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Malunggay Bark Extract As Alternative Source Of Electricity Biology Essay

The twenty-first century tendency is an epoch in which engineerings become portion of human lives. In this age, attempts and clip are exhausted by many persons or groups in order to make engineerings that can be utilized in any human enterprise. Conversely, for most of these inventions and innovations to map, electricity is required. In the Philippines, a state that is au courant with engineerings, bulk of the electricity demand is derived from electric power workss that are run by fossil fuels such as crude oil and coal. Furthermore, batteries which are portable beginning of the said energy are besides in usage. However, due to rapid addition in engineerings that require electricity, some jobs arise. At present, since there is a immense demand for electricity, fuel required to bring forth such energy becomes scarce. Peoples have realized that most of procedures and stuffs for electricity coevals have negative consequence on the environment and on wellness of homo. Hence, researches are conducted to detect green ( clean, natural, derive from biological beginning ) , low cost, and readily available alternate beginning of electricity. In line with this position, Filipinos actively take part to accomplish this intent by presenting malunggay ( Moringa oleifera ) as an of import beginning of non lone nutrition and medical specialty but of electricity every bit good.

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Malunggay is a tree that sooner grows in states with tropical clime such as the Philippines. This tree can be easy propagated since malunggay can be grown from seeds or mature root film editings. In the state, this tree is normally found in family backyard, aligned with margin fencings, since the comestible and alimentary flowers, fruits, and foliages of malunggay are portion of the diet of Filipinos. Aside from the nutritionary value of some parts of malunggay, all parts of this tree are used in herbal medical specialty to bring around some diseases. Given that this tree can function several intents, malunggay becomes in demand.

In visible radiation of the treatment of the environmental jobs and features of malunggay, a group of research workers conducted a survey entitled “ MOB Electricity: Malunggay Bark Extract as Alternative Source of Electricity ” , to demo that malunggay ( Moringa oleifera ) bark infusion is a feasible alternate beginning of electricity ; accordingly, supplying an environment friendly, cheap and accessible beginning of electricity.

At this point in clip, since there is a strong desire to better manner of life, great attending is given to engineerings. Due to this involvement, inventions and innovations which require electricity are continuously developed. Therefore, electricity must be continuously generated. On the contrary, most of the procedures and stuffs for electricity coevals pose jeopardies to the environment and human wellness. Therefore, a clean, low cost, and readily available beginning of electricity is needed, a ground that motivated the research workers to prosecute in this investigatory undertaking.

Contents

B. Statement of the Problem

This survey entitled “ MOB Electricity: Malunggay Bark Extract as Alternative Source of Electricity ” intends to look into the feasibleness of Malunggay ( Moringa oleifera ) bark infusion as an alternate beginning of electricity.

Specifically, this survey sought to reply the undermentioned inquiries:

1. Is there a important difference on the sum of electromotive force measured from liquid signifier of malunggay bark infusion obtained through petroleum and ethanol extraction?

2. Is there a important difference on the sum of electromotive force measured from jelly signifier of malunggay bark infusion obtained through petroleum and ethanol extraction?

3. Is there a important difference on the sum of electromotive force measured from liquid and jelly signifier of malunggay bark infusion obtained through petroleum and ethanol extraction?

4. Is there a important difference on the sum of electromotive force measured from changing sums of malunggay bark infusion?

C. Hypotheses

1. Holmium: There is no important difference on the sum of electromotive force measured from liquid signifier of malunggay bark infusion obtained through petroleum and ethanol extraction.

Hour angle: There is a important difference on the sum of electromotive force measured from liquid signifier of malunggay bark infusion obtained through petroleum and ethanol extraction.

2. Holmium: There is no important difference on the sum of electromotive force measured from jelly signifier of malunggay bark infusion obtained through petroleum and ethanol extraction.

Hour angle: There is a important difference on the sum of electromotive force measured from jelly signifier of malunggay bark infusion obtained through petroleum and ethanol extraction.

3. Holmium: There is no important difference on the sum of electromotive force measured from liquid and jelly signifier of malunggay bark infusion obtained through petroleum and ethanol extraction.

