered columns
- balance of parts between sections, unifies drum, base, dome
- vertical emphasis in columns, stabilized by ballistrate 
- mirror image of cornice above 
- light/shadow w/ voids and masses of columns and recessions
- conforms to ideals for ideal church 
- unity, infinite essence, justice of god 
- crest of king ferdinand
Il Tempietto by Bramante, High Ren
– ‘little temple’ small pagan temple from antiquity, this is a version
– king ferdinand and queen isabella, spain – marks point of st peter’s crucifixion
– conjectural?
– known to be sculpture
– inside of round, colonnaded courtyard
– relies on effect of composition of volumes and masses, solids and voids
– formal/rational first glance
– circular sytobate, uses tuscan ordered columns
– balance of parts between sections, unifies drum, base, dome
– vertical emphasis in columns, stabilized by ballistrate
– mirror image of cornice above
– light/shadow w/ voids and masses of columns and recessions
– conforms to ideals for ideal church
– unity, infinite essence, justice of god
– crest of king ferdinand
Pieta by Michelangelo, High Ren
- located in St peters in vatican, 5'
- extreme sensitivity to texture 
- marble - luminosity 
- humanity captured in marble - tender sadness in mary mourning son
- mary seems younger than christ - symbol of purity and virginity 
- beauty in christ's face, he seems at peace 
- deeply undercut folds in surface patina 
- how to fit man in lap of woman? make her out of proportion, lap way larger, lifts leg up on lege, v-shape in christ's body, her hand enlaargened to support him 
- triangular composition
- name carved into sash across her chest 
- 'contained' and 'controlled' emotion
Pieta by Michelangelo, High Ren
– located in St peters in vatican, 5′
– extreme sensitivity to texture
– marble – luminosity
– humanity captured in marble – tender sadness in mary mourning son
– mary seems younger than christ – symbol of purity and virginity
– beauty in christ’s face, he seems at peace
– deeply undercut folds in surface patina
– how to fit man in lap of woman? make her out of proportion, lap way larger, lifts leg up on lege, v-shape in christ’s body, her hand enlaargened to support him
– triangular composition
– name carved into sash across her chest
– ‘contained’ and ‘controlled’ emotion
Michelangelo
impatient, grumpy genius, especially hated Julius II, deep sympathy/concern for those close to him, profoundly understood humanity, neoplatonic idea of bringing ideals to life, broke from maths, focused on proportion of eyes, terribilita, renaissance man
David by Michelangelo, High Ren
- defiant hero of florentine republic, kind of political as it would've been in piatza overlooking florence 
- before action of david, looking for foes
- humanism, perfect male anatomy 
- muscular body, tenseness in face, dertmination in browline, deeply set eyes
- ponderation in pose, sense of controppasto, step forward
- tension and reserved energy 
- psychological insight, emotion 
- david = young, but more mature as a man
- hands carved to be very large, shows he will frow larger 
- concept of powerful thing approaching
- white marble emphasizes male white nude
David by Michelangelo, High Ren
– defiant hero of florentine republic, kind of political as it would’ve been in piatza overlooking florence
– before action of david, looking for foes
– humanism, perfect male anatomy
– muscular body, tenseness in face, dertmination in browline, deeply set eyes
– ponderation in pose, sense of controppasto, step forward
– tension and reserved energy
– psychological insight, emotion
– david = young, but more mature as a man
– hands carved to be very large, shows he will frow larger
– concept of powerful thing approaching
– white marble emphasizes male white nude
Tomb of Julius II by Michelangelo, High Ren
- originally 2 stories w/28 statues, freestanding, ended up smaller and less statues, close off w/volutes 
- some meant to be seen from below, but not so impactful 
Moses: Leader of Israle, hand grips beard, left leg back as if to stand, give laws, ready to exert energy to throw down laws, awesome power. Deeply undercut, shadow plays, surface patina
Tomb of Julius II by Michelangelo, High Ren
– originally 2 stories w/28 statues, freestanding, ended up smaller and less statues, close off w/volutes
– some meant to be seen from below, but not so impactful
Moses: Leader of Israle, hand grips beard, left leg back as if to stand, give laws, ready to exert energy to throw down laws, awesome power. Deeply undercut, shadow plays, surface patina
Bound Slave by Michelangelo, High Ren
- multiple statues, originally 20 planned
- 6'10
Bound Slave by Michelangelo, High Ren
– multiple statues, originally 20 planned
– 6’10” or so
– powerful emotional states associated w/oppression, trapped/imprisoned, physically by marble (ooh)
– ‘unfinished’ still in marble, represents oppression, energy trying to escape, defiant
– violent contrappasto, awakening
Ceiling of Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo, High Ren
- very long, wide 
- inexperience w/fresco technique
- height above pavement : 70 ft
- curved vaults difficult :(
- less than 4 years, 400 figures + 
- redemption, fall, creation of humanity 
- corridor of narrative panels describing creation, hebrew prophets, pagan sybils on curved sides 
- 4 corner pendentives = 4 old testament scenes, david, judith, etc 
- triangular compartments - ancestors of christ 
- nudes separate panels, sitting on pedastles, pairs of putii in grisalle tech 
- figures strongly outlined against neutral tone of architecture 
- painted to be sculptures, beauty of body and natural form, psyche 
- lots of bright colors 
- women are pronounced, mannish
Ceiling of Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo, High Ren
– very long, wide
– inexperience w/fresco technique
– height above pavement : 70 ft
– curved vaults difficult 🙁
– less than 4 years, 400 figures +
– redemption, fall, creation of humanity
– corridor of narrative panels describing creation, hebrew prophets, pagan sybils on curved sides
– 4 corner pendentives = 4 old testament scenes, david, judith, etc
– triangular compartments – ancestors of christ
– nudes separate panels, sitting on pedastles, pairs of putii in grisalle tech
– figures strongly outlined against neutral tone of architecture
– painted to be sculptures, beauty of body and natural form, psyche
– lots of bright colors
– women are pronounced, mannish
Creation of Adam by Michelangelo, High Ren
- center of sistine ceiling
- unformed landscape
- adam not yet made, earthly, material, concave shape
- god in billowing cloak, life to adam, convex shape .. connects w/shape of adam
- off-center, more dramatic
- movement through line of bodies 
- link to christ and madonna in brain shape, rise/redemption of man 
- motion, musculature, controppasto
- god's cloak = brain and cortex, humanism and intellect
Creation of Adam by Michelangelo, High Ren
– center of sistine ceiling
– unformed landscape
– adam not yet made, earthly, material, concave shape
– god in billowing cloak, life to adam, convex shape .. connects w/shape of adam
– off-center, more dramatic
– movement through line of bodies
– link to christ and madonna in brain shape, rise/redemption of man
– motion, musculature, controppasto
– god’s cloak = brain and cortex, humanism and intellect
Raphael
Valence, studied grottos, leonardo’s dusky modeling, lighter tones, clarity over obscurity, muralist
– Commissioned by pope, 4 branches of human knowledge and wisdom, education to pope Julius II
