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management of seed borne pathogens of maize Essay

Contents

Abstraction

Management of seed mycoflora was studied by different seed intervention methods viz. , physical, chemical and biological methods. By physical methods, seeds treated with hot H2O at 45EsC for 25 and 30 proceedingss and at 50EsC for 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 proceedingss reduced seed mycoflora, but adversely affected seed sprouting. However, maximal seed sprouting was recorded when seeds were treated at 40EsC for 30 proceedingss and this intervention besides reduced seed mycoflora efficaciously. In dry heat intervention, seed intervention at 50EsC for one hr efficaciously reduced the seed mycoflora, but adversely affected seed sprouting. However, dry heat intervention at 40EsC for one hr reduced the seed mycoflora without impacting seed sprouting. In solar heat intervention, seeds exposed to solar heat intervention at 12-14 H on patio efficaciously reduced the seed mycoflora followed by 13-15 H, 14-16 H, 12-13 H, 13-14 H, 14-15 H and 15-16 h. Seed intervention with antifungals viz. , carbendazim, thiophanate methyl, captan, mancozeb and chlorothalonil at the rate of 2 g and 3 g per kilogram of seed efficaciously eliminated seed mycoflora. The maximal seed sprouting of 90 per cent was recorded when seeds were treated with carbendazim @ 2 and 3 g per kilogram of seed. In seed intervention with bioagents viz. , Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum, P. fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis, seed mycoflora was significantly reduced when corn seeds were treated with T. harzianum and T. viride at 6 g per kilogram of seed, where as maximal seed sprouting of 92 per cent was recorded when seed were treated with T. viride and P. fluorescens at 6 g per kilogram of seed.

Introduction

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Maize ( Zea mays L. ) is one of the of import cereal harvests next merely to wheat and rice in the universe and utilised as nutrient, as provender for farm animal and as natural stuff for industry. World country under corn harvest is 147.56 million hectares with a production of 701.27 million metric tons ( Muhammad Akber et al. , 2008 ) whereas, in India corn is cultivated on an country of 8.11 million/ha. Entire maize production is 19.77 Mt, with an mean output of 2,435 kg/ha in 2007-08 ( Anon, 2008 ) . In Karnataka, maize occupies an country of 1.11 million hectares bring forthing of 3.20 million metric tons with a productiveness of 2894 kg/ha ( Anon. , 2008 ) .

A sum of 112 diseases are known to happen on corn doing economic harm to the harvests ( Anon, 1960 ) and among them more than 70 diseases are reported as seed-borne. Important seed-borne diseases of corn are leaf topographic point, foliage blight, Collar putrefaction, meat putrefaction, scutellum putrefaction, seedling blight, anthracnose and head carbon black ( Richardson, 1990 ) .

Seeds are known to transport a considerable sum of micro-organism. Some of these cause assorted diseases. Pathogens are associated with seeds in the signifier of contaminations, externally and internally as seed borne. These organisms become active under favorable status and impact the seed sprouting ( Christensen and Lopez, 1963 ) which consequences in lower works population and unnatural seedlings in field, thereby doing considerable decrease in output. Invasion by Fungis in storage might ensue in the stain of the seeds, rise in temperature, moldiness, loss in weight and assorted alterations in the seed components. Some of the seeds infecting fungi green goods mycotoxins such as aflotoxin, patulin, citrinine and ochratoxin ( Bilgrami et al. , 1979 ) .

Seed intervention occupies one of the of import places in the incorporate direction of any disease and has provided first-class consequences in cut downing losingss caused by diseases with addition in quality and measure of seeds.

Material and methods

Management of seed mycoflora

Seed intervention

To command seed mycoflora extremely septic seeds of the intercrossed assortment Nithyashree were selected and subjected to different seed intervention methods viz. , 1 ) Physical 2 ) Chemical and 3 ) Biological methods. 400 seeds were incubated at room temperature on moist blotting papers as per criterion blotting paper method. Seeds without intervention served as control. Effect of seed intervention on seed sprouting and per cent seed mycoflora were recorded by utilizing steriobinocular microscope in all seed intervention methods.

Physical seed intervention methods

Hot H2O intervention

Maize seeds were subjected to hot H2O intervention at 35 & A ; deg ; C, 40 & A ; deg ; C, 45 & A ; deg ; C and 50 & A ; deg ; C with clip interval of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min. at each temperature degree, and experiment was replicated four times. Seeds without intervention served as control. Seeds were shade dried for half an hr and incubated for seven yearss on moist blotting papers. Observations were recorded on 8th twenty-four hours.

Dry heat intervention

Maize seeds were subjected to different temperature degrees viz. , 35, 40, 45 and 50 & A ; deg ; C for an hr by maintaining them in hot air oven. 400 seeds were placed on moist blotting papers as per the criterion blotting paper method and incubated for seven yearss. Observations were recorded on 8th twenty-four hours.

