Motivation is nil but an energiser of behaviour and female parent to all gestures. Motivation helps in finishing the occupation satisfactorily. It happens due to the factors like desire or demand, honor or outlooks of the person. ( Business Dictionary )
This paper fundamentally negotiations about Work Motivation which means a desire which helps motivates the individual in finishing his or her occupation.
Paper consists of the theories of motive invented and discussed by assorted writers and their positions on motive. A instance survey on Dominos related to this subject had besides been mentioned which will assist us in cognizing the subject better. I have chosen this subject because now wherever we see, motive of the employees has been of the major importance in the companies which in bend will assist them increase their turnover.
Motivation is now one of the of import subjects which one must understand to maintain their employees satisfied and happy.
Grazier provides a utile mention indicating that the outlook of a benefit is a major ground that person would be motivated to make something. “ Each twenty-four hours brings with it an eternal list of determinations to be made. The procedure of doing those determinations is driven, in big portion, by the hope of a benefit or the fright of a effect.
- 1 Litreature Review
- 2 Abraham Maslow ‘s Theory of Needs Hierarchy:
- 3 Clayton Alderfer ‘s Needs Theory ( ERG ) .
- 4 Frederick Herzberg ‘s Hygiene-Motivation Theory.
- 5 D. McClelland ‘s Acquired Needs Theory.
- 6 J. S. Adams Equity Theory.
- 7 Victor Vroom ‘s Expectancy Theory.
- 8 An Empirical Case
- 9 Analysis and Discussion
- 10 Decision
There are assorted theories on motive that have been discussed and invented to understand the subject better.
Some of the theories are as follows:
Abraham Maslow ‘s Theory of Needs Hierarchy.
Clayton Alderfer ‘s Needs Theory ( ERG ) .
Frederick Herzberg ‘s Hygiene-Motivation Theory.
D. McClelland ‘s Acquired Needs Theory.
J. S. Adams Equity Theory.
Victor Vroom ‘s Expectancy Theory.
I would wish to give a brief account to few of the theories mentioned above and about the writers ‘ sentiment on them.
Abraham Maslow ‘s Theory of Needs Hierarchy:
Abraham Maslow discovered this theory in the twelvemonth 1943 in his paper ‘A Theory of Human Motivation ‘ . ( Maslow ) He was an American Psychologist who developed this theory of Needs of Hierarchy. Harmonizing to him, there are five degrees of demands that an single must carry through and every following degree will actuate him to make the other degree of satisfaction.
Physiological Needs: these are the basic needs that an person would necessitate to last. So his first motivation is to carry through his demands like nutrient, vesture, shelter, instruction etc. So in order to stay satisfied, these demands must be met comparatively and repeatedly within proper interval of clip. This demand is prioritized among all the other demands mentioned below.
Safety Needs: Once the basic demands are certain to be fulfilled, a adult male will look for the safety and security of his organic structure, his household, occupation, wellness etc. what he truly cares about. After is certain of his safety he might desire to travel the other degree of love and belonging demands.
Love and belonging demands: After the adult male is certain of his safety, all he looks for his darling 1s around him. He would wish to be socially involved with his household, friends, relations and his colleagues excessively.
Esteem Needs: Self esteem demands include his demand for self-respect, regard by others, regard for others, accomplishment, adequateness, strength, freedom, repute and all that he aims for accomplishing his 2nd highest degree of satisfaction from his occupation. Once he reaches this degree, he is about satisfied with everything he possess.
Self-Actualization Needs: This is the last degree of what an person would woolgather of. Here, he aims of going the 1 he is really capable of. A individual might experience ungratified till all his capablenesss are taken into consideration. So at this point he may make everything he is genuinely capable of making. In existent life, such demands are felt by individuals with rare capablenesss and impulse of achieving this degree of demand.
So harmonizing to Maslow, these are the demands which will force an person to achieve his degree of capableness in making his occupation.
This theory is really practical in nature and his attack is really direct, general, easy to understand and clear-cut. But this theory does non hold any empirical way that is no practical cogent evidence and that it is non applicable everyplace. ( Banerjee )
Clayton Alderfer ‘s Needs Theory ( ERG ) .
This theory was found by Clayton Alderfer in 1969 which is a refined version of Maslow ‘s theory of demands. This theory is categorized into three degrees i.e Existence, Relatedness and Growth. It is a refined Maslow ‘s theory which is cut down from 5 degrees to 3 degrees.
a. Being: Psychological and Safety Needs.
b. Relatedness: Social and External Esteem Needs.
c. Growth: Self-Actualization and Internal Esteem Needs.