– Pope = spiritual and temporal leader, so theology and philosophy face each other
– Lorenzo de Medici another commission
– portraits, personality, psychic state of subject – soul rises to enlightenment through beauty – neoplatonicism
Stanza della Segnatura - School of Athens by Raphael, High Ren
- Fresco painting, pretty big
- philosophers of old generations trying to teach new generation
- mass coffered barrel vaulted hall - roman architecture - looks like new st peter's basilica
- figures arranged around central Plato (neoplatonism) and Aristotle 
- Aristotle points to ground = reality is earthbound, realism, while plato points up - idealism
- statues Apollo and Athena, balance of philosophy from gods of wisdom
- Plato side : mysteries that transcend the world
- Aristotle side : nature and concerns of men
- lower left: Pythagoras - writes w/servant holding up harmonic scale, foreground - Heraclitus = pessimistic Michaelangelo
- lower right: Euclid w/compass = Bramante, Raphael amongst scientists/mathematicians, Ptolem y holding a globe
- human drama, eloquent poses symbolizing doctrines, self assurance/dignity, all part of reason, balance, measured, each group unified by different moods
- two main figures silhouetted against the sky, elliptical composition of figures, reconciles schools of plato and aristotle, 
- Diogenes, 'the Cynic' alone with his bowl
Stanza della Segnatura – School of Athens by Raphael, High Ren
– Fresco painting, pretty big
– philosophers of old generations trying to teach new generation
– mass coffered barrel vaulted hall – roman architecture – looks like new st peter’s basilica
– figures arranged around central Plato (neoplatonism) and Aristotle
– Aristotle points to ground = reality is earthbound, realism, while plato points up – idealism
– statues Apollo and Athena, balance of philosophy from gods of wisdom
– Plato side : mysteries that transcend the world
– Aristotle side : nature and concerns of men
– lower left: Pythagoras – writes w/servant holding up harmonic scale, foreground – Heraclitus = pessimistic Michaelangelo
– lower right: Euclid w/compass = Bramante, Raphael amongst scientists/mathematicians, Ptolem y holding a globe
– human drama, eloquent poses symbolizing doctrines, self assurance/dignity, all part of reason, balance, measured, each group unified by different moods
– two main figures silhouetted against the sky, elliptical composition of figures, reconciles schools of plato and aristotle,
– Diogenes, ‘the Cynic’ alone with his bowl
The Marriage of the Virgin by Raphel, High Ren
- Gold legend book of saints, 13 stories
- Joseph and other suitors trying to get hand of Mary, high priest would give her to whichever man had the best blooming rod
- foreshortening technique w/man breaking rod over knee
- virgins behind Mary, dejected men got other women
- central plan temple in background, like il tempietto by bramante :o, but more rounded - brunelleschi-style arcades
- raphael creates orthagonels w/ground
- more unification and focus 
- women idealized and blah
The Marriage of the Virgin by Raphel, High Ren
– Gold legend book of saints, 13 stories
– Joseph and other suitors trying to get hand of Mary, high priest would give her to whichever man had the best blooming rod
– foreshortening technique w/man breaking rod over knee
– virgins behind Mary, dejected men got other women
– central plan temple in background, like il tempietto by bramante :o, but more rounded – brunelleschi-style arcades
– raphael creates orthagonels w/ground
– more unification and focus
– women idealized and blah
Madonna in the Meadow by Raphael, High Ren
- multiples 
- inspired by fra filipilipi's 
- oil on panel
- pyramidal compositions
- playful babies, realistic, human interaction between them
- thin-lined halos, subtle, still holy
- modeling of faces in slight chiarroscuro 
- 3-dimensionality 
- realistic, light nature setting - light feathery trees, lighter tones to colors
Madonna in the Meadow by Raphael, High Ren
– multiples
– inspired by fra filipilipi’s
– oil on panel
– pyramidal compositions
– playful babies, realistic, human interaction between them
– thin-lined halos, subtle, still holy
– modeling of faces in slight chiarroscuro
– 3-dimensionality
– realistic, light nature setting – light feathery trees, lighter tones to colors
Galatea by Raphael, High Ren
- wealthy banker's palace, secular pagan subject matter 
- Based on poem, Metamorpheses
- Daughter of poseidon, Polyphemus's lover (cyclops), riding on shell trying to escape, surrounded w/sea creatures/cupids
- human beauty, zestful love
- joy and exuberance
- circling around galatea, sweeping circular shape
- foreshortened cupids, all described as sculptural
- similar to botticelli, refers back to hellenistic sculpture, vibrant
Galatea by Raphael, High Ren
– wealthy banker’s palace, secular pagan subject matter
– Based on poem, Metamorpheses
– Daughter of poseidon, Polyphemus’s lover (cyclops), riding on shell trying to escape, surrounded w/sea creatures/cupids
– human beauty, zestful love
– joy and exuberance
– circling around galatea, sweeping circular shape
– foreshortened cupids, all described as sculptural
– similar to botticelli, refers back to hellenistic sculpture, vibrant
Tomb of Giuliano de'Medici by Michaelangelo, High Ren
- 1519-34, marble
- twin to brother Juiliano's tomb
- very philosophical
- would've been pair of river gods underneath to create stability
- ascent of person's soul through levels of neoplatonic universe 
- underworld = brute matter, source of evil 
- 2 statues on sarcophagus = plane and movement of time, humanity's state in existence is one of pain, anxiety, frustration, exhaustion
- left: female night, right: male day - never relaxed, very much in tension, reminiscent of bound slaves - tense contrapposto
- day: thickness of tree, anatomy of hercules, straining huge limbs, over shoulder = unfinished face, trapped in world of time
- night: supposed time of rest, instead twisting as if trouble sleeping, wrenched position, surrounded by owl, poppy flowers, hideous mask - nighmares
- medici sits over troubles of time - ideal human type of active man, done work, now promoted in death
- lorenzo = active thinker, guiliano = active military man 
- ideals based on christ
- double plaster, typanums, volutes, garlens above typical roman
Tomb of Giuliano de’Medici by Michaelangelo, High Ren
– 1519-34, marble
– twin to brother Juiliano’s tomb
– very philosophical
– would’ve been pair of river gods underneath to create stability
– ascent of person’s soul through levels of neoplatonic universe
– underworld = brute matter, source of evil
– 2 statues on sarcophagus = plane and movement of time, humanity’s state in existence is one of pain, anxiety, frustration, exhaustion
– left: female night, right: male day – never relaxed, very much in tension, reminiscent of bound slaves – tense contrapposto
– day: thickness of tree, anatomy of hercules, straining huge limbs, over shoulder = unfinished face, trapped in world of time
– night: supposed time of rest, instead twisting as if trouble sleeping, wrenched position, surrounded by owl, poppy flowers, hideous mask – nighmares
– medici sits over troubles of time – ideal human type of active man, done work, now promoted in death
– lorenzo = active thinker, guiliano = active military man
– ideals based on christ
– double plaster, typanums, volutes, garlens above typical roman
Vestibule of Laurentian Library by Michelangelo, High Ren
- verticality compressed, shaft-like space focused on vertical