Solar heat intervention

Maize seeds were subjected to solar heat intervention by maintaining them on patio in afternoon at clip continuance of 12-13 H, 13-14 H, 14-15 H, 15-16 H, 12-14 H, 13-15 H, and 14-16 H in April month. 400 seeds were placed on moist blotting papers as per criterion blotting paper method and incubated for seven yearss. Observations were recorded on 8th twenty-four hours.

Chemical seed intervention

The corn seeds were treated with six antifungals namely, carbendazim, captan, chlorothalonil, mancozeb, thiophanate methyl and ridomil at the rate of 2 g, 3 g and 4 g per kilogram of seed at each intervention degree. In each intervention were 400 seeds plated on moist blotting papers with four reproductions. Seeds without intervention served as control and incubated for seven yearss. Observations were recorded on 8th twenty-four hours.

Biological seed intervention

In this experiment corn seeds were treated with commercial preparations of Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis at the rate of 2, 4, 6, and 8 g per kilogram of seed. After each intervention seeds were plated on moist blotting paper by utilizing standard blotting paper method. Seeds were incubated for seven yearss and observations were recorded on 8th twenty-four hours.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Hot H2O intervention

In the direction of corn seed borne Fungi, seed intervention with hot H2O at 50EsC for 15, 20, 25 and 30 proceedingss inhibited seed sprouting compared to command. However, seed intervention with hot H2O at 40EsC for 30 proceedingss significantly increased seed sprouting and reduced seed mycoflora efficaciously. Hence this appears the optimal temperature and continuance combination that reduces seed mycoflora and enhances seed sprouting ( Table 1 ) . This is inconformity with the consequences of Rahman et Al. ( 2008 ) who reported that seed intervention with different degrees of hot H2O intervention viz. , 48EsC, 50EsC and 52EsC significantly reduced the seed borne infective Fungis of corn viz. , Bipolaris maydis, Curvularia lunata and Fusarium spp. from 60.47, 71.07 and 76.99 % to 19.31, 29.37 and 4.01 % severally. Seed sprouting was besides increased after the seed intervention with hot H2O.

Table 1: Consequence of hot H2O intervention for control of corns seed mycoflora

Sl.

No

Hot H2O

temperature

( EsC )

Time

( min )

Seed

sprouting

( % )

Per cent seed mycoflora

Per cent decrease over control

Aspergillus Niger

Aspergillus

flavus

Penicillium

sp.

Fusarium sp.

Rhizopus sp.

Curvularia sp.

Bipolaris sp.

Cladosporium sp.

Boryodiplodia theobromae

Alternaria sp.

Nigrospora oryzae

Mean

1.

35

10

85

70

78

100

33

48

4

2

20

5

3

6

33.5

2.6

15

85

70

77

100

33

48

2

2

20

5

2

5

33.0

4.0

20

86

68

75

100

33

47

2

2

19

4

2

4

32.3

6.1

25

87

66

74

100

32

46

1

1

18

4

2

3

31.5

8.4

30

88

63

72

100

32

43

1

15

4

2

2

30.3

11.9

2.

40

10

86

66

72

100

32

45

4

2

18

4

3

4

31.8

7.5

15

87

61

71

100

32

43

3

2

17

4

2

3

30.7

10.7

20

88

58

70

100

31

41

2

2

15

3

1

2

29.5

14.2

25

89

52

68

99

30

39

1

1

13

3

1

2

28.0

18.6

30

89

49

67

98

29

35

11

3

2

26.7

22.3

3.

45

10

87

60

70

100

30

41

3

2

14

4

2

2

29.8

13.4

15

88

58

69

99

29

39

2

2

12

3

1

2

28.7

16.5

20

89

55

68

98

27

38

1

10

2

27.7

19.5

25

88

52

66

98

26

36

9

2

26.2

23.8

30

86

46

65

97

24

34

7

2

25.0

27.3

4.

