1. What Are the Various Types of Security Risks that Can Threaten Computers?A computer security risk is any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computerhardware, software data, information, or processing capability. Computer security risks includecomputer viruses, unauthorized access and use, hardware theft, software theft, information theft, andsystem failure.
Safeguards are protective measures that can be taken to minimize or prevent theconsequences of computer security risks. A computer virus is a potentially damaging computerprogram designed to affect or infect a computer negatively by altering the way it works. Unauthorized access is the use of a computer or network without permission; unauthorized use isthe use of a computer or its data for unapproved or possibly illegal activities. An individual who triesto access a computer or network illegally is called a cracker or a hacker. Hardware theft,software theft, and information theft present difficult security challenges. The most common formof software theft is software piracy, which is the unauthorized and illegal duplication of copyrightedsoftware.Order now
A system failure is the prolonged malfunction of a computer. 2. How Does a Computer Virus Work and What Steps CanIndividuals Take to Prevent Viruses?A virus spreads when users share the host program to which the virus is attached. A virus canreplace the boot program with an infected version (boot sector virus), attach itself to a file (filevirus), hide within a legitimate program (Trojan horse virus), or use an application’s macrolanguage to hide virus code (macro virus). The virus is activated when a certain action takes place(a logic bomb) or at a specific time (a time bomb). Viruses can be prevented by installing anantivirus program, write-protecting a rescue disk or emergency disk, never starting a computerwith a disk in drive A, scanning floppy disks for viruses, checking downloaded programs, andregularly backing up files.
3. How Can a Computer Be Safeguarded?An antivirus program protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing anycomputer viruses found in memory. Access controls prevent unauthorized access and use bydefining who can access a computer, when they can access it, and what actions they can take. Physical access controls and common sense can minimize hardware theft. A software licenseaddresses software piracy by specifying conditions for software use. Encryption reducesinformation theft by converting readable data into unreadable characters.
Surge protectors anduninterruptable power supplies guard against system failure by controlling power irregularities. 4. Why Is Computer Backup Important and How Is It Accomplished?A backup is a duplicate of a file, program, or disk that can be used if the original is lost, damaged,or destroyed. In case of system failure or the discovery of corrupted files, the backup can be used torestore the files by copying the backed up files to their original location. Backup proceduresspecify a regular plan of copying and storing important data and program files.
Organizations canaccomplish a backup using one of, or combinations of, three methods: a full backup, whichduplicates all files; a differential backup, which duplicates only files changed since the last fullbackup; or an incremental backup, which duplicates only files changed since the last full orincremental backup. 5. What Are the Components of a Disaster Recovery Plan?A disaster recovery plan is a written plan describing the steps an organization would take torestore computer operations in the event of a disaster. A disaster recovery plan has four majorcomponents. An emergency plan specifies the steps to be taken immediately after a disasterstrikes. A backup plan details how an organization will use backup files and equipment to resumeinformation processing.
A recovery plan stipulates the actions to be taken to restore full informationprocessing operations. A test plan contains information for simulating different levels of disastersand recording an organization’s ability to recover. 6. What Are Issues Relating to Information Privacy?Information privacy refers to the right of individuals and organizations to deny or restrict thecollection and use of information about them. Information privacy issues include unauthorizedcollection and use of information and employee monitoring. Unauthorized collection and use ofinformation involves the compilation of data about an individual from a variety of sources.
The data iscombined to create an electronic profile that, without an individual’s permission, may be sold to otherorganizations. Employee monitoring involves the use of computers to observe, record, and reviewan individual’s use of a computer, including communications, keyboard activity, and Internet sitesvisited. 7. What Are Ethical Issues with Respect to the Information Age?Computer ethics are the moral guidelines that govern the use of computers and informationsystems. Unauthorized use of computer systems, software theft, and information privacy arefrequently discussed ethical issues.
Other important ethical issues are the responsibility forinformation accuracy and codes of conduct that help determine whether a specific computeraction is ethical or unethical. 8. What Are Internet-Related Security and Privacy Issues?Information transmitted over networks has a higher degree of security risk than information kept onan organization’s premises. On a vast network such as the Internet, the risk is even greater.
Toprovide secure data transmission, many Web browsers use Internet encryption methods such asSecure Socket Layers and digital signatures. The most discussed ethical issue concerning theInternet is the availability of objectionable material.