- indifferent to classical norms, synching back into wall, breaks columns around corners, unnatural, consoles beneath columns not for support, random volutes 
- plasters taper downwards instead of up 
- stairway flows out of door, like tongue rolling out of mouth .. a bit baroque 
- stairs on side, blocky - curvalinear w/angular form combined 
- walls divided by cornices, recessed windows, two-toned, dramatically odd in style
Vestibule of Laurentian Library by Michelangelo, High Ren
– verticality compressed, shaft-like space focused on vertical
– indifferent to classical norms, synching back into wall, breaks columns around corners, unnatural, consoles beneath columns not for support, random volutes
– plasters taper downwards instead of up
– stairway flows out of door, like tongue rolling out of mouth .. a bit baroque
– stairs on side, blocky – curvalinear w/angular form combined
– walls divided by cornices, recessed windows, two-toned, dramatically odd in style
Campidoglio by Michelangelo, High Ren
– tried to match and balance w/preexisting buildings, symmetry
– 2 preexisting buildings done focus on roman empire
= set at 80-degree angle, matched w/building and oval shape to balance trapezoid
– closed off on 3 side, sense of balance, illusion of perfect squares
= created ballistrate
– like limbed body w/piatza as torso
– statue of Marcus Aurelius in center, Christianity > Pagan
– statues on ballistrate, remained low to not block view of Vatican
Museo Capitolino by Michelangelo, High Ren 
- Facade, Albertian plasters continuous - ground: plasters separated by deep voids, softened w/lintel-caarrying columns
- sculpture sits on top
- pediment in upper central level, marks central entrance 
- colonnettes around central level, broken tympanums
- medallions in each one of them
Museo Capitolino by Michelangelo, High Ren
– Facade, Albertian plasters continuous – ground: plasters separated by deep voids, softened w/lintel-caarrying columns
– sculpture sits on top
– pediment in upper central level, marks central entrance
– colonnettes around central level, broken tympanums
– medallions in each one of them
St. Peter's by Michaelangelo, High Ren
- finishing Bramante's plan - compact greek cross inscribed in square, fronted w/double-column portico - creates snowflake-like complexity, cohesive unity, more opened up, more tall
- collassal plasters on walls, looks doubled, creates undulating wall surface in addition to undulating walls, but surface also follows that pattern, textured
- dome is more rounded - balance of static and dynamic, plasters increase vericality in look, anchors 
- starts but doesn't finish :(
- drum articulated surface w/colonnettes, garlands used
St. Peter’s by Michaelangelo, High Ren
– finishing Bramante’s plan – compact greek cross inscribed in square, fronted w/double-column portico – creates snowflake-like complexity, cohesive unity, more opened up, more tall
– collassal plasters on walls, looks doubled, creates undulating wall surface in addition to undulating walls, but surface also follows that pattern, textured
– dome is more rounded – balance of static and dynamic, plasters increase vericality in look, anchors
– starts but doesn’t finish 🙁
– drum articulated surface w/colonnettes, garlands used
St Peter’s by Michelangelo Plan, High Ren
The Last Judgement (Sistine Chapel) by Michelangelo, High Ren 
- just behind raphael's wall, 
- fresco on altar wall 
- finished in 1512, violent time w/tyrannical state and church, people invaded, glorious time of renaissance more pessimistic, fanatical, etc 
- fate of humanity, fate of own soul
- world has gone mad, commissioned by pope paul III
- Christ as harsh judge over all, positioned to strike down souls
- bright colors
- right: souls being thrown into hell, angels tumpetiting in background, evil demons
- flayed skin = self-portrait 
- grotesque hugeness, representative of what michelangelo feels religion is doing, his own soul
- darth vader?
The Last Judgement (Sistine Chapel) by Michelangelo, High Ren
– just behind raphael’s wall,
– fresco on altar wall
– finished in 1512, violent time w/tyrannical state and church, people invaded, glorious time of renaissance more pessimistic, fanatical, etc
– fate of humanity, fate of own soul
– world has gone mad, commissioned by pope paul III
– Christ as harsh judge over all, positioned to strike down souls
– bright colors
– right: souls being thrown into hell, angels tumpetiting in background, evil demons
– flayed skin = self-portrait
– grotesque hugeness, representative of what michelangelo feels religion is doing, his own soul
– darth vader?
Il Gesu by Della Porta, plan by Da Vignola, High Renaissance
- Utilized same aspects of San Andreas of Alberti 
- nave takes over main volume of space - great hall w/ side chapels, 
- dome emphasizes approach to altar
- huge open space for open hall, room for large processions, large crowds, counter-reformation
- mother church of Jesuit order
- development of baroque architecture 
- exterior: union of lower / upper stories by scroll buttresses, similar to santa maria novella
- palladio? esque
- plasters paired
- horizontal march of plasters, dramatic climax at central bay, w/columns at ceter, elaborated bay w/pediment in tympanum, etc
- upper: doubled plasters
Il Gesu by Della Porta, plan by Da Vignola, High Renaissance
– Utilized same aspects of San Andreas of Alberti
– nave takes over main volume of space – great hall w/ side chapels,
– dome emphasizes approach to altar
– huge open space for open hall, room for large processions, large crowds, counter-reformation
– mother church of Jesuit order
– development of baroque architecture
– exterior: union of lower / upper stories by scroll buttresses, similar to santa maria novella
– palladio? esque
– plasters paired
– horizontal march of plasters, dramatic climax at central bay, w/columns at ceter, elaborated bay w/pediment in tympanum, etc
– upper: doubled plasters
Il Gesu Plan
Il Gesu Plan
Descent from the Cross by Pontormo, Mannerism
- vertically aligned around Christ
- Mary falls back, hand drops Christ's hand
- view in center, central mass however this leaves dead/open center 'void', accentuated w/ hands into open space 
- ambiguity w/ curiously axious glances, no focus 
- little weeping, pleading instead 
- athletic bending/twisting of figures, elongated figures
- heavy eyelids add to expression
- contrasting colors = dynamic colors, cacophonius 
- no depth, crowded and compressed
- random cloud, bad filling of space
Descent from the Cross by Pontormo, Mannerism
– vertically aligned around Christ
– Mary falls back, hand drops Christ’s hand
– view in center, central mass however this leaves dead/open center ‘void’, accentuated w/ hands into open space
– ambiguity w/ curiously axious glances, no focus
– little weeping, pleading instead
– athletic bending/twisting of figures, elongated figures
– heavy eyelids add to expression
– contrasting colors = dynamic colors, cacophonius
– no depth, crowded and compressed
– random cloud, bad filling of space
Madonna w/the Long Neck by Parmagianino, Mannerism
- 1531 oil on wood 
- elegant, stylistic portrait, delicate, idealized, swaying elongated figures
- allusion by Pieta, large lap w/child across lap, elongated baby lap, arm hanging, looks dead .. what is to come, sash across chest 
- unbalanced: people shoved into one side, empty space in other
- astute form of drapery, naturalism 
- oddities: sparse column, figure showed into corner, curtain creates stage, opening to larger .. 