Hour angle: There is a important difference on the sum of electromotive force measured from liquid and jelly signifier of malunggay bark infusion obtained through petroleum and ethanol extraction.

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4. Holmium: There is no important difference on the sum of electromotive force measured from changing sums of malunggay bark infusion.

Hour angle: There is a important difference on the sum of electromotive force measured from changing sums of malunggay bark infusion.

D. Significance of the Study

This survey will supply the energy sector in the state a green alternate beginning of electricity which will cut down the usage of stuffs that have risky effects to human and environment. Hence, minimising happenings of diseases and decelerating the rate of environment debasement. Furthermore, the positive consequence of this survey could besides guarantee people with cheap and accessible beginning of electricity.

Furthermore, this survey introduces a new application of malunggay, therefore, farther increasing the demand for this tree. In this consequence, husbandmans in the state could hold excess income by supplying the needful supply of malunggay.

E. Scopes and Restrictions

The focal point of this survey is the feasibleness of malunggay ( Moringa oleifera ) as an alternate beginning of electricity. In order to measure the said feasibleness, malunggay bark infusion obtained through petroleum and ethanol extraction was utilised. Subsequently, electromotive force was measured for different set-ups and interventions.

However, the research workers were unable to find the constituent of the infusion responsible for electricity coevals since the stuff was non subjected to chemical analysis. This limitation might be an extra recommendation for future researches.

The research workers conducted this survey from January 9, 2012 to August 23, 2012. All experiments and observations were done at JICA research lab of Sapang Palay National High School.

F. Operational Definition of Footings

Gelatin Powder – used to make a steadfast signifier of infusion.

Carbon Rod -served as the positive electrode ( anode ) of the external circuit connected to malunggay bark exract.

Zinc Plate – served as the negative electrode ( cathode ) of the external circuit connected to malunggay bark infusion.

Multi-tester – used to mensurate the sum of electromotive force from malunggay bark infusion.

Chapter II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

I. Introduction

In the oncoming of the twenty-first century, negative effects of environmental issues such as pollution, ozone depletion, and planetary heating become noteworthy. Therefore, these jobs gained the attending of people around the universe. Among these negative effects are development and widespread of diseases, development of tegument malignant neoplastic disease, addition in temperature, heavy rains, heavy inundations, strong typhoons, and clime alteration. In response, organisations are created, and conventions and researches are conducted to cover with these issues.

Today, as informations are continuously gathered ; assorted human activities that involve emanation of gases, chemicals, and radiations are considered as one of the big subscriber to environmental debasement. Such human activities include coevals of electricity. However, since electricity is critical in operating engineerings which advances human lives, hunt for clean alternate beginning of electricity should be conducted to forestall farther debasement of the environment.

II. Electricity Generation

Electricity is the signifier of energy that has the highest demand at this point in clip. This energy signifier is required to run engineerings that people created for life promotion. Therefore, energy industries are in uninterrupted hunt to provide the needful demand of electricity. Today, there are different beginnings from which this energy is derived. These beginnings include fossil fuels ( crude oil and coal ) , atomic energy, hydropower, solar energy, and weave energy. These beginnings are used to drive turbines in electric power workss which will bring forth electricity. Electricity generated from these beginnings is the one supplied in wall sockets of houses and edifices. Another beginning of electricity is battery, a beginning that is in portable signifier. ( Bose, 2010 )

In the Philippines, a state that is au courant with engineerings, bulk of the needed electricity is derived from electric power workss that are run by fossil fuels such as crude oil and coal. Furthermore, batteries which are portable beginning of the said energy are besides in usage. However, emanations from such electric power workss are composed of gases which cause air pollution and contribute to planetary heating. Likewise, batteries have chemical constituents that can leak and foul land, H2O and air. In add-on to these negative effects to the environment, homo can besides get diseases due to said taint. ( Petrina, 2007 )

III. Green Electricity

Peoples are now cognizant of the harmful effects of conventional electricity coevals to human wellness and environment. Consequently, attempts and clip are spent in order to detect alternate green – clean, natural, biological – beginnings of electricity, an action that would minimise presence of harmful chemicals and gases in the environment. In connexion to this impression, research workers have considered different workss, different parts of workss, and organisms as possible beginning of green electricity. ( U.S Environmental Protection Agency, 2012 )