50

10

86

56

68

98

27

38

3

8

2

1

2

27.5

20.0

15

84

49

67

97

26

35

2

5

2

25.7

25.3

20

83

46

65

95

24

32

3

1

24.1

29.9

25

79

42

62

93

19

30

22.3

35.1

30

77

38

60

90

17

28

21.1

38.6

Control

85

74

79

100

33

49

5

2

22

5

3

6

34.4

Dry heat intervention

In dry heat intervention as the temperature increased from 35EsC to 50EsC for continuance of one hr, seed mycoflora was decreased but adversely affected seed sprouting. Seed intervention at 50EsC recorded minimal association of 17 per cent by Rhizopus sp. followed by Fusarium sp. ( 17 per cent ) , A. niger ( 28 per cent ) , A. flavus ( 45 per cent ) , and Penicillium sp. ( 93 per cent ) and inhibited seed sprouting. However seed intervention at 40EsC recorded 98 per cent association by Penicillium sp. followed by, A. flavus ( 62 per cent ) , Rhizopus sp. ( 35 per cent ) , Fusarium sp. ( 25 per cent ) , A. niger ( 57 per cent ) , N. oryzae ( 2 per cent ) , Cladosporiuym sp. ( 11 per cent ) , Botryodiplodia theobromae ( 2 per cent ) and Curvularia sp. ( 1 per cent ) . Seed mycoflora was inhibited upto 22.7 per cent when seeds were treated at 40EsC dry heat and maximal seed sprouting of 87 per cent was besides recorded. Hence this appears the optimal temperature and continuance combination that reduces seed mycoflora and enhances sprouting of seeds ( Table 2 ) . The present probe besides agrees with the studies of Prasanna Kumara ( 2004 ) . He reported that in dry heat intervention when seeds treated at 50 & A ; deg ; C for one hr significantly decreased seed mycoflora of pigeonpea but inhibited seed sprouting, where as maximal seed sprouting was recorded when the seeds were treated at 40 & A ; deg ; C.

Table 2: Consequence of dry heat intervention for control of corns seed mycoflora

Sl.

No

Dry heat temperature

( EsC )

for 60 min.

Seed

sprouting

( % )

Per cent seed mycoflora

Per cent decrease over control

Aspergillus Niger

Aspergillus

flavus

Penicillium

sp.

Fusarium sp.

Rhizopus sp.

Curvularia sp.

Alternaria sp.

Cladosporium

sp.

Nigrospora oryzae

Bortyodiplodia theobromae

Bipolaris sp.

Mean

1.

35

86

70

73

100

29

49

2

2

19

3

4

2

32

6.9

2.

40

87

57

62

98

25

35

1

11

2

2

26.6

22.7

3.

45

86

43

51

95

21

23

5

1

21.7

36.9

4.

50

84

28

45

93

17

17

18.1

47.4

Control

85

75

80

100

32

50

5

3

22

5

5

2

34.4

Solar intervention

Surveies on solar heat intervention for the direction of corn seed mycoflora revealed that minimal association of 92 per cent by Penicillium sp. followed by Fusarium sp. ( 61 per cent ) , A. flavus ( 45 per cent ) , A. niger ( 30 per cent ) , and Rhizopus sp. ( 3 per cent ) . The maximal decrease of 19.4 per cent by seed mycoflora was recorded when seeds were exposed to 12-14 hour solar heat and maximal seed sprouting of 89 per cent was besides observed ( Table 3 ) . Similarly Rai et Al. ( 2001 ) treated maize seeds with UV radiation and ascertained decrease of fungous species with increased continuance of exposure.

Table 3: Consequence of solar heat intervention for control of corns seed mycoflora

Sl.

No

Time

( H )

Seed

sprouting

( % )

Per cent seed mycoflora

Per cent decrease over control

Aspergillus Niger

Aspergillus

flavus

Penicillium

sp.

Fusarium sp.

Rhizopus sp.

Alternaria sp.

Nigrospora oryzae

Bipolaris sp.

Curvularia sp.

Cladosporium

sp.

Botryodiplodia theobromae

Mean

1.

12-13

87

68

72

98

30

45

1

3

1

4

16

4

31.0

10.1

2.

13-14

86

68

73

100

31

46

2

3

2

5

16

5

31.9

7.53

3.

14-15

86

69

74

100

31

47

2

4

2

5

18

5

32.4

6.00

4.

15-16

86

70

74

100

32

47

2

4

2

5

19

5

32.7

5.21

5.

12-14

89

58

67

92

28

42

1

2

14

2

27.8

19.4

6.

13-15

88

60

68

95

29

43

2

1

3

15

3

29.0

15.9

7.

14-16

87

67

70

97

30

45

1

3

1

4

16

4

30.7

11.0

Control

85

75

80

100

33

50

3

5

2

6

21

5

34.5

Chemical seed intervention

The consequences of the chemical seed intervention revealed that seed intervention with carbendazim, thiophanate methyl and captan at rate of 3 g per kilogram of seed wholly eliminated A. Niger, A. flavus, Curvularia sp. , Trichoderma sp. , N. oryzae, B. theobromae, Alternaria sp. , Cladosporium sp. and Bipolaris sp. without impacting seed sprouting, where as chlorothalonil decreased entire seed mycoflora upto 94.11 per cent. Minimum decrease of 37.05 per cent seed mycoflora was recorded when corn seeds were treated with metalaxyl 8 % + mancozeb 64 wp @ 2 g per kilogram of seed. The maximal seed sprouting of 90 per cent was recorded when seeds were treated with carbendazim ( Table 4 ) . Similarly Manoj Kumar and Agarwal ( 1998 ) besides reported that seed intervention with antifungals viz. , thiram, rovral, dithane M-45, dithane Z-78, and bavistin + thiram ( 1:1 ) , well reduced seed borne pathogen particularly B. maydis, B. theobromae and F. moniliforme. Thiram and bavistin were significantly superior to other antifungals in bettering seedling energy of discolored corns seed.