- girls = the cupids?
- long neck matches column = medieval column = neck like ivory tower/column ?
- phallic symbols? wat
Madonna w/the Long Neck by Parmagianino, Mannerism
– 1531 oil on wood
– elegant, stylistic portrait, delicate, idealized, swaying elongated figures
– allusion by Pieta, large lap w/child across lap, elongated baby lap, arm hanging, looks dead .. what is to come, sash across chest
– unbalanced: people shoved into one side, empty space in other
– astute form of drapery, naturalism
– oddities: sparse column, figure showed into corner, curtain creates stage, opening to larger ..
– girls = the cupids?
– long neck matches column = medieval column = neck like ivory tower/column ?
– phallic symbols? wat
Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time (Exposure of Luxury) by Bronzino, Mannerism
- strong, sculptural figures
- heads, hands, feet graceful 
- surrealistic quality : freudian psychology, love
- incestuous relationship between Venus and son Cupid
- man w/ drapery : father time
- female figure left : 'Truth' 
- Putii = folly, throwing flowers
- woman tearing out hair = envy 
- monstrous figure w/honeycomb tail + masks = fraud, deception
- doves = peace
- apple in hand = knowledge and death 
All elements of love = Love is foolish w/hatred and inconstancy, its folly will be discovered in time
- it is foolish to believe in love
Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time (Exposure of Luxury) by Bronzino, Mannerism
– strong, sculptural figures
– heads, hands, feet graceful
– surrealistic quality : freudian psychology, love
– incestuous relationship between Venus and son Cupid
– man w/ drapery : father time
– female figure left : ‘Truth’
– Putii = folly, throwing flowers
– woman tearing out hair = envy
– monstrous figure w/honeycomb tail + masks = fraud, deception
– doves = peace
– apple in hand = knowledge and death
All elements of love = Love is foolish w/hatred and inconstancy, its folly will be discovered in time
– it is foolish to believe in love
Rape (Abduction) of Sabine Women by Bologna, Mannerism
- sculptural, marble, 13'
- intertwined figures, release of emotion, sculpted in true anatomy
- alludes to mythological, but very realistic
- on central axis - spins around one point 
- cylindrical space
- negative space important as solid mass 
- 1st large scale since classical era
Rape (Abduction) of Sabine Women by Bologna, Mannerism
– sculptural, marble, 13′
– intertwined figures, release of emotion, sculpted in true anatomy
– alludes to mythological, but very realistic
– on central axis – spins around one point
– cylindrical space
– negative space important as solid mass
– 1st large scale since classical era
Palazzo del Te by Romano, Mannerism 
- stud farm/ summer palace
- entire building faces inner courtyard
- 2 registers, inconsistency, round rectangular real fake niches columns, architraves .. etc 
- elements try to hold up triglyphs, look like falling
- keystones maintain archway
- humor - dear of following, creepy faces
Palazzo del Te by Romano, Mannerism
– stud farm/ summer palace
– entire building faces inner courtyard
– 2 registers, inconsistency, round rectangular real fake niches columns, architraves .. etc
– elements try to hold up triglyphs, look like falling
– keystones maintain archway
– humor – dear of following, creepy faces
San Zaccaria Altarpiece by Bellini, Venetian 
- Madonnas in half-length, large altarpiece
- holy conversation, refined compositional elements
- virgin w/child in center
- st peter w/key and book
- st catherine - palm and wheel
- st jerome - just book translation bible
- angel playing viol in center, placed inside of a shrine, peeks out to outdoor lighting
- architecture receeding into architecture, creates apse behind flat wall, frames scene
-serenity created with colors, little interaction between figures, lines dissolve, atmospheric haziness, like sfumato
- play on depth of space
- floor = recession into space
San Zaccaria Altarpiece by Bellini, Venetian
– Madonnas in half-length, large altarpiece
– holy conversation, refined compositional elements
– virgin w/child in center
– st peter w/key and book
– st catherine – palm and wheel
– st jerome – just book translation bible
– angel playing viol in center, placed inside of a shrine, peeks out to outdoor lighting
– architecture receeding into architecture, creates apse behind flat wall, frames scene
-serenity created with colors, little interaction between figures, lines dissolve, atmospheric haziness, like sfumato
– play on depth of space
– floor = recession into space
Pastoral Symphony by Giorgione, Venetian 
- dense shadows in background - make figures emerge softly out of the shadow, hazy darkness, shadowed background
- theme of nude women w/clothed men in landscape setting w/shepherd in background 
- distance : villa on hillside
- evokes pastoral mood w/shepherd as poet, pipes and lute = poetry, 2 women actually invisible muses, Georgione's poetry
- getting water - well of poetic inspiration
- modeling through shadows, voluptuous women = abundancy of poetry, nature 
- lost but unforgotten paradise
Pastoral Symphony by Giorgione, Venetian
– dense shadows in background – make figures emerge softly out of the shadow, hazy darkness, shadowed background
– theme of nude women w/clothed men in landscape setting w/shepherd in background
– distance : villa on hillside
– evokes pastoral mood w/shepherd as poet, pipes and lute = poetry, 2 women actually invisible muses, Georgione’s poetry
– getting water – well of poetic inspiration
– modeling through shadows, voluptuous women = abundancy of poetry, nature
– lost but unforgotten paradise
Assumption of the Virgin by Titian, Venetian
- Light through color - look as if glowing
- Virgin mary rising to heaven, glowing clouds, 'accepting' her, light radiates into church interior 
- Father god above welcoming her into open arms
- people around her gesticulating
- drama/intensity w/colorations
Assumption of the Virgin by Titian, Venetian
– Light through color – look as if glowing
– Virgin mary rising to heaven, glowing clouds, ‘accepting’ her, light radiates into church interior
– Father god above welcoming her into open arms
– people around her gesticulating
– drama/intensity w/colorations
Madonna of the Pesaro Familiy by Titian, Venetian
- Canvas inside architectural arch 
- Bishop Pisaro, papal fleet 
- successful expedition during venetian- turkish war
- Madonna receiving commander, who is kneeling, soldier behind = st george? 
- borgia pope line
- individual w/turban - turkish hostage, success of venice 
- st peter recording on book 
- st francis present, presenting rest of pissaro family members
- everything diagonally-based, madonna out of center, focus on pisarro 
- banner gives other diagonal, balanced
- courtly splendor
- monumental figures - single or in groups, majesty of event itself
Madonna of the Pesaro Familiy by Titian, Venetian
– Canvas inside architectural arch
– Bishop Pisaro, papal fleet
– successful expedition during venetian- turkish war
– Madonna receiving commander, who is kneeling, soldier behind = st george?
