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Sustainable Acoustic Absorption Panel Utilizing Local Natural Cellulose Fibers Essay

Sustainable Acoustic Absorption Panel Utilizing Local Natural Cellulose Fibers

Abstract. Current popular attack in the research and development of the acoustic soaking up panel is to replace man-made fibres that may be risky to wellness and environment with natural fibres that are inexpensive and has no inauspicious impact on wellness and the environment. The purpose of this research is to look into the sound soaking up coefficient of three different local natural cellulose fibres ; maize hazelnut, oil thenar empty fruit clump, rice straw, sugar cane bagasse and rice chaff. Local fibres on its ain or combined were assorted with phenol methanal rosin. Compacted unit of ammunition shaped samples of 100 millimeters and 28 millimeters O with 12 millimeters thickness at 600 kg/cm3of denseness were produced before tested for sound soaking up coefficient by utilizing the electric resistance tubing method in conformity with BS EN ISO 10534-2:2001 criterion demands. The consequences obtained indicate that oil thenar empty fruit clump ( OPEFB ) , coir and rice chaff gave better soaking up coefficient value than the others. Meanwhile combination of rice chaff: sugar cane bagasse, rice straw: OPEFB and maize hazelnut: coir at certain mix ratios improved the soaking up coefficient of sugar cane bagasse, rice straw and maize hazelnut when being assorted together. This suggests a potency of using local natural cellulose fibres as sustainable and environmentally friendly acoustic soaking up panel.

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Keywords:Local natural cellulose fibres, maize hazelnut, oil thenar empty fruit clump, rice straw, sugar cane bagasse, rice chaff, acoustic soaking up panel

Introduction

Presents, the construct of green and sustainable engineering has become the major high spot in assorted Fieldss in the industry. For acoustic soaking up panel, the usage of traditional stuffs such as man-made fibres becomes a major concern to the society due to its harmful effects on human wellness. Researchers invariably review alternate stuffs which are more sustainable and environmentally friendly as replacements to bing natural stuffs. As consequences, there have been legion research attempts made by research workers to use natural cellulose fibres to develop constructing constituents such as acoustic panel which less inauspicious impact to the environment and human wellness. Natural fibres has a batch of advantages compared to the man-made fibres such as renewable, non-abrasive, cheaper, copiousness and less wellness and safety concern during managing and treating due to its really low toxicity ( Razak et al. ( 1988 ) ; D’Alessandro and Pispola ( 2005 ) ; Zulkifli et Al. ( 2009 ) ) .

Previous local researches have suggested some natural cellulose fibres which have high potency to be applied as alternate stuffs of sound absorbing stuffs. Rice straw was reported suited for acoustic panel because of its good acoustic public presentation. Abdullah et Al. ( 2013 ) investigated dried rice straw assorted with methylcellulose as binder and found that rice straw absorber has comparable public presentation compared to the commercial glass wool absorber as it recorded good acoustic public presentation above 1500 kilohertz with mean absorption coefficient of 0.8. Putra et Al. ( 2012 ) studied on the acoustic belongingss of sugar cane waste fibres and found that the fibre produced good acoustic public presentation and was comparable against the classical man-made absorbers as it recorded mean soaking up coefficient of 0.65 at 1200 – 4500Hz. Furthermore, Mahzan et Al. ( 2009 ) investigated the potency of rice chaff reinforced composite as sound absorber. The consequence demonstrated that rice chaff was superior to rubber atoms and wood shaved, as it recorded highest soaking up coefficient of 0.89 at 250Hz. Fouladi et Al. ( 2013 ) found that coir and maize fibre has immense potency to be used as sound absorber as it recorded better soaking up coefficient against rug, plyboard and curtain.

The focal point point of this research is to analyze the sound soaking up coefficient of six different cellulose fibres ; maize hazelnut, oil thenar empty fruit clump, rice straw, sugar cane bagasse and rice chaff whether on its ain or in combination with the same thicknesses and denseness of 12 millimeters and 600 kg/cm3severally ( see Table 2 ) . Possibly, findings from this research, would give another position and thought to use local natural cellulose fibres as natural stuff for sustainable acoustic soaking up panel.