But unlike Maslow ‘s theory, ERG theory says that these evels can be attained at the same time and non after one another and that the order of the penchant would be different for different people. ( NetMba )
Frederick Herzberg ‘s Hygiene-Motivation Theory.
Frederick Herzberg discovered this theory in his findings of ‘The Work of Motivation ‘ in 1959. Harmonizing to him, there are assorted factors which cause satisfaction and dissatisfaction among the employees which motivated them or non to finish their occupation.
He developed Motivation-Hygiene factors to find these factors.
He called the Satisfiers-Motivators and Dissatisfiers-Hygiene factors.
Factors doing Satisfaction and dissatisfaction can non be termed as the complete antonyms of one another. The antonym of satisfaction will be ‘No ‘ satisfaction and non ‘Dissatisfaction ‘ .
Few factors that may take to Job Satisfaction can be the Incentives like Achievement. Satisfaction, Recognition, Responsibility, Growth etc..
Other factors which may take to Job Dissatisfaction can be the Hygiene Factors like Job security, working conditions, personal life etc.
Few of the critics for this theory states that two factor consequence is observed because one will take recognition for satisfaction and blasted dissatisfaction on external factors and besides that occupation satisfaction does non ever connote for high degree of motive. ( Herzberg )
D. McClelland ‘s Acquired Needs Theory.
The theory of demands was conceptualized by American Pschologist David McClelland during his work of Henry Murray. This theory was stated by him in 1961. it states that person has three dominant demands: Need for Achievement, Affiliation and Power.
a. Need for Accomplishment: This can be to the degree to which the person wants the disputing undertakings on a high degree. Some features of such people are that they want to hold success, positive feedback, high hazards, work with high winners, work entirely, etc. They are the best leaders but demand excessively much from their employees and staff.
B. Need for Affiliation: Here the people seek good dealingss with others. Some features can be like they want to be accepted or liked by others, high degree of trust and common apprehension, co-operation etc. These people undermine the determination devising and nonsubjective capableness of directors.
c. Need for Power: Such people are the Heads, who like to be incharged of everything. Such people enjoy competition, position oriented, act uponing others, leaders etc. They do non posses flexibleness accomplishments and are non much people oriented.
Unlike Maslow, McClelland did non give any passage phases, they can be prioritized harmonizing to the persons ‘ demands. Need for Achievement and Power are for the typical center and top directors. ( McClelland )
J. S. Adams Equity Theory.
This theory was developed by John Stacey Adams in 1963. This theory says that there should be a balance between employees ‘ inputs end products. An employee can be de-motivated if there is no balance between them. Input signals like their attempt, trueness, difficult work, committedness, ability, adaptability, tolerance, flexibleness, accomplishments. End products like their wage, benefit, acknowledgment, repute, duty, sense of accomplishment, sense of promotion, occupation security, congratulations.
Employees tend to compare themselves with others whose inputs are on similar base to cognize whether they are being treated reasonably. But it is non practically possible to handle everybody in the same manner in respect to their end products. It is non even possible for anyone to mensurate the inputs and the end products and give a just determination. In order to actuate the employees, a just determination has to be given to the employees to better their public presentation. In order to make so, the directors must understand the employees better attempt and give them the best possible out come harmonizing to what they expect.
The equity theory besides says that if the employees are to be motivated so it is clip for the directors to seek and supply the employees with wagess that are really much equal to their inputs every bit far as possible. ( Articles Base )
Victor Vroom ‘s Expectancy Theory.
Victor Vroom came up with this theory in the twelvemonth 1964. The theory holds a positive correlativity between attempts and public presentation. If favourable public presentation consequences in a desirable wages, A the wages satisfies an of import demand, and the desire to fulfill the demand remains strong plenty to drive public presentation ( Nayab ) . Persons may hold different set of ends but they are motivated if their beliefs are:
There is a positive correlativity between attempts and public presentation,
Favorable public presentation will ensue in a desirable wages,
The wages will fulfill an of import demand,
The desire to fulfill the demand is strong plenty to do the attempt worthwhile.
