Over the past several years Genetics Essay has become a leading link to understanding how our
body works. By mapping out deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, scientists plan to find cures
for various diseases, develop better, more efficient drugs, grow new organs, evaluate
environment hazards, and eventually build a human being.
Inside of every single cell in our bodies there are 46 chromosomes that are made
up of DNA. Half of your chromosomes are inherited from each parent, DNA is strung
along the chromosomes. DNA is the living instructional manual found in all living
The building block letters of DNA are Adenine, (A), Thymine, (T), Cytosine,
(C), and Guanine, (G). These are repeated over and over again about 3 billion times in our
body alone. DNA can be subdivided into genes, with each gene carrying the information
on how to produce a unique protein. Each gene consists of three of the building blocks
placed together. Along the stretches of DNA, genes tend to occur in clusters, like cities
separated by vast emptiness. When the DNA is collected all together you have a genome.
In the past scientists believed that there was more than 100,000 genes in the
human genome, but recent studies by Celera Genomics and many other scientist based
teams, have found that the number of genes to be 35,000. (Article #1) This new found
information has made some biologists ecstatic and has wounded the pride of others.
“There are many people who are bothered by the fact that they don’t seem to have (many)
more than twice as many genes as a fruit fly,” said Eric Lander, director of the Whitehead
Institute Center for Genome Research. “It seems to be some kind of affront to human
dignity.” The 30,000 genes in our body compared to the 13,600 in the fruit fly does seem
to raise questions about why we have the abilities to do so much more when we don’t
have that many more genes in our genome. Even though all creatures share the same DNA
code, some people still believe that there is a step-change between the rest of nature and
humans that separates us from them.
The Human Genome Project, starting in the 1980’s, is a research program
designed to construct a detailed genetic and physical map of the human genome,
determine the complete sequence of human DNA, localize 30,000 to 35,000 genes, and
perform similar analysis on the genomes of several other organisms.
Every species has its own genome. Every individual animal within a species has its
very own specific genome. Unless you are an identical twin your genome is different from
everyone on earth – and from everyone who has ever lived. Even though you have your
own distinct genome, it is still recognizable as a human genome.
Analyzing the human genome will give us insights into why people like the foods
they do, why certain people die of heart disease and others of cancer, and why some
people are outgoing and others are paralyzed by shyness.
We will also be able to know
what body shape your children will have, the number of calories they are able to burn off
in rest, and the types of sports they will excel at and enjoy. Studying the genome can
related to a number of things, you can study the whole genome, or only a small part. You
can study the sequence, or function of a specific gene.
We are able to observe what happens when something goes wrong with a gene,
and how it affects our life and body. Certain diseases are cause by mutations in a particular
gene such as Blindness, cancers, bowl disorders, Leprosy, arthritis, Turner’s syndrome,
Down Syndrome, and many other types of diseases. These genetic diseases are caused by
changes (mutations) in the DNA sequence of a gene or a set of genes.
This can happen at
any given time, from when we are a single cell to when we are close to 100 or older. Some
scientists believe that there are specific disorders genes that cause the disease, but it is a
mutation that causes the normal genes to operate improperly. So to clarify all the mishap it
is better to say that there are mutated genes that cause genetic disorders.
In some diseases such as Down Syndrome and Turner’s Syndrome, entire
chromosomes, or large segments of them, are missing, duplicated, or otherwise altered.
Single-Gene disorders result when a mutation causes the product of a single gene
to be .