Methodology

a ) Materials

  1. Corn Cob – a byproduct from the nucleus portion of the maize to which the grains are attached. Corn Cobs used in this research were obtained around Klang Valley.
  2. Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch ( OPEFB ) – a byproduct generated from the palm oil industry. OPEFB was obtained from palm oil mill located in Sepang, Selangor.
  3. Rice Straw – a byproduct of agricultural activity and identified as an agricultural waste merchandise which rarely being disposed by firing. Rice straw was obtained from paddy field in Machang, Kelantan.
  4. Coir – a by-productfrom thehuskof thecoconut,which is between the difficult inner shell and the outer coat. Coir was obtained from Batu Pahat, Johor.
  5. Rice Husk – a byproduct from the outermost bed of Paddy grain that is separated from the rice grains during the milling procedure. Rice chaffs were obtained at BERNAS rice factory at Tiram Jaya, Tanjong Karang
  6. Sugarcane Bagasse ( SCB ) – a byproduct that remains aftersugarcanestalks are crushed to pull out their juice, SCB used in this research was obtained around Klang Valley.
  7. Phenol methanal rosin ( PL-60M ) – acts as adhesives to adhere the stuffs and supply lastingness under heat, high humidness, and outside exposure conditions. PL-60M was supplied by Malayan Adhesives and Chemicals Sdn. Bhd.
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Table 1: Chemical composing of stuffs

Chemical Components

Material/Dry Solid ( % )

( a )Rice Straw

( B )OPEFB

( degree Celsius )Corn Cob

( vitamin D )Coir

( vitamin E )Rice Husk

( degree Fahrenheit )SCB

Cellulose

33.4

51.28

41.27

68.9

28.6

35.2

Hemicellulose

28.2

28.18

46.00

16.8

28.6

25.5

Lignin

7.4

15.17

7.40

32.1

24.4

22.2

( a ) Heet Al. ( 2008 ) ( B ) Ariffin et Al. ( 2008 ) ( degree Celsius ) Satimanont et Al. ( 2012 ) ( vitamin D )Asasutjarit et Al. ( 2007 )( vitamin E ) Di Blasiet Al. ( 1999 )( degree Fahrenheit )Rezendeet Al. ( 2011 )

B ) Samples readying and proving

The natural stuffs of maize hazelnut, oil thenar empty fruit clump, rice straw, sugar cane bagasse and rice chaff were dried out and oppress. Then dried fibres were assorted and blended with phenol methanals rosin ( PL-60M ) in conformity to blend design composing ( see Table 2 ) and compressed utilizing cold imperativeness and hot imperativeness method to organize solid and strong acoustic soaking up panel. The force per unit area of cold pressure procedure was set at 10 Psi. Meanwhile, for hot pressure procedure, the panels were pressed at 170°C at four different force per unit areas ; 80 kg/cm3, 50 kg/cm3, 20 kg/cm3and 20 kg/cm3severally. To bring forth unit of ammunition shaped samples, cutting procedure was done by utilizing the air compaction cutter with two different diameters in conformity to impedance tube diameter of 100 and 28 millimeters for low and high frequence measurings, severally. The sound soaking up coefficient of the samples was measured utilizing electric resistance tubing method in conformity with BS EN ISO 10534-2:2001. The frequence ranges for proving were 250 – 4000 Hz.