– borgia pope line
– individual w/turban – turkish hostage, success of venice
– st peter recording on book
– st francis present, presenting rest of pissaro family members
– everything diagonally-based, madonna out of center, focus on pisarro
– banner gives other diagonal, balanced
– courtly splendor
– monumental figures – single or in groups, majesty of event itself
Venus of Urbino by Titian, Venetian
- wife picture for Duke of Urbino, mythos, classical and ren
- diagonal reclining nude - natural reclining female
- linear play - bed emphasizes form, softness w/silk sheets below, 
- dog = pendant, balances form
- composition - depth of space 
- drapery breaks up units, frames Ms Urbino 
- red in bed and in servants dress = counterbalance
- fruit = carnal pleasure
Venus of Urbino by Titian, Venetian
– wife picture for Duke of Urbino, mythos, classical and ren
– diagonal reclining nude – natural reclining female
– linear play – bed emphasizes form, softness w/silk sheets below,
– dog = pendant, balances form
– composition – depth of space
– drapery breaks up units, frames Ms Urbino
– red in bed and in servants dress = counterbalance
– fruit = carnal pleasure
Jupiter and Io by Correggio, Venetian
- oil on canvas
- Male god comes, takes any woman he wants - in form of cloud, seducing Io
- Female figure, pudgy back, realistic figure, pale white, angelic face 
- sfumatto lighting, haziness
- light source outside of frame, emphasizes her back, softness/hazy outlines of figure themselves
Jupiter and Io by Correggio, Venetian
– oil on canvas
– Male god comes, takes any woman he wants – in form of cloud, seducing Io
– Female figure, pudgy back, realistic figure, pale white, angelic face
– sfumatto lighting, haziness
– light source outside of frame, emphasizes her back, softness/hazy outlines of figure themselves
Last Supper by Tintoretto, Venetian
- didactic nature of scene
- underground tavern, supernatural lighting illuminating heads - halos 
- oil lamp, fire in shape of wings, creates glow
- smoke = angels
- christ at center of table, receeds into space 
- impression of talking, interaction between people
- heavy, hazy atmosphere, spiritual quality 
- solid forms melt into light and dark
- limitless space
- sharp angles, lines merging quickly, orthoganals?
- chiarroscuro lighting
Last Supper by Tintoretto, Venetian
– didactic nature of scene
– underground tavern, supernatural lighting illuminating heads – halos
– oil lamp, fire in shape of wings, creates glow
– smoke = angels
– christ at center of table, receeds into space
– impression of talking, interaction between people
– heavy, hazy atmosphere, spiritual quality
– solid forms melt into light and dark
– limitless space
– sharp angles, lines merging quickly, orthoganals?
– chiarroscuro lighting
Christ in the House of Levi by Veronese, Venetian
 - gigantic scale 18x42' 
- majesty of classical architecture
- arches w/columns, divided by huge columns
- italian loggia, outdoor porch/pato area
- chief steward - act of 'welcome'
- impiety? creatures like commoners, different races, so close to the Lord, dwarves, dogs, etc. =_=
- basically last supper 
- symmetry, balance, every color on color palatte
Christ in the House of Levi by Veronese, Venetian
– gigantic scale 18×42′
– majesty of classical architecture
– arches w/columns, divided by huge columns
– italian loggia, outdoor porch/pato area
– chief steward – act of ‘welcome’
– impiety? creatures like commoners, different races, so close to the Lord, dwarves, dogs, etc. =_=
– basically last supper
– symmetry, balance, every color on color palatte
Villa Rotunda by Palladio, Venetian
- based on ancient roman single-family houses
- completely symmetrical
- self-sufficency, formalism
- classicism's clarity 
- stairs as podium, enters on all 4 sides, 3 registers: bottom podium, etc - not really divided on inside 
- Pantheon - roman facade, porticos, w/overhead dome 
- sensible, functional, circular platform
- all sides equal, mathematically, 
- greek cross like bramante
- rooftop sculpture - etruscan , michelangelo also
Villa Rotunda by Palladio, Venetian
– based on ancient roman single-family houses
– completely symmetrical
– self-sufficency, formalism
– classicism’s clarity
– stairs as podium, enters on all 4 sides, 3 registers: bottom podium, etc – not really divided on inside
– Pantheon – roman facade, porticos, w/overhead dome
– sensible, functional, circular platform
– all sides equal, mathematically,
– greek cross like bramante
– rooftop sculpture – etruscan , michelangelo also
San Giorgio Maggiore by Palladio, Venetian 
- drmatically placed
- spacing - short aisles, huge nave, play on rationale 
- red-brick building, white facade, unified
- superposes roman facade onto building behind, order of the 3 panels
- mixes triangular pediments w/triangular and rectangular other stuff
- play light and shadow
- reflection hits water, division of blues of sea and sky
San Giorgio Maggiore by Palladio, Venetian
– drmatically placed
– spacing – short aisles, huge nave, play on rationale
– red-brick building, white facade, unified
– superposes roman facade onto building behind, order of the 3 panels
– mixes triangular pediments w/triangular and rectangular other stuff
– play light and shadow
– reflection hits water, division of blues of sea and sky
San Giorgio Maggiore Inside- Palladio, Venetian
San Giorgio Maggiore Inside- Palladio, Venetian
16th Century Northern Ren
Spain dominates, politics for modern state, arrival of reformation, civil warring, state ultimately wins. Protestantism – faith alone, Martin Luther w/95 Thesese, restoration of christianity.
Judgement of Paris by Cranach, 16th cen N Ren
- N European armor (Paris), Mercury as much older
- Naive nude figures, subtly flirtatious, but more of an unawareness - sheer garments, barely anything, pear-shaped physique
- Mountains - very northern
- Cupid shooting down - who will be chosen? one woman pointing
- Paris holding apple to give to most beautiful
Judgement of Paris by Cranach, 16th cen N Ren
– N European armor (Paris), Mercury as much older
– Naive nude figures, subtly flirtatious, but more of an unawareness – sheer garments, barely anything, pear-shaped physique
– Mountains – very northern
– Cupid shooting down – who will be chosen? one woman pointing
– Paris holding apple to give to most beautiful
Isenheim Altarpiece by Grunewald, 16th N Ren
- attention to despair, many layers of panels - oil on wood
- monastaic order of St Anthony - St Anthony's 'fire' - miraculous cures, 
- St Anthony: absorbing pain as represented through arrows in body (disease - ergotism, convulsions, gangrene)
- St Sebastian: brings hope to people
- Predella: Removed from cross, being entombed, placement off center - 'amputates' arm and legs whe opened
- carved wooden shrine, 2 pairs of moveable panels
- Annunciatiion, Angelic Concert, Resurrection, Madonna and child 
- Innermost shrine w/Anthony and Paul - carved wooden sculpture 
- whole idea moved through color, more horror on outside, inner - brightness of color, inner truth of hope.