Therefore the theory negotiations about three beliefs:
a.Valance: These are the orientations in regard to the results may it be extrinsic or intrinsic ( Vroom ) . An result shows positive valency if the employee prefers holding the specified wages to non holding it. The result shows negative valency if the employee prefers to avoid such results. Outcomes to which the employees remain apathetic are zero valencies and neglect to actuate the employee ( Nayab ) .
b.Expectancy: It shows the different outlook degrees and their assurance of executing a occupation ( Vroom ) . It is the assurance of employees sing their ability to execute a undertaking, or the strength of an employee ‘s belief on the achievement of a undertaking ( Nayab ) .
c.Instrumentality: It ‘s the perceptual experience of the employee as to whether they will acquire what they really expect from the director and that director has to take attention that the outlooks of the employees are fulfilled ( Vroom ) .
An Empirical Case
The instance I have selected is on Dominos Pizza ‘s. This instance refers to the jobs of the employees faced in relation to the motive. There are a few jobs faced by them in the company due to miss of motive.
Domino ‘s Pizza is recognized as the universe ‘s prima pizza bringing company. It was founded in 1960. Their expertness and passion for presenting hot and fresh pizzas has earned them legion awards and the trueness of 1000000s of pizza lovers around the universe. There are overA 620 Domino ‘s Pizza shops in a turning figure of towns and metropoliss throughout England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland.
David Brandon was named Domino ‘s CEO in 1999, he went on a campaign to cut down Domino ‘s 158 % employee turnover rate. Brandon ‘s campaign has been a success. These yearss, Domino ‘s employee turnover rate hovers around an impressive 107 % ( Wall Street Journal )
There are some jobs which are faced by Dominos in holding a control or actuating their employees. Following jobs have been noticed in few of the articles.
Inequality in Wagess: Pizza-makers and telephone operators provide similar inputs as bringing drivers ; nevertheless, the bringing drivers receive less fiscal wages making unfairness ( free online research documents ) .
“ Without a steady foreman, workers there ( Domino ‘s ) aˆ¦aˆ¦.had a turnover rate every bit high as 300 % a twelvemonth ” . This indicates that old shop directors had experienced under-reward unfairness making a high turnover rate in employees ( free online research documents )
This job is a major issue in dominos where the end products as the payments are non every bit distributed among the employees which can be the biggest de-motivation for the employees working in at that place. This will non assist the employees in giving their 100 % in the occupation they do. Thus even due to the sloppiness of the shop director or the under-reward unfairness, the employees are go forthing the occupation and the turnover rate has gone up.
Boredom: This is due to the simple and sometimes insistent nature of working in the fast nutrient industry ( free online research documents ) .
Boredom is another major job in the occupation. If the work is non exciting and is humdrum, it is really obvious that the employee will non wish making the occupation he is given. So in the fast nutrient industry, the work given is really insistent and no opportunity of enlargement. So some alteration has to be brought about or some motivational factors should be taken into consideration to maintain the work traveling. This is one of the major jobs in dominos.
Lack of Employee Initiative: The nature of the undertakings associated with Domino ‘s employees, are so generic and simple that there is small range for employee enterprise which creates dissatisfaction ( free online research documents ) .
There should be some disputing occupations given to the employees in the company so that there is flow which keeps the employees feel that they are capable of making the occupation suitably. The work should be as that the employees themselves take the enterprise in making the occupation. But none of the occupations in Dominos are that disputing that the employees would desire to be a portion of it. It ‘s a major drawback in the Dominos.
Importance to the undertaking and non the employees: Worldwide Dominos is known best for its bringing time-30 proceedingss. So if the merchandise is non prepared or delivered on clip, the long term profitableness of the organisation will be affected. This can make less demand for the merchandise and finally decrease employee motive due to less on the job hours ( free online research documents ) .
Giving a batch of importance to the undertaking and non appreciating the work done by the employees is non at all expected. This will non at all motivate the employees in giving out their best. In Dominos, a batch of importance for the bringing clip is been given and non taken attention of the employees who do their occupation expeditiously. This has led to the dissatisfaction among the employees.
Deaths due to over force per unit area: By 1989 more than 20 deceases had occurred affecting Domino ‘s drivers, naming the company ‘s 30-minute bringing warrant into inquiry ( Funding Universe ) .
This shows that the employees or the bringing male child were so much pressurized for finishing their occupation on clip that led to deceases. This resulted in the highest employee turnover during that clip.
These were some of the jobs which I could happen in Dominos. In my ulterior portion of the survey, I will associate these jobs with the motivational theories by different writers, analyze it and come up with the suited solutions.
Analysis and Discussion
The analysis for the jobs mentioned supra will be discussed in relation to the theories mentioned in the literature reappraisal.