Table 2: Mix design composing

Material

Sample

Ratio ( % )

Density ( kg/cm3)

Resin

Corn Cob

AP1

100

600

PL-60M

Coir

AP2

100

600

PL-60M

Rice Straw

AP3

100

600

PL-60M

Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch ( OPEFB )

AP4

100

600

PL-60M

Rice Husk

AP5

100

600

PL-60M

Sugarcane Bagasse ( SCB )

AP6

100

600

PL-60M

Corn Cob: Coir

AP7

50:50

600

PL-60M

AP8

70:30

600

PL-60M

AP9

30:70

600

PL-60M

Rice Straw: OPEFB

AP10

50:50

600

PL-60M

AP11

70:30

600

PL-60M

AP12

30:70

600

PL-60M

Rice Husk: SCB

AP13

50:50

600

PL-60M

AP14

70:30

600

PL-60M

AP15

30:70

600

PL-60M

Figure 1: ( a ) Cold pressing procedure ( B ) Hot pressing procedure ( degree Celsius ) Cutting Procedure

( vitamin D ) Impedance tubing trial

Result and Discussion

The acoustic soaking up coefficient for the natural cellulose fibres on its ain are stipulated in the Figure 2 ( a ) . Most of the samples absorbed more sound at higher scope of frequence except for sample AP1 and AP3 which decreased bit by bit at higher frequence ranges ( 2000-4000 Hz ) . Sample AP4 and AP5 recorded the highest soaking up coefficient at both lower frequence ranges ( 250-1000 Hz ) and higher frequence scope ( 2000-4000 Hz ) . Meanwhile, sample AP6 attained the lowest soaking up coefficient values at lower frequence scope and sample AP1 at higher frequence scope.

Figure 2 ( B ) shows the soaking up coefficient of assorted natural cellulose fibres at 50:50, 70:30 and 30:70 ratios. Samples AP7, AP10, AP12, AP13, AP14 and AP 15 showed maximal soaking up capacity at higher frequence scope. Meanwhile, samples AP8, AP9, AP11 decreased bit by bit after go throughing 2000 Hz. Sample AP14 attained the highest soaking up coefficient at both lower and higher frequence ranges. On the other manus, sample AP9 showed the lowest soaking up coefficient values at lower and higher frequence scope.

Blending the natural cellulose fibres together at 50:50, 70:30 and 30:70 ratios give both positive and negative effects on its sound soaking up capacity. For case, figure 2 ( degree Celsius ) illustrates that, when maize hazelnut and coir were being assorted together at 50:50 and 70:30 of ratios it gives better sound soaking up capacity than maize hazelnut on its ain as it recorded higher soaking up coefficient of 0.19 at 4000 Hz for sample AP7 and 0.16 at 2000 Hz for sample AP8. At 30:70 ratio, there was no betterment on the soaking up capacity of the sample ( sample AP9 ) as it recorded lower soaking up coefficient at all frequence scope than maize hazelnut ( sample AP1 ) and coir ( sample AP2 ) on its ain. Coir on its ain ( sample AP2 ) possessed the highest soaking up coefficient value than the others.

Meanwhile, for rice straw and OPEFB, 30:70 ( sample AP12 ) and 50:50 ( sample AP10 ) mix ratios gives better soaking up coefficient values than rice straw on its ain ( sample AP3 ) as it recorded satisfactory soaking up coefficient values of 0.34 and 0.29 at 4000 Hz severally. Rice straw and OPEFB at 70:30 ratio ( sample 11 ) gives inauspicious consequence on its soaking up capacity as it recorded the lowest soaking up coefficient than the other samples. On the other manus, OPEFB on its ain ( sample AP4 ) recorded the highest soaking up coefficient value than the others as shows in figure 2 ( vitamin D ) .

Mixed rice chaff and sugar cane bagasse at 70:30 and 50:50 of mix ratio besides improved the soaking up capacity when compared to sugarcane bagasse on its ain. At 70:30 ( sample AP14 ) and 50:50 ( sample AP13 ) mix ratios, optimal soaking up coefficient of 0.38 and 0.28 both at 4000 Hz were recorded as sugar cane bagasse on its ain ( sample AP6 ) merely recorded 0.17 of optimal soaking up coefficient at 4000 Hz. Rice Husk: sugar cane bagasse at 30:70 of mix ratio ( sample AP15 ) attained the lowest soaking up coefficient as it recorded merely 0.13 of soaking up coefficient value ( see figure 2 ( vitamin E ) ) .