Isenheim Altarpiece by Grunewald, 16th N Ren
– attention to despair, many layers of panels – oil on wood
– monastaic order of St Anthony – St Anthony’s ‘fire’ – miraculous cures,
– St Anthony: absorbing pain as represented through arrows in body (disease – ergotism, convulsions, gangrene)
– St Sebastian: brings hope to people
– Predella: Removed from cross, being entombed, placement off center – ‘amputates’ arm and legs whe opened
– carved wooden shrine, 2 pairs of moveable panels
– Annunciatiion, Angelic Concert, Resurrection, Madonna and child
– Innermost shrine w/Anthony and Paul – carved wooden sculpture
– whole idea moved through color, more horror on outside, inner – brightness of color, inner truth of hope.
Isenheim Altarpiece - Resurrection by Grunewald, 16th cen N Ren
- truly dead christ - twisted, ugly limbs/body, gangrene to skin, black dots starting to collect on skin 
- sfumatto lighting emphasizes horror and pain
- John Baptist - pointing at Christ, inscription of Christ the savior
- Mary Magdalene - hi-lighted against background, horror, body wrenches into different angles
- Mary the Virgin - falling back, paleness emphasized by white garmet
- Eucharist w/sacrificial lamb bleeding iinto chalice
- Lights highlighting dark river running in background of scene - idea of Baptism - St John represents washing away of sin
- sky has reddish tone - blood of christ
- inside: uplifting hope, use of gothic architecture, females painted in graceful manner, very realistic fall of drapery
- Mary - softer features, less defined, softer hair, textures 
- architectural setting, gothic architecture w/resurrection - christ rising from tomb, very radiant - looks like the sun, garmet = white sheet covering the body
- light used to dissolve form
- soldiers falling oddly
Isenheim Altarpiece – Resurrection by Grunewald, 16th cen N Ren
– truly dead christ – twisted, ugly limbs/body, gangrene to skin, black dots starting to collect on skin
– sfumatto lighting emphasizes horror and pain
– John Baptist – pointing at Christ, inscription of Christ the savior
– Mary Magdalene – hi-lighted against background, horror, body wrenches into different angles
– Mary the Virgin – falling back, paleness emphasized by white garmet
– Eucharist w/sacrificial lamb bleeding iinto chalice
– Lights highlighting dark river running in background of scene – idea of Baptism – St John represents washing away of sin
– sky has reddish tone – blood of christ
– inside: uplifting hope, use of gothic architecture, females painted in graceful manner, very realistic fall of drapery
– Mary – softer features, less defined, softer hair, textures
– architectural setting, gothic architecture w/resurrection – christ rising from tomb, very radiant – looks like the sun, garmet = white sheet covering the body
– light used to dissolve form
– soldiers falling oddly
Temptation of St Anthony by Grunewald, 16th Cen N Ren
- temptations going after him
Temptation of St Anthony by Grunewald, 16th Cen N Ren
– temptations going after him
Knight, Death, and the Devil by Durer, 16th Cen N Ren
- Engraving 
- Surface area
- Stable knight, n landscape, nature is more harsh, unforgiving
- dog = fidelity for christian knight representing fath, only armed with
- faith - Devil in backtal in mortality
- 'whole armor of god'
- Monumental in mortality
- 'whole armor of god'
- Monumental knight - strength and proportions, insporation around same 
- Intense deatil
- Hatching to make things fluid and gradual
Knight, Death, and the Devil by Durer, 16th Cen N Ren
– Engraving
– Surface area
– Stable knight, n landscape, nature is more harsh, unforgiving
– dog = fidelity for christian knight representing fath, only armed with
– faith – Devil in backtal in mortality
– ‘whole armor of god’
– Monumental in mortality
– ‘whole armor of god’
– Monumental knight – strength and proportions, insporation around same
– Intense deatil
– Hatching to make things fluid and gradual
The Four Horsemen from the Apocalypse by Durer, 16th Cen N Ren
– Religious and secular images limited, this opened doors
– More latitude – faster, cheaper, etc
– 4th of 14th from apocalyse
– Death, famine, war, pestilence represented by horsemen
– Death on ground – tramples over directly – inescapable, Christ > Catholic Church
– Death trampless of devition
– Overhead: Archangel Michael
– Foreshortening tech
– Figures described as angular, lots of right angles
Fall of Man by Durer, 16th cen n ren
- High musculature, smaller heads are important, attempt at softness,
- Eve - not really either N or S ideals, italian musculature subtly
- N Landscape setting
- Observational skills, very textured/ detil
- Iconography - animals represent 4 humors - personality 
- Greek idea of bodily fluids 
- tension of cat and mouse - relationship of adam and eve, tension,
- attempt at classical statuary - individualized features, engraving off of mocels, detailing
Fall of Man by Durer, 16th cen n ren
– High musculature, smaller heads are important, attempt at softness,
– Eve – not really either N or S ideals, italian musculature subtly
– N Landscape setting
– Observational skills, very textured/ detil
– Iconography – animals represent 4 humors – personality
– Greek idea of bodily fluids
– tension of cat and mouse – relationship of adam and eve, tension,
– attempt at classical statuary – individualized features, engraving off of mocels, detailing
Four Apostles by Durer, 16th Cen N Ren 
- Lutheran style, city fathers of Nuremberg, to be hung in city hall, personal attitude towards religion, supposed to personally viewed
-John, Peter, Mark, Paul 
- Title - misnomer - Mark as angelican
- St Peter church in Rome, placed behi d John, focused on bible along - lots Lutheran - Single truth - w/gospel excert 
-- Bottom - translations to italian, at nottom 
- falseness
- sioutyality 
- synnnnetrical ib sgiw okay
Four Apostles by Durer, 16th Cen N Ren
– Lutheran style, city fathers of Nuremberg, to be hung in city hall, personal attitude towards religion, supposed to personally viewed
-John, Peter, Mark, Paul
– Title – misnomer – Mark as angelican
– St Peter church in Rome, placed behi d John, focused on bible along – lots Lutheran – Single truth – w/gospel excert
— Bottom – translations to italian, at nottom
– falseness
– sioutyality
– synnnnetrical ib sgiw okay
The Great Piece of Turf by Durer, 16th Cen N Ren 
- watercolor
- observation, science!
- tribute must given to naute, beauty in even most humble things
- Heathrush, yarrow, dandelion, meadowgrass
- Depart not from nature according to your 
yarrow, dandelion, meadowgrass
- Depart not from nature according to your fancy, imagining to find better by yourself, for varily, art is embedded in nature. He who can extract it, has it.
The Great Piece of Turf by Durer, 16th Cen N Ren
– watercolor
– observation, science!
