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Industry Name: Telephone Communications, excluding radio
This industry focuses on operating cellular wireless telecommunications and other wireless telecommunication networks. Other names for this industry include cellular telephone communication carriers, telecommunications carriers, and cellular telephones. Firms in this industry provide communication devices and services that exclude satellite communication carriers.
Development in technology continues to revolutionize the distribution and form of wireless telecommunication services. New advancements increase telecommunication clarity and speed; web services download and upload rates from the services side of the industry. Further advancements in the increased efficiency of transfer of data also allows for cheaper service rates. This allows for growth and production of software and hardware that can help utilize fast web and cellular services to provide the optimal experience for a user, ranging from attaining the latest news information to cloud based computing storage. Increased speeds of microprocessors and higher quality screens and materials used for telecommunication products are constantly being provided on an annual basis.
This industry provides products focused on providing mobile systems for consumers that ranges from basic telecommunication processes to substitutes for basic computational tasks. Establishments in this industry provide mobile products that range from the latest hardware and software advancements in the industry to mid and lower end hardware and software specifications. Hardware such as smartphones and basic telecommunication devices are included in this industry.
History: See Appendix D for a timeline of key events in telecommunication development.
In 1876 Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. The following year, the first private telephone was installed in the home of Charles Williams of Somerville, Massachusetts. By the end of 1880, 47,900 telephones were in use in the United States. In 1895, Guglielmo Marconi proved the feasibility of radio communications by sending and receiving the first radio signal. With further advancements in long wave radio signals, four years later, Marconi flashed the first wireless signal across the English Channel. During 1984 The Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association was founded. With standardized telecommunication systems and further development of consumer grade wireless telecommunication, in 1996, Bell Atlantic Mobile launched the first commercial CDMA network in the United States.
Global Sales & Profits:
The total wireless services revenue in 2012 was $185 billion in the United States, with a 102.2% market penetration by the end of December 2012. The total phone sales was 1.7 Billion units in the US, of which, $675million were smartphones. With a substantial increase of mobile phone production and profits, predictions for mobile phone sales are that they will reach $1.86billion by the end of 2013. The overall mobile phone industry is projected to grow by 7.3% in 2013. Projections indicate that over 6.6 billion phones will be in use by 2017, of which 66% will be smartphones. For further information regarding global sales and profits see Appendix E.
Global Employment/ Workforce:
Employment in the telecommunication industry consisted of 858.1 thousand wage-based jobs as of 2012.
Most employment is found in telecommunications equipment installers and repairers, excluding line installers, taking up 39.6% of the employment distribution.
Establishment job sizes?
• Member States shall endeavour to ensure that authorized operating agencies cooperate in the establishment, operation and maintenance of the international network to provide a satisfactory quality of service.
• Member States shall endeavour to ensure the provision of sufficient telecommunication facilities to meet the demand for international telecommunication services.
• Authorized operating agencies shall determine by mutual agreement which international routes are to be used. Pending agreement and provided that there is no direct route existing between the terminal authorized operating agencies concerned, the origin authorized operating agency has the choice to determine the routing of its outgoing telecommunication traffic, taking into account the interests of the relevant transit and destination authorized operating agencies.
• Subject to national law, any user, by having access to the international network, has the right to send traffic. A satisfactory quality of service should be maintained to the greatest extent practicable, corresponding to the relevant ITU-T Recommendations.
• Member States shall endeavour to ensure that international telecommunication numbering resources specified in ITU-T Recommendations are used only by the assignees and only for the purposes for which they were assigned; and that unassigned resources are not used.
• Member States shall endeavour to ensure that international calling line identification (CLI) information is provided taking into account the relevant ITU-T Recommendations.
• Member States should create an enabling environment for the implementation of regional telecommunication traffic exchange points, with a view to improving quality, increasing the connectivity and resilience of networks, fostering competition and reducing the costs of international telecommunication interconnections.
Global regulations for people purchasing a telephone communications product are minimal. However, if an individual decides to become involved in contractual agreement between a telecommunications provider, identification and a valid payment method is required. Moreover, based on the international telecommunications law, which was proposed to protect people against harmful interference, members are allowed to “stop the transmission of any private telegram which may appear dangerous to the security of the State or contrary to their laws, to public order or to decency, provided that they immediately notify the office of origin of the stoppage of any such telegram or part thereof, except when such notification may appear dangerous to the security of the State.” Other regulations include “the right to cut off any other private telecommunications which may appear dangerous to the security of the State or contrary to its laws, to public order or to decency.”