Based on analytical observation of obtained consequences, most of the samples recorded lower and unsatisfactory soaking up coefficient except samples made from OPEFB and rice chaff. This may be due to its less porous feature and thicker fibre size, which affect it absorption coefficient. Seddeq ( 2009 ) suggested that porousness and fiber size dramas an of import function in sound soaking up of hempen stuff as porous stuff and thin fibre size addition sound soaking up which allows more moving ridges to go through through them. Apart from that, the soaking up of the natural cellulose fibres can be improved by increasing the thickness of the natural fiber bed which will increase soaking up at lower frequences. Furthermore, the soaking up belongingss of natural fibres can besides be increased by increasing the majority denseness of the stuff. Natural fibres seem to supply better soaking up belongingss because of increased majority denseness due to excess matrix stuff ( Al Rahman et al. , 2013 ) .

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Table 2: Absorption coefficients of natural cellulose fibres

Sample

Frequency ( Hz ) /Absorption coefficient

250

500

1000

2000

4000

AP1

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.08

0.06

AP2

0.04

0.09

0.12

0.21

0.23

AP3

0.05

0.08

0.12

0.27

0.18

AP4

0.09

0.12

0.25

0.37

0.63

AP5

0.08

0.09

0.39

0.5

0.54

AP6

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.1

0.17

AP7

0.07

0.1

0.17

0.18

0.19

AP8

0.03

0.04

0.1

0.16

0.06

AP9

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.06

0.04

AP10

0.03

0.05

0.11

0.16

0.29

AP11

0.04

0.05

0.07

0.1

0.07

AP12

0.07

0.12

0.25

0.28

0.34

AP13

0.08

0.09

0.11

0.2

0.28

AP14

0.11

0.12

0.31

0.38

0.38

AP15

0.05

0.05

0.08

0.11

0.13

Decision

Several local natural cellulose fibres were utilized as acoustic soaking up panel in this survey. The consequences illustrated that these local cellulose fibres has relevant acoustic soaking up and would be a feasible replacement for industrial merchandises. These new findings hopefully would give another position to the development of sustainable acoustic soaking up panel which is more environmental friendly.

Recognition

The writers would wish to thank Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Oceancash Felts Sdn Bhd for their proficient support and Universiti Teknologi MARA ( UiTM ) Research Acculturation Grant Scheme 600-RMI/RAGS 5/3 ( 32/2012 ) for patronizing this research.