Basic illustration of green energy is electricity from fruits and veggies. Many people, during childhood, have done schoolroom experiments to deduce electricity from lemon and murphy. Consequences of these experiments proved that these stuffs can bring forth electricity because juices of fruits and veggies act as electrolytes which initiate reaction to liberate and travel negatrons. ( Renico, 2012 )

On the other manus, another related research was conducted by scientists of Stanford University which harness electricity from algae. The construct behind this undertaking is the procedure of photosynthesis involved in nutrient production of workss. Harmonizing to the scientists, in this procedure, negatrons from H2O are given with high energy by sunshine. These negatrons are the one the scientists captured utilizing electrodes. ( Stanford University, 2010 )

Last, research workers of Arizona State University study the possibility for bacteriums to bring forth electricity through the usage of a microbic fuel cell ( MFC ) which contains waste H2O and bacteriums brooding on the stuff. In this research, the individuals involve relate electricity coevals to metabolic activity of bacteriums. ( Arizona State University, 2008 )

IV. Malunggay Tree

Malunggay ( Moringa oleifera ) tree, which normally grows in tropical states such as Philippines, is characterized by long, directly, white short pantss ; little, green, compound leaves ; and seasonal white flowers that outputs long cods. This tree propagates easy and does non necessitate much attending. In fact, malunggay seeds or matured stem film editings can be planted in any sort of dirt and does non necessitate regular care. ( Asia Green Group, 2012 )

In the Philippines, malunggay can be found in most family backyards because comestible parts of this tree ( flowers, cods, and foliages ) are portion of Filipino cookery. Furthermore, these parts of malunggay tree provide people with vitamins and minerals needed by the organic structure. Aside from supplying nutriment, this tree besides has medicative value. Based on legion surveies, malunggay contains chemicals that have antibacterial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory belongingss. ( Fahey, 2005 )

Chapter III

Methodology

Gathering of Materials/Equipments

Among the stuffs gathered by the research workers were malunggay ( Moringa olifera ) bark, gelatin pulverization, ethyl intoxicant, filter paper, baseball mitts, face mask, and old batteries. Equipment every bit good was borrowed from the school research lab. These equipments include beakers, reagent bottles, funnel, stirring rod, thermometer, howitzer and stamp, intoxicant lamp, ternary beam balance, strainer, tripod, and wire gauze.

Collection of Zinc Plate and Carbon Rod

Research workers collected old batteries. Subsequently, these batteries were uncovered and electrolyte interior was removed. Since electrolyte constituent of battery is composed of somewhat toxic chemicals, research worker wore baseball mitts and face mask. In this mode, Zn home bases and C rods were obtained.

Preparation of Malunggay Bark Extract

A. Crude Extraction

Malunggay barks were collected and cut into little pieces by the research workers. Afterwards, the barks were placed in a liquidizer. Finally, in order to obtain pure infusion, minced barks were placed in soft fabrics and squeezed.

B. Ethanol Extraction

Malunggay barks were collected and cut into little pieces. Then, barks were placed in a liquidizer to soften the stuff. Following, minced barks were oven-dried for 5 proceedingss and were pulverized with howitzer and stamp. After this procedure, 100 gms of powdered bark was placed in a reagent bottle in which 250 milliliter of ethyl intoxicant was poured afterwards. Last, infusion which was rested for 10 hours for purification intent was filtered through a funnel with filter paper.

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Changing the Amount of Bark Extract

Sum of bark infusion obtained through petroleum and ethanol extraction was varied for each intervention. 5 milliliter of infusion was allotted to Treatment I, 10 milliliter for Treatment II, and 15 milliliter for Treatment III.

Preparation of Jelly Form of Malunggay Bark Extract

In a beaker, changeless volume ( 5 milliliter ) of H2O was poured and heated to 70oC. When H2O reaches the specified temperature, changeless sum ( 10 g ) of gelatin pulverization was added into the H2O. Then, the solution was continuously stirred. Before the solution solidifies, the assigned sum of extract per intervention was poured without halting the stirring procedure. Material was instantly removed from heat.

