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HYPERLINK http://www.ancient.eu/hadrian/ Hadrian Essay

HYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/hadrian/”Hadrian(76-138 CE)wasthefourteenthEmperorofHYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/Rome/”Rome(10 August 117to10July138 CE) and isknownasthethirdoftheFiveGoodEmperors( HYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/Nerva/”Nerva,HYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/trajan/”Trajan,Hadrian,HYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/Antoninus_Pius/”AntoninusPius, andMarcus Aurelius)whoruledjustly.BornPubliusAeliusHadrianus,probablyinHispania,HadrianisbestknownforhissubstantialbuildingprojectsthroughouttheHYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/Roman_Empire/”RomanEmpireand,especially,Hadrian’sWallinnorthernHYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/britain/”Britain.

Asayoungman,HadrianwaswelleducatedinhishometownofItalicaHispania(moderndaySeville, Spain) andleftforRomearoundtheageof 14.Hisfirstmilitary servicewasasTribuneunderEmperorNerva.WhenNervadied,Trajanascendedtothethrone.EmperorTrajanwasthefirstHYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/Roman/”Romanrulerofprovincialorigin.LaterbiographerswouldattempttoplacethebirthofbothTrajanandHadrianinthecityofRomebutbothwereofHispanicethnicityandthiscommonalityhasbeenassumedbysometobethereasonforTrajan’sadoptionofHadrianashissuccessor(thoughmostscholarsdisputethis).TrajandiedoncampaigninHYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/Cilicia/”Ciliciain117 CE,withHadrianincommandofhisrearguard, and isnotbelievedtohavenamedasuccessor.Trajan’swife,Plotina(whowasfond ofHadrian)signedthepapersofsuccessionanditisthoughtthatshe,nottheemperor,wasresponsibleforHadrian’sadoptionasheir.Howeverthatmaybe,itisknownthatTrajanrespectedHadrianand hadconsideredhimashissuccessorevenifhedidnotofficiallynamehimassuch.Hadrian’sservicetoTrajaniswelldocumentedthroughthevariousimportantpositionsheheldpriortobecomingemperorofRome.

HispopularityasemperorisattestedtobythefactthatHadrianwasabsentfromRomeforthebetterpart ofhisreign.EarlierRomanrulers,suchasNero,wereharshlycriticizedforspendinglesstimeawayfromthecity. Professor D.BrendanNaglewritesthatHadrian”spentmost ofhisreign(twelveout oftwenty-oneyears)travelingallovertheEmpirevisitingtheprovinces,overseeingtheadministration, andcheckingthedisciplineofthearmy. Hewasabrilliantadministratorwhoconcernedhimselfwithallaspectsofgovernmentandtheadministrationofjustice” (278).Hisdevotiontothearmywassuchthathewouldsleepandeatamongthecommonsoldiersand he iscommonlydepictedinmilitaryattireeventhoughhisregimeismarkedbyrelativepeace.

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Hadrian’sbuildingprojectsareperhapshismostenduringlegacy. HeestablishedHYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/cities/”citiesthroughouttheBalkanPeninsula,HYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/egypt/”Egypt,HYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/Asia_Minor/”AsiaMinor, andHYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/greece/”Greece.HisloveforGreeceandHYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/greek/”GreekHYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/literature/”literaturewassuchthathewasknownas’Graeculus’ (Greekling)inhisyouthandhisphilhellenismdidnotdissipatewithage. HevisitedGreeceatleasttwice(probablymore) andparticipatedintheEleusinianMysteries, ofwhichhewasaninitiate. TheArchofHadrian,constructedbythecitizensofHYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/Athens/”Athensin131/132 CE,honorHadrianasthefounderofthecity.InscriptionsonthearchnameTheseus(thetraditionalfounder)butaddHadrianowingtothelatter’ssubstantialcontributionstoAthens(suchastheHYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/temple/”TempleofHYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/zeus/”Zeus).HededicatedanumberofsitesinGreecetohisyoungloverAntinous,whodrownedintheHYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/nile/”NileRiverin130 CE.HadrianwasdeeplyattachedtoAntinousandtheyoungman’sdeathsogreatlyaffectedtheemperorthathehadhimdeified(fromwhichthemysterycultinhonorofAntinousgrew).InEgypthefoundedthecity ofAntinopolisinhismemory.InRomeherebuiltthePantheon(whichhadbeendestroyedbyfire) andTrajan’sForumaswellasfundingconstructionofotherbuildings,baths, andvillas.Manyofthesestructuressurvivedintactforcenturies,someaslateasthe19thcenturyCE, andthePantheon,stillperfectlypreserved,maybevisitedinthepresentday.Hadrianhad agreatinterestinarchitectureandseemstohavecontributedideas,orevenplans,tothearchitectsthoughscholarsnolongerbelievethathewastheleadarchitectonanysingleproject.