Mentions

  1. Abdullah Y. , Putra A. , Efendy H. , Farid W. M. and Ayob M. R. Investigation On Sound Absorption Coefficient Of Natural Paddy Fibers International Journal Of Renewable Energy Resources 3 ( 2013 ) 8-11
  2. Al Rahman L.A, Raja R.I. and Rahman A.R. Experimental Study On Natural Fibers For Green Acoustic Absorption Materials American Journal of Applied Sciences 10 ( 10 ) : 1307-1314, 2013 ISSN: 1546-9239
  3. Ariffin, H. , Hassan, M. A. , Umi Kalsom, M. S. , Abdullah, N. , Ghazali, F. M. , & A ; Shirai, Y. ( 2008 ) . Production of bacterial endoglucanase from oil thenar empty fruit clump by Bacillus Pumilus EB3. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering,3, 231-2236.
  4. Asasutjarit, C. , Hirunlabh, J. , Khedari, J. , Charoenvai, S. , Zeghmati, B. , and Shin, U. C. Development of coconut coir-based lightweight cement board. ” Construction and Building Materials ( 2007 ) , 21 ( 2 ) , 277-288
  5. BS EN ISO 10534-2:2001, 2001, Acoustics – Determination of sound soaking up coefficient and electric resistance in electric resistance tubings – Part 2, Transfer-function method.
  6. D’Alessandro, F. and Pispola G. 2005. Sound soaking up belongingss of sustainable hempen stuffs in an enhanced echo room. Paper presented in The 2005 Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 07-10 August.
  7. Di Blasi, C. , Buonanno, F. and Branca, C. 1999. Responsivenesss of some biomass chars in air. Carbon. 37 ( 8 ) , 1227-1238.
  8. Fouladi, M.H. , Nassir, M.H. , Ghassem, M. , Shamel, M. , Yeng Peng, S. , Yi Wen, S. , Zong Xin, P. and Mohd Nor, M.J. Utilizing Malaysian Natural Fibers as Sound Absorber. In, Modeling and Measurement Methods for Acoustic Waves and for Acoustic Microdevices. InTech, ISBN: 978-953-51-1189-4, pp.161-170, 2013.
  9. He Y. , Pang Y, Liu Y, Li X. and Wang K. Physicochemical Characterization of Rice Straw Pretreated with Sodium Hydroxide in the Solid State for Enhancing Biogas Production Energy & A ; Fuels 2008, 22, 2775–2781
  10. Mahzan S, Ahmad Zaidi A.M. , Ghazali M.I. , Yahya M.N. and. Ismail M. Investigation on sound soaking up of rice-husk reinforced composite.In: Proceedings of MUCEET2009 Malaysian Technical Universities Conference on Engineering and Technology, 20-22 June 2009, MS Garden, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia.
  11. Putra A. , Abdullah Y. , Efendy H. , Farid W.M. , Ayob M.R. and Py M.S. Using Sugarcane Wasted Fibers as a Sustainable Acoustic Absorber Procedia Engineering vol. 53 p. 632-638
  12. Razak A. , M.A. , Khoo, K.C. , and Khozirah, S. 1988. Prospects and Potential Of The Oil Palm Trunk as a Beginning Of Lignocellulosic Raw Material, The Malayan Forester, Vol 51 ( 3 ) :164-175.
  13. Rezende et Al. Chemical And Morphological Characterization Of Sugarcane Bagasse Submitted To A Delignification Process For Enhanced Enzymatic Digestibility Biotechnology for Biofuels 2011,4:54
  14. Sassine Y.N. , Ghora Y. , Kharrat M. , Bohme M. and Abdel-Mawgoud A.M.R. Waste Paper as an Alternative for Casing Soil in Mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) Production’ Journal of Applied Sciences Research 1 ( 3 ) : 277-284, 2005
  15. Seddeq H.S. Factors Influencing Acoustic Performance of Sound Absorptive Materials Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3 ( 4 ) : 4610-4617, 2009 ISSN 1991-8178
  16. Zulkifli, R. , Mohd Nor, M.J. , Ismail, A.R. , Nuawi, M.Z. , Abdullah, S. , Mat Tahir, M.F. , Ab Rahman, M.N. Comparison belongingss between coir fiber and oil thenar fiber. European Journal of Scientific Research. 2009. Vol. 33, No 1, pp 144-152.

Figure 2 ( a ):Absorption Coefficient of cellulose fiber for 100 % mix ratio

Figure 2 ( B ):Absorption Coefficient of cellulose fiber for 50:50, 70:30 and 30:70 mix ratio

Figure 2 ( degree Celsius ):Absorption Coefficient of maize hazelnut and coir for 100, 50:50, 70:30 and 30:70 mix ratios

Figure 2 ( vitamin D ):Absorption Coefficient of rice straw and OPEFBfor 100,50:50, 70:30 and 30:70 mix ratios

Figure 2 ( vitamin E ):Absorption Coefficient of rice chaff & A ; sugarcane bagasse for 100, 50:50, 70:30 and 30:70 mix ratios

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Sustainable Acoustic Absorption Panel Utilizing Local Natural Cellulose Fibers Essay
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Sustainable Acoustic Absorption Panel Utilizing Local Natural Cellulose Fibers

Abstract. Current popular attack in the research and development of the acoustic soaking up panel is to replace man-made fibres that may be risky to wellness and environment with natural fibres that are inexpensive and has no inauspicious impact on wellness and the environment. The purpose of this research is to look into the sound soaking up coefficient of three different local natural

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Sustainable Acoustic Absorption Panel Utilizing Local Natural Cellulose Fibers Essay
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