– tribute must given to naute, beauty in even most humble things
– Heathrush, yarrow, dandelion, meadowgrass
– Depart not from nature according to your
yarrow, dandelion, meadowgrass
– Depart not from nature according to your fancy, imagining to find better by yourself, for varily, art is embedded in nature. He who can extract it, has it.
Battle of Issus by Altdorfer, 16 Cen N Ren 
- defeat of Darius in 333 bce, by Alexander the Great @ Isus 
- Commissioned by Duke of Bavaria, against campaign of turks 
- image of current battle using past classical battle to represent what will happen 
- EXTREME DETAIL
- love of landscape, birds-eye-view of clashing armies, craggy mountain peaks, cosmological setting 
- E Meditteranean, view of Greece to Nile in Egypt 
- Sun setting over victorious Greeks
- Cresant moon - near east, hovers over retrating persians in left
Battle of Issus by Altdorfer, 16 Cen N Ren
– defeat of Darius in 333 bce, by Alexander the Great @ Isus
– Commissioned by Duke of Bavaria, against campaign of turks
– image of current battle using past classical battle to represent what will happen
– EXTREME DETAIL
– love of landscape, birds-eye-view of clashing armies, craggy mountain peaks, cosmological setting
– E Meditteranean, view of Greece to Nile in Egypt
– Sun setting over victorious Greeks
– Cresant moon – near east, hovers over retrating persians in left
The French Ambassadors by Holbein, 16th Cen N Ren
- light colors, do not weigh down
- official court painter of England 
- Signed w/full name
- Men present - ardent hymnists - open humanosts, venii spiritists
- Left: dagger in scabbard, enscription gives age, medalion of st michael - chivalry, resting near globe w/detailed image of France - Jean Le Gambi 
 - Right: George Bissell, leaning on book, age given, newly appointed bishop
- still life in middle - NW passage on globe
- book open to page 8 of book 3, teaches merchants how to divide, decimal 100 years early 
- Arithmetic, Geometry, Music, Astronomy .. 7 liberal arts as cornerstones total
 - broken lute = discord, religious strife of time, demonstrates latest tech, forefront of careers and essentially leaning
- floor - ornate mosaic design, westminster abby - high altar of learning
- distorted skull, position of perspective when from right position, looks at death in multiple ways 
- 16th cen philosophy of people of science vs church, fear of new ideas
- death as earthly gift, attained salvation 
- small crucifix in corner - ideal of mortality, transformed state of mind
The French Ambassadors by Holbein, 16th Cen N Ren
– light colors, do not weigh down
– official court painter of England
– Signed w/full name
– Men present – ardent hymnists – open humanosts, venii spiritists
– Left: dagger in scabbard, enscription gives age, medalion of st michael – chivalry, resting near globe w/detailed image of France – Jean Le Gambi
– Right: George Bissell, leaning on book, age given, newly appointed bishop
– still life in middle – NW passage on globe
– book open to page 8 of book 3, teaches merchants how to divide, decimal 100 years early
– Arithmetic, Geometry, Music, Astronomy .. 7 liberal arts as cornerstones total
– broken lute = discord, religious strife of time, demonstrates latest tech, forefront of careers and essentially leaning
– floor – ornate mosaic design, westminster abby – high altar of learning
– distorted skull, position of perspective when from right position, looks at death in multiple ways
– 16th cen philosophy of people of science vs church, fear of new ideas
– death as earthly gift, attained salvation
– small crucifix in corner – ideal of mortality, transformed state of mind
Francis I by Clouet, 16th Cen N Ren 
- painted background, heavy texturing of cloth, opulent dress
- worldly prince in brocades w/chain, pommel of dagger, order of st michael 
- sense of him - seems to be looking down at audience - sneaky/sly look
- open/relaxed hand position - no power or determination 
- great lover, gallant situations, so debonair
- cut off by frame, alludes to greatness as hero, suppresses modeling 
- lack of light and shadow for modeling
Francis I by Clouet, 16th Cen N Ren
– painted background, heavy texturing of cloth, opulent dress
– worldly prince in brocades w/chain, pommel of dagger, order of st michael
– sense of him – seems to be looking down at audience – sneaky/sly look
– open/relaxed hand position – no power or determination
– great lover, gallant situations, so debonair
– cut off by frame, alludes to greatness as hero, suppresses modeling
– lack of light and shadow for modeling
Money-Changer and his Wife by Quinten Massys, 16th Cen N Ren 
- exploration of styles and models
- detailed, observation .. fidelity to observable facts
- insight into mercantile practices - historical 
- netherlandic values, morés, belief systems
- part of secular life,
- material world - importance of moral, righteous life rather than materialism - wife w/prayer book, traditional religious symbols, wafer, candle (holy spirit), vignettes/storylines of balance between worldy existence and god's word directly
- vignettes: two men talking from window - idleness, gossip :(. Convex mirror - counteracts: man reading w/church behind. 
- original frame : 'Let balance be just, and weights equal'. - Professional conduct as well as last judgement eventually
Money-Changer and his Wife by Quinten Massys, 16th Cen N Ren
– exploration of styles and models
– detailed, observation .. fidelity to observable facts
– insight into mercantile practices – historical
– netherlandic values, morés, belief systems
– part of secular life,
– material world – importance of moral, righteous life rather than materialism – wife w/prayer book, traditional religious symbols, wafer, candle (holy spirit), vignettes/storylines of balance between worldy existence and god’s word directly
– vignettes: two men talking from window – idleness, gossip :(. Convex mirror – counteracts: man reading w/church behind.
– original frame : ‘Let balance be just, and weights equal’. – Professional conduct as well as last judgement eventually
Meat Still Life by Aertsen, 16th Cen N Ren
- Genre (everyday) scene - array of meats: side of hog, intestines, meat pies, animal heads, entrails, chickens. Also: fish, pretzels, cheese, butter, stragically placed moral images.
- Back: Joseph leading Donkey and Mary, stops to offer alms to beggar and son, group of people going to church (vignettes)
- Fish crossed = Christ - crucifixion
- Pretzel - served as bread during lent
- Wine - eucharist
All spiritual foods 
- Contrasted w/life of gluttony, lust, sloth. Right: people eating, crowding, etc :l 
- Oyster and mussel shells - aphrodesiac - succumbing to lust
Meat Still Life by Aertsen, 16th Cen N Ren
– Genre (everyday) scene – array of meats: side of hog, intestines, meat pies, animal heads, entrails, chickens. Also: fish, pretzels, cheese, butter, stragically placed moral images.