1. Inequallity in rewards: When we consider this job, the first we consider is the Maslow ‘s Theory of Needs Hierarchy. The first and the basic physiological demand are non being fulfilled. When an employee is non able to have the basic wage what is expected, it will non actuate him at all to force himself for the other degree of demand of safety and security and therefore will ne’er make his Self-Actualization demand.
Next we talk about is Adams Equity Theory. Harmonizing to this theory, there should be balance between employee ‘s inputs and end products. A misbalance will be created which will take to employee dissatisfaction. Therefore in this job, there is inequality of rewards, where the employees ‘ inputs are non given just end products . Some writers suggest that employees will see an emotional tenseness when they perceive unfairnesss, and, when sufficiently strong, the tenseness motivates them to cut down the unfairnesss ( Mcshane and Travaglione ) . Therefore due to these grounds if employee is de-motivated, me may discontinue the occupation. This is what ‘ has lead to high employee turnover rate in Dominos.
When adverting about Frederick Herzberg ‘s Hygiene-Motivation Theory, here the inequality in rewards will mention as to the hygiene factor which is a major dissatifier. When an employee is happy in the work he is making which contributes to his dissatisfaction at work, he may non desire to go on working in the same organisation. This might take in employees discontinuing the occupation and the company ‘s repute is at hazard
Even Victor Vroom ‘s Expectancy Theory has to lend in this by stating that if the outlook or the perceptual experience of the employees is non fulfilled, it may de-motivate him. So the expected result that is the salary expected by the employees should fit with the existent result that is given. This can move as a major incentive to the employees to make their occupation expeditiously.
Solution to these job can be given as harmonizing to The equity theory of motive, the fact that people are motivated foremost to accomplish and so to keep a sense of equity. Equity refers to the allotment of wagess in direct para to the part of each employee to the organisation ( Adams ) . So equal rewards must be given whose inputs are considered to be at the same degree. As in this instance, the pizza shapers and the bringing male child should be given equal rewards.
2. Boredom: This one of the major drawbacks in any fast nutrient industry. This is because there is really less range of enlargement in relation to the occupations assigned to the employees. The occupation is really simple and non much challenging. So the work gets truly humdrum and deadening. In Dominos, the employees are major under the class of pizza shapers and the bringing male child. Merely the hazard pickings will be in the manus of directors who are besides bound to follow the regulations by the Franchise.
Sing Frederick Herzberg ‘s Hygiene-Motivation Theory, ennui is one of the hygiene factors who act as the major dissatifier. If the employee is non interested and is bored of making the same occupation once more, he will non bask his work. This can move as a de-motivator and do the employees quit their occupation.
For this job, D. McClelland ‘s Acquired Needs Theory says that if the undertakings are non ambitious and are really simple to cover with, there is no sense for Need for Achievement. There are persons who set ends for themselves and look for the consequences in them ; they are high hazard takers etc. So if they do non acquire a opportunity to show their capablenesss, they get de-motivated. The behaviour of persons with a high demand of Achievement is explained by the fact that they talk a batch about ways to better things. Once they start believing in footings of ‘achievement ‘ , they will get down moving consequently ( Manea ) .
This job arises due to the simple and sometimes insistent nature of working in the fast nutrient industry. To increase the skill assortment for employees, the shop director can implement a occupation enrichment strategy that is designed to change by reversal the effects of undertakings that are insistent necessitating small liberty ( Fourman and Jones ) . This will assist the employees in maintaining involvement in their work and can avoid ennui.
3. Lack of Employee Initiative: This job arises when there is really small range for the employees to turn from one degree to another. In Dominos this job is really common due to the simple and generic work assigned to them. No disputing occupations are available for the pizza shapers and the bringing boys except for cookery and delivering, which has the least hazard and no growing chances.
As per Clayton Alderfer ‘s Needs Theory ( ERG ) , growing is one of the of import factors for work motive. If there is traveling to be no growing and the work is traveling to be stabilized all long, none of the employees would desire to work at that place. Everybody has an purpose and would desire to accomplish those.
Besides as per Abraham Maslow ‘s Theory of Needs Hierarchy, one will non able to accomplish his regard demands boulder clay there is any growing or initiative taken to accomplish them. If one do non hold a opportunity to accomplish his demands, he will non be motivated to make his occupation. Till there is no factor to actuate the employees, the work done will non be 100 % . It will overall impact the result of the company.
Besides there will be deficiency of employee enterprise if there is no proper communicating between the director and the employees. Even if there is no sense of belongingness amongst each other and are non able to assist eachother, this job may originate. So the 3rd degree of demand that is love/belonging demand is besides non fulfilled. Till the employees feel that they are the existent portion of the company, they will non make the occupation expeditiously. So it is really necessary for the directors to take attention of this job.