The International Telecommunications Union has collaborated to create a standard for a universal wireless telecommunication in order to provide wireless telecommunication services for consumers around the world. The industry standards include:
• A high degree of commonality of functionality worldwide while retaining the flexibility to support a wide range of services and applications in a cost efficient manner;
• Compatibility of services within International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT) and with fixed networks;
• Capability of interworking with other radio access systems;
• High quality mobile services;
• User equipment suitable for worldwide use;
• User-friendly applications, services and equipment;
• Worldwide roaming capability; and,
• Enhanced peak data rates to support advanced services and applications (100 Mbit/s for high and 1 Gbit/s for low mobility were established as targets for research)*.
• The incorporation of a Global System of Mobile communications (GSM) was developed by the European Telecommunications Standards
Institute, which incorporates multiple carrier frequencies including 850 or 1900Mhz for 2G networks and 2100Mhz bands for 3G networks. The GSM network takes 80% of the industry market share.
These features enable IMT-Advanced to address evolving user needs and the capabilities of IMT-Advanced systems are being continuously enhanced in line with user trends and technology developments.
* Data rates sourced from Recommendation ITU-R M.1645 – ´Framework and overall objectives of the future development of IMT-2000 and systems beyond IMT-2000´.
Industry Related Professional and Trade Associations:
Telecommunications Industry Association
Since 1988, the Telecommunications Industry Association helps develop voluntary, consensus-based industry standards for a wide variety of Information and Communication Technologies products, and currently represents over 500 companies. TIA’s Standards and Technology Department operates twelve engineering committees, which develop guidelines for private radio equipment, cellular towers, data terminals, satellites, telephone terminal equipment, accessibility, VoIP devices, structured cabling, data centers, mobile device communications, multimedia multicast, vehicular telematics, healthcare ICT, machine-to-machine communications, and smart utility networks.
CTIA The Wireless Association
The industry trade group helps represent the wireless telecommunications industry including cellular, personal communication services and enhanced specialized mobile radio providers and suppliers, and providers and manufacturers of wireless data services and products. As a main supporter of acquiring more electromagnetic spectrum of the United State’s wireless industry and having a huge role in repealing the Internal Revenue Service listed property rule for mobile devices, one of the CITA’s main purposes is to help lobby all levels of government decisions in the industry. Moreover, the CTIA participated in the development of model state legislation that would make manual texting while driving illegal. Major accomplishments also include supporting the 2010 passage of the 21st Century Telecommunications Act, which ensured every United States citizen has access to wireless services.
Industry Related Periodicals & Newsletters:
The telephone communications industry has several industry related periodicals, newsletters, magazines and journals. Some of these are:
America’s Network, Billing and OSS World, Cabling Installation & Maintenance, Call Center, Lightwave, Mobile Radio Technology, Wireless Week, and Fierce Telecom.
Industry Forecasts/ Outlook:
The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) announced the forecast for the use of telecommunications throughout 2013 till 2016, with the prediction of skyrocketing use of wireless data. TIA’s 2012 forecast for the industry was a 4% growth rate compared to the 6% annual growth rate. As the U.S. mobile ecosystem generated economic activity of nearly $200billion in 2012, this puts telecommunications within the top 50 largest economies in the world and has a prediction of an annual growth rate at 3% till 2017.
Further predictions of 2013 include consumers spending $108 billion on wireless data and $91.5 billion on wireless voice, compared to 2011 when consumers spent $73.6 billion on wireless data and $102.3 billion on wireless voice. Compared to other computer devices, in Q4 2010, there were 101 million mobile broadband-dependent smartphones sold versus 92 million PCs. As worldwide telecommunications spending increases to $5 trillion in 2013, of which $1.2 trillion in the United States, the telecommunications industry is preparing for the growing demand of technically superior products including the development of 4 Generation handsets. However, with government locks on the spectrum range allowed, predictions indicate a spectrum shortage as early as 2015.