The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was under way 1st in Britain and wasn’t possible without coal.
Every 3rd year the farmers believed that they had to leave their field fallowed so the soil won’t wear out. In 1730 Charles Townshend discovered that fields did not had to be left fallowed, if farmers would rotate the crops. Charles suggested to grow wheat or barely and then the next year grow clover or turnips. Clover and turnips provided excellent feed for cattle.
New Farm Machines
Jethro Thull developed a seed drill that planted seeds in straight rows. This was a big improvement over the old method of scattering seeds at random, which made fields a tangle of crop and weeds.
In the 1700’s farmers began to use iron plows instead of wood plows. In 1800’s wealthy landowners used mechanical reapers and threshers which increased production.
The Enclosure Movement Since the Middle Ages farmers worked small strips of land in scattered fields. The razed their animals and gathered timber on public lands. In the 1500’s wealthy landowners began claiming the right to these public lands. This made agriculture more efficient because the wealthy had more land to experience with new crops. Smaller farmers were then driven right out of a job. With more food lead to better health and rapid growth. The demand for manufactured goods was now high.
Changes In The Textile Industry
Inventions went off right and left. In 1733, John Kay invented the Flying Shuttle. This replaced the handheld shuttle for weaving. It sped up the weaving process. Soon they were using thread faster than produced. In 1764, James Hargreaves developed the Spinning Jenny. It had several spindle on a single wheel. In 1769, Richard Arkright built the Water Frame it could hold up to 100 spindles. It was too heavy to be operated by hand so it was ran by water power. 10yrs later Samuel Crompton developed the Spinning Mule, which used features from the Spinning Jenny and the Water Frame. Cotton thread was now produced at high speeds. In 1785, Edward Cartwright built a Power Loom powered by water. They could produce 200 times more cloth in a day. In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin that increased the supply of raw cotton and gave the British cotton industry a further boost. It tore the fibers from the seeds and made it possible for a single slave to turn out as much as 50 slaves. Cotton production soared and the price fell.
Development Of The Steam Engine
Although many inventions in the Textile Industry were powered by running water, steam soon became the major source of energy. In 1698, Thomas Savery had built a steam-driven pump to remove water from flooded coal mines. Except his pump frequently exploded because of the intense pressure of the steam. In the early 1700’s, Thomas Newcomen developed a safer steam pump. His engine broken down lots and required lots of coal to fuel it though. Finally James Watt came alone in the 1760’s to revise the pumps of Newcomen and made it better. His got 4 times more power from the same amount of coal.
Steam powered the Industrial Revolution. They were used in the growing of Textile Industry. They also brought great changes in the mining of iron and coal and they revolutionized transportation.
Advances In Transportation ; Communication
In the 1700’s the need for rapid, inexpensive transportation led to a boom in Canal building in Britain. In 1759 the Duke of Bridgewater built a Canal to connect his coal mines and factories. A Scottish engineer John McAdam invented a road surface made of crushed rock. In 1829 George Stephenson, a mining engineer, developed the Rocket, it was the 1st steam-powered locomotive. It could go 36mph. Steel rails replaced iron rails, speed were then increased. In 1807 Robert Fulton developed a paddle-wheel steam ship called the Clermont. This improved communication to other nations.
It was mainly an all for your self way. Workers tend to work only for the present need. The object of life was to maintain ones rank and the ideal of personal gain was the work of the devil. Capital as wealth existed, but there was no investing of it. Land was seen as the core of social life rather than as real-estate to be bought or sold as a comonity. To use the traditional Aboriginal Paradigm it would be almost impossible to have a good future economic developments. People would not move up in life they just want to maintain status. No change need, therefore no developments.
They invested money into business ventures. They’re goal was to gain enough money to pay all the costs of the ventures, plus some additional money or prophet. The prophet would be reinvested into another venture. This paradigm could not be productable for future goods. People would think about the money too much. To have future economic developments they would need each other to do so. They need both of their ways to balance each other off. One side would want to invest and one side would want to provide only for themselves. Together they would succeed. It just wouldn’t work with one group.
Social Issues Essays