Tuberculosis is the infectious disease, that cause mortality worldwide and is the actual issue for worldwide health system.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease, that may presented in an active or a latent form. It affects a various body systems, but mostly a respiratory system. This disease is triggered by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is transmitted through the air; therefore, a person gets infected by an inhaled bacterium from a person with active form of TB, and who is presented with cough and sneezing. Person with a latent form usually asymptomatic, whereas the bacteria is inactive in the lungs. On another hand, a person with an active form of TB may show following symptoms: severe cough longer than two weeks, bloody cough and sputum, chest pain, weakness, weight loss, fever, chills, loss of appetite and night sweats. TB diagnosed by tuberculin skin test, X-ray, blood and sputum tests.
This infectious disease may cause the great complications within the whole body. Mostly it causes respiratory system problems, like shortness of breath, Pneumothorax, Pleural effusion; beside it may spread into other sites, causing cardiovascular, bone and joint complications; various kidney diseases; lymph node infections, spine tuberculosis, meningitis and other life threatening complications. Tuberculosis can be treated, latent form treated with Isoniazid, whereas the active form of TB treated with combination of several drugs, which includes antimicrobial and antibiotic. Also, treatment plan should include a good nutrition and extra rest (Badash & Horn, 2016).
Tuberculosis has impact on international communities. It is on a tenth-place disease causing the death worldwide (WHO, 2017). About 95% of mortality from TB occur in low-income countries. And, about 60% of TB incidents registered in India, China, Nigeria, Pakistan and South Africa (WHO, 2017).
The analysis of a disease involves use of the epidemiologic triangle concept. This concept consists of an agent (TB organism), the environment (demographic overcrowding, poor ventilation, poor sanitation) and host (malnutrition, chronic disease, suppressed immune system). Therefore, any shift in one of the factors causes a change in person’s health status equilibrium (Epidemiological triangle, n.d.). So, access to normal housing, lack of clean water, diseases like HIV and diabetes and other chronic diseases, the prevalence of drug-resistant TB contribute to higher risk of developing the tuberculosis.
Additionally, the significant influence on tuberculosis development has the social health determinants. Social determinants of health are the terms in the surrounding settings in which people are born, live, learn, work, play, and age that impact health, capabilities, quality of life outputs and health risks. Thus, the age, global inequalities in social and economic fields, living and environmental conditions, lack of access to healthy and nutritious food, low financial status, geographic and cultural burdens to health care access contribute to tuberculosis incidents within the international communities (Hargreaves et al., 2011).
To promote adequate monitoring and treatment, a population infected with TB has to be isolated if the TB in active form, should follow medication regimen, and be compliant with physician treatment plan. Also, the significance of the community nurses’ role shouldn’t be underestimated in prevention and in controlling TB. According the CDC (2017) 70% of case detection occurs due to nurses’ involvement. The community nurses are primary service in assessing population within the community. After the case was detected, and all appropriate assessment measurements and data collection performed, it gets reported. Next step is when treatment plan established by a physician and the health care plan determined accordingly. 85% of treatment success reported based on nurses’ involvement in treatment plan of TB patients (WHO,2017). Nurses provide physical, psychological and social help; monitor treatment and outcomes; records data and reports to health physicians; advocate for patients; and educate patients, their family and community about the TB disease, preventive measures, symptoms, risk, complications. Although, there is many challenges the community nurses to meet, like lack of best strategies, lack of study evidences, lack of appropriate training and materials (WHO,2017).
In prevention and protection of the United States, and promote in reducing the tuberculosis morbidity, important role placed on national and international agencies. One of the national agencies is National Tuberculosis Controllers Association (NTCA). The aim of this organization is to protect the public’s health by reducing and eliminating tuberculosis in the United States, through focused actions of federal, local and territorial programs (NTCA, 2017). To assist in elimination of TB, NTCA advocate TB control and elimination services in the US; counsel agencies and organizations on affective actions to control and eliminate TB at state, local and territorial levels; support and advocate for policies, and laws to promote TB elimination (NTCA,2017).
In conclusion, it is appropriate to restate that the communicable disease impact the populations health globally. It influences the socioeconomically the countries, as it is costly to diagnose, prevent, treat the tuberculosis, and eliminate the predisposing factors. Besides active cases of TB, there are challenging triggers, that cannot be fixed in a matter of time. Poverty, lack of healthy living environment, economic recession, lack of availability to access adequate health care are still significant issues to be solved.
Badash, M. M., & Horn, D. F. (2016). Tuberculosis (TB). Salem Press Encyclopedia of Health,
Hargreaves, J. R., Boccia, D., Evans, C. A., Adato, M., Pettigrew, M., & Porter, J. D. (2011). The Social Determinants of Tuberculosis: From Evidence to Action. American Journal of Public Health, 101(4), 654-662. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2010.199505
World Health Organization. (2017). Tuberculosis: response funding. Retrieved April 2, 2017 from, http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/gtbr15_main_text.pdf
Epidemiologic triangle model of disease causation. (n.d.). Retrieved April 02, 2017, from http://www.umncphp.umn.edu/preparedness/site/lesson1/screen4.htm
NTCA. (2017). Retrieved April 03, 2017, from http://www.tbcontrollers.org/ntca-2/#.WOHUEYWcFPY