HADRIAN’S WALL
Ofallhissignificantmonumentsandbuildings,Hadrian’sWallinnorthBritainisthemostfamous.Constructionofthewall,knowninantiquityasVallumHadriani,wasbegunaround122 CE andcorrespondedtoHadrian’svisittotheprovince.ItmarkedthenorthernboundaryoftheRomanEmpireinBritainbutthelengthandbreadthoftheproject (stretching,asitdid,fromcoasttocoast)suggeststhatthemoreimportantpurposeofthewallwasa show ofRome’spower. Thewallwasoriginally9.7feetwide(3metres) and 16-20feethigh(sixmetres)eastoftheRiverIrthing,allbuiltofstone, and 20feetwide(6metres)by11.feethigh(3.5metres)westoftheriver, madeupofstoneand turf,stretching73miles(120 km)acrossuneventerrain.ItwasbuiltinsixyearsbythelegionsstationedinBritain.Therewerebetween14-17fortificationsalongthelengthofthewalland aVallum(aditchpurposefullyconstructedofearthworks)whichranparalleltothewall. TheVallummeasured20feet(6metres)wideby10feet(3metres)deepflankedbylargemoundsoftightlypackedearth.AsHadrian’sforeignpolicywas”peacethroughstrength”itisthoughtthatthewall,whichwasoriginallyplasteredandwhitewashed,wouldhaveclearlyrepresentedthemightoftheRomanEmpire.

JERUSALEM
AlthoughHadrianwasalearnedandcultivatedman,hispolicy ofpeacefulrelations andnegotiationswasnotalwaysadheredto.In130 CE,HadrianvisitedJerusalem,whichwasstillinruinsfromtheFirstRoman-JewishHYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/war/”Warof 66-73 CE. HerebuiltthecityaccordingtohisowndesignsandrenameditAeliaCapitolinaJupiterCapitolinusafterhimselfandthekingoftheRomangods.WhenhebuiltatempletoJupiterontheruinsoftheTempleofSolomon(theso-calledSecondTemple,consideredsacredbytheJews),thepopulaceroseupundertheleadershipof Simon barKokhbahinwhathascometobeknownasbarKokhbah’sRevolt(132-136 CE).RomanlossesinthiscampaignwereenormousbutJewishlosseswerenolesssignificant.Bythetimetherebellionwasputdown, 580,000Jewshadbeenkilledand over 1000townsandvillagesdestroyed.HadrianthenbanishedtheremainingJewsfromtheregionandrenameditHYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/syria/”SyriaPalaestinaafterthetraditionalenemiesoftheJewishpeople,thePhilistines. HeorderedapublicburningoftheHYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/Torah/”Torah,executedtheJewishscholars, andprohibitedthepracticeandobservanceofJudaism.

DEATH ; SUCCESSOR
Hishealthnowfailing,HadrianreturnedtoRomeandoccupiedhimselfbyHYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/writing/”writingpoetryandtendingtoadministrativeaffairs. HenamedashissuccessorAntoninusPiusonthestipulationthatAntoninuswouldadopttheyoungMarcus Aureliustofollow.Hadriandiedin138 CE,presumablyof aheartattack,attheageof 62. HewasburiedfirstatPuteoli,onthegroundsoftheformerestateoftheRhetoricianCicero(ashomagetoHadrian’slove oflearning)butwhenAntoninusPiuscompletedthegreatHYPERLINK “http://www.ancient.eu/tomb/”TombofHadrianinRomethefollowingyear,hisbodywascrematedandtheashesinterredtherewithhiswifeandson.AntoninusPius hadHadriandeifiedandtemplesbuiltinhishonor. ThehistorianGibbonwritesthatHadrian’srulewas, “theperiodinthehistoryoftheworldduringwhichtheconditionofthehumanracewasmost happy andprosperouswhenthevastextentoftheRomanEmpirewasgovernedbyabsolutepowerundertheguidanceofvirtueandwisdom” (61).AlthoughHadrianwasnotuniversallyadmiredduringhislife,orsincehisdeath,hisreignisgenerallyconsideredinkeepingwithGibbon’sestimation.

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HYPERLINK "http://www.ancient.eu/hadrian/"Hadrian(76-138 CE)wasthefourteenthEmperorofHYPERLINK "http://www.ancient.eu/Rome/"Rome(10 August 117to10July138 CE) and isknownasthethirdoftheFiveGoodEmperors( HYPERLINK "http://www.ancient.eu/Nerva/"Nerva,HYPERLINK "http://www.ancient.eu/trajan/"Trajan,Hadrian,HYPERLINK "http://www.ancient.eu/Antoninus_Pius/"AntoninusPius, andMarcus Aurelius)whoruledjustly.BornPubliusAeliusHadrianus,probablyinHispania,Hadrianisbestknownforhissubstantialbuildingprojec

2019-01-02 18:05:19
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