Measuring Voltage

Zinc home base and C rod were installed to each intervention. From these electrodes, multitester was connected to mensurate electromotive force. Measurement was done for five times. Subsequently, electromotive force measured from each intervention was recorded.

METHODOLOGICAL FLOWCHART

Gathering of Materials/Equipments

Collection of Zinc Plate and Carbon Rod

Preparation of Malunggay Bark Extract

Set-up 1

Liquid Form of Extract

Set-up 2

Jelly Form of Extract

Crude Extraction

Ethanol Extraction

Crude Extraction

Ethanol Extraction

Treatment I: 5 milliliters Extract

Treatment II: 10 milliliters Extract

Treatment III: 15 milliliters Extract

Treatment I: 5 milliliters Extract

5 ml Water

10 g Gelatin Powder

Treatment II: 10 milliliters Extract

5 ml Water

10 g Gelatin Powder

Treatment III: 15 milliliters Extract

5 ml Water

10 g Gelatin Powder

Measuring Voltage per Treatment

Datas Gathering

Tabulation and Statistical Analysis of Consequences

Chapter IV

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The research workers conducted several experiments. Subsequently, informations and consequences obtained from these experiments were recorded in tabulated from in this chapter. After each tabular array of informations, readings of these consequences were discussed. In the assistance of these readings, the research workers could hold initial appraisal of the hypotheses presented in this paper.

Table 1.0

Set-up 1

Crude vs. Ethanol Method of Extraction

( Liquid Form of Extract )

Treatment

Sum of Extract

Test

Crude Extraction

Ethanol Extraction

Voltage ( V )

Voltage ( V )

Liquid Form of Extract

I

5 milliliter

1

1.0

1.2

2

1.6

1.8

3

1.6

1.8

4

1.6

1.2

5

1.6

1.2

Two

10 milliliter

1

2.6

1.2

2

2.7

1.1

3

2.7

1.0

4

2.6

1.0

5

2.7

1.0

Three

15 milliliter

1

2.7

1.0

2

2.7

1.0

3

2.7

1.0

4

2.7

1.0

5

2.7

1.0

Table 1.0 shows that liquid signifier of petroleum bark infusion generated higher and more unvarying sum of electromotive force than liquid signifier of ethanol bark infusion. In add-on, for petroleum bark infusion, sum of electromotive force additions as sum of infusion additions.

Table 2.0

Set-up 2

Crude vs. Ethanol Method of Extraction

( Jelly Form of Extract )

Treatment

Sum of Gelatin Powder ( g )

Volume of Water ( milliliter )

Volume of Extract ( milliliter )

Test

Crude Extraction

Ethanol Extraction

Voltage ( V )

Voltage ( V )

Jelly Form of Extract

I

10

5

5

1

2.0

1.0

2

2.0

1.0

3

2.0

1.2

4

2.0

1.2

5

2.0

1.2

Two

10

5

10

1

1.8

1.4

2

1.8

1.2

3

1.8

1.4

4

1.5

1.2

5

1.2

1.2

Three

10

5

15

1

2.5

1.8

2

2.5

1.8

3

2.4

1.8

4

2.4

1.8

5

2.5

1.8

Table 2.0 shows that jelly form of infusion from rough extraction yielded higher sum of electromotive force than jelly signifier of infusion from ethanol extraction. However, more unvarying electromotive force reading is obtained from jelly ethanol bark infusion than jelly rough bark infusion ; as the sum of infusion additions, sum of electromotive force reading additions.

Table 3.0

Liquid vs. Jelly Form of Extract

( Crude Method of Extraction )

Treatment

Sum of Extract

Test

Liquid signifier of Extract

Jelly Form of Extract

Voltage ( V )

Voltage ( V )

Crude Method of Extraction

I

5 milliliter

1

1.0

2.0

2

1.6

2.0

3

1.6

2.0

4

1.6

2.0

5

1.6

2.0

Two

10 milliliter

1

2.6

1.8

2

2.7

1.8

3

2.7

1.8

4

2.6

1.5

5

2.7

1.2

Three

15 milliliter

1

2.7

2.5

2

2.7

2.5

3

2.7

2.4

4

2.7

2.4

5

2.7

2.5

Table 3.0 shows that both signifier of petroleum bark infusion generated comparatively high sum of electromotive force. Even so, jelly rough bark infusion yielded fluctuating sum of electromotive force as the sum of infusion additions.