Table 4: Consequence of chemical seed intervention for control of corns seed mycoflora

Sl.

No

Antifungals

Chemical concentration

@ g/kg

Seed

sprouting

( % )

Per cent seed mycoflora

Per cent decrease over control

Aspergillus Niger

Aspergillus flavus

Penicillium sp.

Fusarium sp.

Rhizopus sp.

Curvularia sp.

Alternaria sp.

Nigrospora oryzae

Bipolaris sp.

Cladosporium sp.

Botryodiplodia theobromae

Mean

1.

Carbendazim

2

90

20

46

1

1

6.1

82.02

3

90

12

44

5.0

85.29

4

88

8

41

4.4

86.91

2.

Thiophanate methyl

2

89

48

4.3

87.35

3

87

46

4.1

87.94

4

85

40

3.6

89.41

3.

Captan

2

89

14

11

45

6.3

81.47

3

89

43

3.9

88.52

4

88

38

3.4

90.00

4.

Mancozeb

2

87

15

22

9

46

8.3

75.58

3

88

7

14

7

42

6.3

81.47

4

88

8

5

31

4.0

88.23

5.

Metalaxyl 8 % +mancozeb 64 % wp

2

86

35

57

67

28

38

8

3

21.4

37.05

3

87

19

55

58

24

35

3

1

17.7

47.94

4

87

10

51

45

21

26

13.0

61.76

6.

Chlorothalonil

2

88

11

18

7

22

12

2

6.5

80.88

3

88

12

5

17

5

3.5

89.70

4

87

8

15

2.0

94.11

Control

84

75

78

100

31

48

5

3

3

3

23

5

34.0

Biological seed intervention

In seed intervention with bioagents viz. , T. viride, T. harzianum P. fluorescens and B. subtilis, seed mycoflora was significantly reduced when corn seeds were treated with T. harzianum and T. viride at 6 g per kilogram of seed, where as maximal seed sprouting of 92 per cent was recorded when seed were treated with T. viride and P. fluorescens at 6 g per kilogram of seed ( Table 5 ) . Manjunatha and Rao ( 2002 ) besides reported that seed intervention with P. fluorescens, T. viride and T. harzianum efficaciously reduced A. alternata, F. moniliforme, A. flavus, A. Niger, R. stolonifer, C. lunata and C. globosum infection from wheat seeds.

Table 5: Consequence of bio agents on corns seed mycoflora

Sl.

No.

Bioagent

Concentration

g/kg

Seed

sprouting

( % )

Per cent seed mycoflora

Per cent decrease over control

Aspergillus Niger

Aspergillus

flavus

Penicillium

sp.

Fusarium sp.

Rhizopus sp.

Cladosporiumsp.

Botryodiplodia theobromae

Curvularia sp.

Alternaria sp.

Bipolaris sp.

Nigrospora oryzae

Mean

1.

Trichoderma viride

2

88

18

17

32

8

18

12

2

9.7

71.47

4

90

7

13

26

4

15

8

6.6

80.58

6

92

6

20

13

3.5

89.70

8

92

2

19

11

2.9

91.47

2.

Trichoderma

harzianum

2

87

15

15

18

10

12

13

7.5

77.94

4

89

10

8

12

7

10

7

4.9

85.58

6

91

7

5

6

3

1.9

94.41

8

91

5

4

5

1.3

96.17

3.

Bacillus subtilis

2

86

69

56

45

25

36

18

3

22.9

32.64

4

88

63

50

41

21

29

15

1

20.0

41.17

6

89

57

45

35

18

26

13

17.6

48.23

8

89

52

43

28

15

20

10

15.2

55.29

4.

Pseudomonas fluorescens

2

87

66

55

63

17

45

15

3

24.0

29.41

4

89

61

49

50

13

40

11

20.3

40.29

6

92

52

38

46

11

39

8

17.6

48.23

8

92

47

32

41

8

38

5

15.5

54.41

Control

85

75

80

100

33

48

22

5

2

3

3

3

34.0

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management of seed borne pathogens of maize Essay
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Abstraction

Management of seed mycoflora was studied by different seed intervention methods viz. , physical, chemical and biological methods. By physical methods, seeds treated with hot H2O at 45EsC for 25 and 30 proceedingss and at 50EsC for 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 proceedingss reduced seed mycoflora, but adversely affected seed sprouting. However, maximal seed sprouting was recorded when seeds were treated at 40EsC for 30 proceedingss and this intervention besides reduce

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management of seed borne pathogens of maize Essay
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