The federal government will provide local school districts with incentives to change the starting time of the secondary schools to a time that fits with adolescents’ biological need to sleep.
Sleep deprivation Essay LOWERS THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF AMERICAN ADOLESCENTS.
A. The vast majority of adolescents suffer from sleep deprivation.
Mart Carkadon (Prof.
, Psychiatry, Brown U. Med. Center Jan. 99, 352
“The problem of inadequate sleep affects more segments of our society than adolescents; however, adolescents appear to be particularly vulnerable and face difficult challenges for obtaining sufficient sleep. Even without the pressure of biological changes, if we combine an early school starting time – say 7:30 am., which, with a modest commute, makes 6:15 am the rising time – with our knowledge that optimal sleep is 9 hours, we are asking that 16-year-olds go to bed at 9 p.
m. Rare is the teenager of the 1990’s who will keep such a schedule.
B. Sleep deprivation results in reduced academic achievement.
Ronald Dahl (Prof., Psychiatry, U.
Pittsburgh Medical Center Jan 99 356
“The most obvious and direct effect of inadequate sleep is a feeling of sleepiness. Sleepiness is most problematic during periods of low stimulation, such as the classroom, when reading or driving, or when doing repetitive activities. Highly stimulating activities – particularly those involving physical activity or emotional arousal – can often mask moderate levels of sleepiness. Thus many sleep-deprived adolescents report that they can stay out very late at night and not feel tired, whereas if they were to lie quietly reading a book, they would fall asleep in minuets.
C. Teens need more sleep
Mary Carskadon of Brown University’s School of Medicine
Contrary to popular belief, teenagers do not need less sleep than others.
In fact, as they move through their teenage years, adolescents need increasing amounts of sleep. Reports show that teenagers need nine hours of sleep nightly, compared to the eight hours needed by adults. Excessive sleepiness in teenagers and young adults is related to physiological changes during puberty.
D. More sleep equals better academics
University of Minnesota, School start time study 1998
As teenagers move through teenage years, they need increasing amounts of sleep. Nine hours per night is the necessary amount to avoid behaviors associated with sleep deprivation.
Risks with teenage sleep deprivation include mood or behavior problems, increased potential for drug and alcohol use, and vulnerability for accidents. 20% of all high school students fall asleep in school. Over 50% of students report being most alert after 3:00 PM. Additional weekend sleep does not ameliorate this negative effect. Students who evidence a sleep lag syndrome correspond to those having poorer grades.
Students have no power over sleep because of their biological clock
1. National Sleep Foundation, Dozing off in class, 1999
“Our research has shown that biological changes during puberty affect and adolescents internal sleep-wake clock. Many adolescents are physiologically not ready to fall asleep until 10:00 PM or later. The average teen needs about 9 hours of sleep, but many students sleep less than seven hours, in part because they need to get to school by the 7:30 am or earlier start time. As a result, many teens experience problem sleepiness durring the day.”
Stanford U. Study on Adolescent Sleep.
Studies show that the changes taking place in their bodies requires more sleep and they may be physically challenged to get up early in the morning. Their internal biological clock may slow down in adolescents. That can account for their not being sleep until 2 am.
Mary Carskadon expert on adolescent sleep and a professor at Brown
“School is starting at a time when their brains are still on their pillows They’re just not there.”
B. William Dement Stanford University professor
“Twenty years ago, kids were alert and energetic all day long. Now they’re
falling asleep in class, that’s a tragedy — a recent tragedy.”
1. Starting school later causes an increase in achievement
University of Minnesota, School start time study, 1999
In another study on time of day, Barron, Henderson & Spurgeon, found that afternoon reading instruction produced the greatest increase in reading scores as compared to morning instruction. Perhaps due .