Table 3.1

Liquid vs. Jelly Form of Extract

( Ethanol Method of Extraction )

Treatment

Sum of Extract

Test

Liquid signifier of Extract

Jelly Form of Extract

Voltage ( V )

Voltage ( V )

Ethanol Method of Extraction

I

5 milliliter

1

1.2

1.0

2

1.8

1.0

3

1.8

1.2

4

1.2

1.2

5

1.2

1.2

Two

10 milliliter

1

1.2

1.4

2

1.1

1.2

3

1.0

1.4

4

1.0

1.2

5

1.0

1.2

Three

15 milliliter

1

1.0

1.8

2

1.0

1.8

3

1.0

1.8

4

1.0

1.8

5

1.0

1.8

Table 3.1 shows that as sum of liquid ethyl alcohol bark infusion additions, sum of measured electromotive force lessenings. For jelly signifier of bark infusion from ethanol extraction, electromotive force reading additions, as the sum of said extract additions.

Chapter V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary:

This survey entitled “ MOB Electricity: Malunggay Bark Extract as Alternative Source of Electricity ” aspires to turn out if malunggay bark infusion could be a possible beginning of electricity and to determine if there would be a important difference when the method of extraction, signifier of infusion, and sum of infusion are varied.

In order to prove the feasibleness of malunggay bark infusion as alternate beginning of electricity, the research workers prepared two different set-ups and under each set-up there are three interventions. For the 2nd set-up, sum of gelatin pulverization and sum of H2O used in each intervention were controlled. Then, electromotive force was measured in each intervention per set-up for five times utilizing a multi-tester.

The consequences obtained from different set-ups were analyzed utilizing Two-Factor ANOVA with Replication. The consequences are summarized as follows:

On the first set-up, statistical analysis showed that there is important difference in the sum of electromotive force measured from liquid signifier of malunggay bark infusion when method of extraction and sum of infusion were varied.

On the 2nd set-up, statistical analysis showed that there is important difference on the sum of electromotive force measured from jelly signifier of malunggay bark infusion when obtained through different extraction method. Furthermore, statistically important difference besides exists on the sum of electromotive force reading when the sum of said signifier of infusion was varied.

Statistical analysis of Tables 3.0 and 3.1 indicate that there is important difference on the sum of electromotive force measured when the signifier of infusion and sum of infusion were varied.

Decision:

Based on the consequences of statistical analysis and observations, the research workers conclude that malungggay bark infusion could be a feasible alternate beginning of electricity. Furthermore, the people behind this survey were able to detect that the 15 milliliter liquid signifier of infusion obtained through rough extraction yielded the highest and most stable sum of electromotive force among all the interventions done.

Recommendations:

In this survey the research workers encountered some hinderances which limited the range of the probe. Hence, merely trial for the feasibleness of malunggay bark infusion as an alternate beginning of electricity was conducted. However, the survey does non stop with this aim. There are other factors related to electricity coevals in malunggay bark infusion that should be considered.

Research workers would wish to suggest the followers to other people who consider prosecuting this undertaking:

Further addition volume of infusion in order to obtain higher electromotive force reading.

Convert the infusion in a signifier that will ease easier and more stable electromotive force measuring.

Capable the infusion to chemical analysis to find the constituent responsible for electricity coevals.

Develop a manner to tackle electricity from the infusion.

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Malunggay Bark Extract As Alternative Source Of Electricity Biology Essay
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The twenty-first century tendency is an epoch in which engineerings become portion of human lives. In this age, attempts and clip are exhausted by many persons or groups in order to make engineerings that can be utilized in any human enterprise. Conversely, for most of these inventions and innovations to map, electricity is required. In the Philippines, a state that is au courant with engineerings, bulk of the electricity demand is derived from electric power workss that are run by fossi

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Malunggay Bark Extract As Alternative Source Of Electricity Biology Essay
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