Outcome-based Education Denied Joan M. Montana, R. N. Outcome-based education Is the trend In today’s curriculum. It Is currently favored Internationally In countries such as Canada, South Africa, New Zealand, and united States (Milan, 2004, cited by Butler, 2004). Outcome-based education encompasses learning at the students’ pace to achieve a desired outcome. It is defined by Chary (2003) as a method of curriculum design and teaching that focuses on what students can actually do after they are taught.Order now
Basically, it puts emphasis on measuring what the students have learned and understand after a rouser by not merely giving examinations but rather, activities that assess critical thinking of the students. In this light, outcome-based education is beneficial to our educational system In providing professional and competent workers. Biggs and Tang (2007) stated that It Is beneficial to the students since the learning outcome tell them precisely not only what they are supposing to be learning, but how and to what standard.
In the development of outcome-based education, educators studied the work of Carroll and Bloom. Carroll said that it was inappropriate to fix the time for study and expect variable learning results from students (Davis, 2003). Bloom developed Carol’s thinking into the notion of mastery learning, in which a fixed level of performance was to be achieved by students by changing the relationship between time and learning (Davis, 2003). From this, the underlying principle of outcome-based education was achieved in a sense that the learning became fixed and the time to achieve the learning became the variable.
The primary aim of outcome-based education Is to facilitate desired changes within the learners, by Increasing knowledge, developing skills and/or positively Influencing attitudes, values and Judgment (Butler, 2004). As a whole, It targets the cognitive, affective and psychosomatic domains of learning, thus, facilitating better understanding and retention of the topics learned. As stated by Killeen (2000), outcome-based learning is underpinned by three basic premises: All students can learn and succeed, but not all in the same time or in the same way.
Successful learning promotes even more successful learning. * Schools (and teachers) control the conditions that determine whether or not students are successful at school learning. Spade and his colleagues (cited by Lawson ; Easels-Williams, 2007) identifies four organizing principles of OBOE, namely: (1) clarity of focus; (2) designing back; (3) high expectation for all students; and (4) capability of the teachers to provide expanded opportunities to allow for achievement of outcomes In a variety of ways.
In clarity of focus, the learning outcomes – broad and specific – must be clearly Identified for the students; and all teaching and learning actively must be aligned with these outcomes. In designing back, the curriculum content should flow clearly from the most general valued outcomes, to the related, ore special outcomes, to class lesson actively. In Nell expectations Tort all students, it requires that successful and challenging learning experiences and achievement of high standards be part of learning for all students.
In the fourth principle, it is suggested that different learners may take different routes, and different amounts of time or different numbers of attempts, to achieve the same outcome. Moreover, visionary elements, proposed by Spade (cited by Lawson ; Easels-Williams, 2007) emphasized the need for educational leaders to engage in empowerment thinking, visionary thinking and future-focused thinking that looks to the world as it should be in the future. Killeen (2000) acknowledged the significance of using outcomes to guide instructional planning. He claimed that there are three major steps in an OBOE system.
These steps includes: deciding on the outcomes that students are to achieve; deciding how to assist students to achieve those outcome and deciding how to determine when students have achieved the outcomes. In addition, teaching strategies for OBOE is said to vary in numerous ways. Whatever approach to teaching will be used, it is important for educators to keep the following points in mind: * The main focus should be on learning rather than teaching Students cannot not learn when if they do not think * Thinking is facilitated and encouraged by the processes that were being used with the contents as well as by the content itself. The subject does not exist in isolation -educators should have to help students make links to other subject. * Educators have the main responsibility to help students learn how to learn. On the other hand, students also have responsibilities for learning in an OBOE system. Cookbook (1997, as cited by Killeen, 2000) suggest that “learners are responsible for their own learning and progress”. The principle acknowledges the fact that learning is ultimately a personal and an internal event. Students must be motivated if they are to learn.
Killeen (2000) summarized three main points in the importance of motivating: students need to know why they are learning whatever they are learning, they need to see some value in this learning, and they need to believe that they can be successful. Outcome-based education allows the students to learn independently at heir own pace, having an outcome to achieve at the end of the learning process. The teachers are merely facilitators of learning – guiding and assisting students to understand information and to transform it into their own personal knowledge.
Outcome-based education, as a trend in the present curriculum, has its advantages and disadvantages. Mostly, students would benefit from this system. As stated by Razorblades and Uncharismatic (2013), OBOE encourages self-directed learning and allow the students to have a meta-cognitive understanding of the educational program and their role in that process. It also helps students to become aware of what they should be learning, aware of what they are actually learning, and aware of the control that they have over their own learning (Killeen, 2000). In contrast to its benefits, critics of OBOE pointed out several disadvantages.
One is stated by Razorblades and Uncharismatic (2013) that OBOE conflicts with the wonderful, unpredictable voyages of exploration that characterize learning through discovery and inquiry. Another is that it is too technical or mechanical or inflexible such that innovation and creativity of the teachers would be killed. Furthermore, it emphasizes minimum levels of achievement and thus encourages mediocrity. However, these can De met Day OBOE In ten sense Tanat teachers would a De addle to practice Innovation Ana creativity in developing teaching strategies that would help the students achieve the outcomes.
In terms of mediocrity, OBOE emphasizes the principle of high expectations for all the students wherein the teacher must set the criteria for the outcomes. It can be said that one of the major disadvantage of OBOE is the burden to the teachers in terms of findings ways to help the students arrive at the desired outcomes. In inclusion, outcome based education upgrades the educational system in terms of student involvement in the learning process, and promotes higher level of functioning after the learning process.