– Back: Joseph leading Donkey and Mary, stops to offer alms to beggar and son, group of people going to church (vignettes)
– Fish crossed = Christ – crucifixion
– Pretzel – served as bread during lent
– Wine – eucharist
All spiritual foods
– Contrasted w/life of gluttony, lust, sloth. Right: people eating, crowding, etc :l
– Oyster and mussel shells – aphrodesiac – succumbing to lust
Bruegel Elder
– high background
– interplay of human and nature
– art as mechanism of speaking out
– peasants deserving of depiction because they’re without exaggeration, more honest and true
– secular side mostly
– social comments
– bitter near death at religious hoo-ha
Hunters in the Snow by Bruegel, 16th cen N Ren
- Part of group depicting seasons
- cold, harsh winters
- peasants - satirical look at society
- grey to represent cold, chill
- lines like chinese landscapes, utilization of line for spacial recessions
- reddish browns to draw eyes, make path, fade out into distance 
- warm colors create temperature in painting
- huge amount of detail, so minaturistic 
- suffering w/out food - still trying to enjoy life - strength of peasants 
- birds flying - symbolic of idea of hope on its way as spring arrives - allusions to Holland will avoid oppression
Hunters in the Snow by Bruegel, 16th cen N Ren
– Part of group depicting seasons
– cold, harsh winters
– peasants – satirical look at society
– grey to represent cold, chill
– lines like chinese landscapes, utilization of line for spacial recessions
– reddish browns to draw eyes, make path, fade out into distance
– warm colors create temperature in painting
– huge amount of detail, so minaturistic
– suffering w/out food – still trying to enjoy life – strength of peasants
– birds flying – symbolic of idea of hope on its way as spring arrives – allusions to Holland will avoid oppression
Netherlandish Proverbs by Bruegel, 16th Cen N Ren
- so many proverbs - more than 100, detailed and clever imagery - netherlandish 
- birds' eye view 
- complexity, demands close scrutiny, teaches people how to live moral life through the proverbs. 
- study of human nature and condition
- teaching morality
Netherlandish Proverbs by Bruegel, 16th Cen N Ren
– so many proverbs – more than 100, detailed and clever imagery – netherlandish
– birds’ eye view
– complexity, demands close scrutiny, teaches people how to live moral life through the proverbs.
– study of human nature and condition
– teaching morality
The Peasant Dance by Bruegel, 16th cen N Ren
- Reddish browns = warmth
- encourages viewer participation
- peasants have literally not a care, no real focus, just glee
- strong but simplified model figure, silhouettes
- robust qualities
- trying to teach mores of culture, contradicts idea of his respecting the lower classes
- backs turned to church, no one cares about madonna, guy wearing peacock feather = vanity, couple kissing in public, people playing music, fight breaking out
- music is way to devil
- festival celebrating saint, pretext for people to indulge in sin
The Peasant Dance by Bruegel, 16th cen N Ren
– Reddish browns = warmth
– encourages viewer participation
– peasants have literally not a care, no real focus, just glee
– strong but simplified model figure, silhouettes
– robust qualities
– trying to teach mores of culture, contradicts idea of his respecting the lower classes
– backs turned to church, no one cares about madonna, guy wearing peacock feather = vanity, couple kissing in public, people playing music, fight breaking out
– music is way to devil
– festival celebrating saint, pretext for people to indulge in sin
Escorial (Aerial View) by Herrera, 16th Cen N Ren
- Rugged terrain surrounding mausoleum, church, monastary, palace. Gridlike plan for huge complex, way huge
- Grid plan - grid iron of St Laurence who was martyred, patron sain of escorial
- Philip II's character - austere, cautious, passionate catholic, pride in dynasties, wanting to impose will on the world 
- insisted on simplistic design, severe, noble w/out arrogance, majestic w/out ostentation 
- result: doric order severity from classicism, grandeur of st peter's
- 3 entrances w/dominant central portal
- pediment, italian fasion, portico breaks severity of horizontal
- 4 massive square towers, punctuate corners, stress on central axis, later ties into baroque facade
- 2 portals, rises up, draws up focus side areas complex
- made of granite, hard to work with - lol philip - starkness and gravity - massive and austere, blocky walls, rounded arches, overwhelming strength and weight - collaboration of great kind, architect
Escorial (Aerial View) by Herrera, 16th Cen N Ren
– Rugged terrain surrounding mausoleum, church, monastary, palace. Gridlike plan for huge complex, way huge
– Grid plan – grid iron of St Laurence who was martyred, patron sain of escorial
– Philip II’s character – austere, cautious, passionate catholic, pride in dynasties, wanting to impose will on the world
– insisted on simplistic design, severe, noble w/out arrogance, majestic w/out ostentation
– result: doric order severity from classicism, grandeur of st peter’s
– 3 entrances w/dominant central portal
– pediment, italian fasion, portico breaks severity of horizontal
– 4 massive square towers, punctuate corners, stress on central axis, later ties into baroque facade
– 2 portals, rises up, draws up focus side areas complex
– made of granite, hard to work with – lol philip – starkness and gravity – massive and austere, blocky walls, rounded arches, overwhelming strength and weight – collaboration of great kind, architect
The Burial of Count Orgaz by El Greco, 16th Cen N Ren
- 16 by 12 feet, 300 years after death of Count Orgaz ? 
- buried in painting by Augustine and Steven (saints) miraculaous descent from heaven to bury count
- background filled with black-clad conquistadors, brought spain to new world
- great armada against protestant england/holland
- Black primer : all colors have greysih unndertone
- Top : celestial activities - mannerist - no focus on action, fugures distorted, dramatic draperies
- ghostly clouds, openinng to receive souls - emotion and drama compared to staticiity in dead, all about realism - links to sky moren realism 
- mystica, serious static reduction
The Burial of Count Orgaz by El Greco, 16th Cen N Ren
– 16 by 12 feet, 300 years after death of Count Orgaz ?
– buried in painting by Augustine and Steven (saints) miraculaous descent from heaven to bury count
– background filled with black-clad conquistadors, brought spain to new world
– great armada against protestant england/holland
– Black primer : all colors have greysih unndertone
– Top : celestial activities – mannerist – no focus on action, fugures distorted, dramatic draperies
– ghostly clouds, openinng to receive souls – emotion and drama compared to staticiity in dead, all about realism – links to sky moren realism
– mystica, serious static reduction
Fray Hortensio Felix Paravicino by El Greco, 16th cen N Ren, 
- For really smart friend, manneristic : elongation in hands especially
- grey-tone still, dark smouldering lood
- surrendered self to church is, this is portrait of soul 
- books = achievent jn academic
- constrasting garments - details
Fray Hortensio Felix Paravicino by El Greco, 16th cen N Ren,
– For really smart friend, manneristic : elongation in hands especially
– grey-tone still, dark smouldering lood
– surrendered self to church is, this is portrait of soul
– books = achievent jn academic
– constrasting garments – details

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Sara from Artscolumbia

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7 Renaissance
Artscolumbia
Artscolumbia
Proto-Renaissance
1300-1400 Advanced use of space, foreground mid, back. More depth between and in figures, Better use of light, better composition, not everything is centered, Use of figures in framing device. Focal point by gaze, leading lines from hills. More Color range, Fresco painting (wet paint into wet plaster) Still used halos, So
2017-09-06 05:43:14
7 Renaissance
$ 13.900 2018-12-31
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