Therefore, the presence of liberty in the work force can take to the psychological province of felt duty for results, ensuing in high occupation satisfaction ( Morgensen and Campion ) . This job can besides be rectified by giving a regular feedback to the employees sing their work. This will assist them to rectify their errors in the work they do through the feedback and can work on it.
4. Importance to the undertaking and non the employees: When the employees feel that the work they are making is non appreciated, they are non much bothered about what they are making. As in Dominos, the most of import facet is to present the pizza in 30 proceedingss. This creates a batch of force per unit area and emphasis on the employees. They may non be able to make their work expeditiously due to peer force per unit area.
As per Frederick Herzberg ‘s Hygiene-Motivation Theory, emphasis and force per unit area on to the employees acts as a dissatisfier that is a hygiene factor. A work can non be done expeditiously if it ‘s done under force per unit area. One must hold all his infinite and clip to acquire his work done. Employees are made to work in 100 degree Celsius in the kitchen which is so harmful. Therefore no good working status is provided to work in.
For this job, emphasis let go ofing coders should be conducted, a proper safety instruments should be provided to work in the kitchen, a small high wage is to be paid to the workers to work under force per unit area, etc. such motivative factors as per the theory should be applied to actuate the employees and acquire the work done.
5. Deaths due to over force per unit area: As mentioned above that there were a batch of deceases taking topographic point due to the accidents of the bringing male child in order to present the pizza on clip. This led to the highest employee turnover rate.
Harmonizing to Abraham Maslow ‘s Theory of Needs Hierarchy, safety and security is the 2nd most of import demand to be fulfilled for an employee. In 1989 for Dominos, it had faced highest employee turnover because there was no security for the life of the employees. They had suffered a major loss because there were non many employees ready to work and the orders were much more than that.
Dominos had a major rejoinder in 1990 ‘s. Its Chief Executive insisted on keeping Domino ‘s original construct of a simple bill of fare that speeds order readying, leting the company to continue its 30-minute warrant. In an attempt to be flexible — and to vie with Pizza Hut ‘s pan pizza — Domino ‘s offered a new pizza with more cheese and an increased figure of toppings ( Funding Universe ) . This happened merely after the Executive came up with the good panel of Top Executives.
Therefore Dominos once more took a lead in the pizza industry. It happened after the new panel of the executives were brought in. so it is really necessary to maintain the employees updated and maintain delivery alteration and challenges which will assist the employees in cognizing their ain capablenesss.
These were some of the jobs that Dominos had to confront due to low Work Motivation among the employees. These jobs can be solved by taking into consideration the assorted theories on motive as mentioned above.
This survey has brought about a broader position of motive and its importance in the organisation. Now-a-days all the organisations have started giving equal importance to the employees as to the turnover of the company, because employees are the biggest assets of the company and they ca n’t afford to lose them.
This survey has besides helped us cognizing and understanding Work Motivation in item.
To execute the undertaking really expeditiously, it is really necessary to actuate the employees in such a mode that even they are satisfied with work and the result is besides the best. Employees must happen their occupation of import and should bask making it.
The perceptual experience of the employees in respects to the mission and their desire to supply meaningful part are two factors that show the grade of importance of employees place on their occupations. Dissatisfied employees can take to a lessening in motive and this can be counter-productive. This can be rectified by supplying regular feedback on employee public presentation ( Johnston ) .
All the theories carry on their single importance. All have their alone ideas of construing the human behaviour and how they are motivated or de-motivated. Most of the jobs stand every bit of import to all the theories mentioned. Thus the theories are really of import to be understood to cover with employees in any organisation.
Maslow had described work motive in different set of degrees which are to be achieved one after another, whereas Alderfer ‘s theory argued and refined Maslow ‘s theory into three phases which can be achieved at the same time. Herzberg ‘s motivation-hygiene theory shows two different parts as satisfiers and dissatisfiers which would actuate or de-motivate the employees. McClelland ‘s Acquired needs theory says that a individual can be motivated depending on the type of demand he has, whether it is need for Achievement, Affiliation or Power. Adams ‘s Equity theory negotiations about motive that a individual can merely be motivated if he gets the perfect result for his inputs. Vroom ‘s theory says that motive is a co-relation between attempts and public presentation.
This shows that all the writers have their alone position of looking at the motive and all carries equal importance. If Customers are God, Employees must be treated every bit because they are the one to make to the clients.