The essay is an effort to analyse. evaluate and knock issues impacting the educational system through the old ages with the terminal position of urging possible betterments. The metabolism of Filipino instruction through the old ages was a gradual procedure brought approximately by coevalss of colonialism and imperialism. From the Spaniards to the Americans. to the Nipponese even during the Liberation period up to the EDSA revolution. alterations in instruction did non fit the high hopes of the Filipino people. Soon. the Philippine educational system needs to turn to issues non merely of handiness and quality in supplying instruction for all. Other issues demands to addressed involved the function of instruction in the national development. the unresponsive course of study. improper monitoring of plans implemented. globalisation of instruction and even political relations in instruction.Order now
For the Filipino instruction to win its ailments and jobs must be addressed. There is a demand for values reorientation of the Filipinos as a key to national development. Teachers’ transmutation. in footings of their values orientation is necessary. Part of the teachers’ transmutation must include their upgrading or updating for professional and personal development. Hence. authorities support and intercession. along this line is really much needed. As these really same ailments and jobs have been hunting the state for the last several decennaries. failure to make so will merely intensify these jobs in the coming old ages. Keywords: colonialism. imperialism. educational system. globalisation
INTRODUCTION Philippine Education is a merchandise of long history of battle. Its metabolism was a gradual procedure which was a merchandise of coevalss of colonialism and imperialism. The Spaniards were for sometimes. successful in doing the indigens illiterate and uneducated. From the coming of Legazpi in 1570 to 1762. the indigens were contented to be lieges of Spain. The Spaniards triumphed in utilizing faith to do the people submissive and unquestioning. The people blindly obeyed their foreign Masterss with the hope of redemption in the hereafter. The Spanish policy focused on handling the indigens as a ward ; hence. there is no demand for them to be educated. This policy offered no chance for the Indios ( as what the Spaniards name the Filipinos during that clip ) to better their batch in the colonial society.
However. the 2nd stage of Spanish colonisation. from 1762 – 1896 was a period of rousing. It marked the start of the realisation. the morning of critical questions and. finally. of revolution. The planetary alterations during that clip. like the gap of Suez Canal. the Gallic Revolution. the gap of the Philippines to universe trade and commercialism. among others. provided chance for the illustrados ( the educated category during the Spanish period ) to direct their kids to school. even in Europe. History tells us that instruction during the Spanish colonisation was selective. It was more of a privilege than a right. Educational chances were so limited that larning became the ownership of a chosen few. Merely the illustrados. the likes of Jose Rizal. the Luna brothers. the Pardo de Taveras and others. availed of it. even with rough intervention and favoritism from their Spanish coevalss. Learning. hence. became a badge of privilege. There was a broad spread between the illustrados and the multitudes. Even if the propaganda motion was spearheaded by them. it was apparent that they favored the assimilation of the Philippines with Spain.
This was a clear indicant that. educated they possibly. they were still prisoners of Spain. The great multitudes. the bulk of the uneducated. were those who favored the separation of the Philippines from Spain. Aware of their educational disability. their desire for freedom was. for a piece. suppressed. giving the educated illustrados the privilege of leading. However. when all else failed. the uneducated multitudes had no pick but to contend for their freedom. The Spain’s policy neglected the instruction of the indigens. more so the tolerance and growing of native leading. In fact. it was hostile to every influence coming from the outside universe. Although. Spain initiated educational reforms by go throughing Torahs on instruction. these did non pacify the ungratified heads and the combustion Black Marias of the indigens. The Filipino revolution against Spain which was sparked by the find of the Katipunan in 1896. resulted in the resignation of the last Spanish governor- general Diego de los Rios to the Ilonggo revolutionarios headed by General Martin Delgado on December 25. 1898 in Plaza Alfonso XII. ( now Plaza Libertad ) in Iloilo City. This event heralded the terminal of Spanish regulation in the Philippines.
However. subsequently did the indigens realized. that with the Spaniards go forthing the Philippines. another maestro knocked at the door. the Americans. Education was used by the Americans as one of the most effectual agencies of lenifying the restless indigens. Schools were established all over the archipelago. The indigens were taught how to read and compose by their American instructors. They learned American geographics. American history. lives of American heroes. sang the Star Spangled Banner and learned the English linguistic communication. The Americans was successful in doing the indigens their “little brown brothers. ” The Filipinos regarded instruction as the most effectual vehicle for societal mobility. The Americans made instruction accessible to all. regardless of position in life.
This made the Filipinos appreciate the Americans more. Even if literacy rate continued to increase in the first two decennaries of American business. it undeniably favored the elite in society who can afford to finance the university instruction of their kids. Although. the Americans claimed that instruction has succeeded in the Philippines because it had somehow transformed. the one time nescient people. into a literate population. imbued in them the values of civic consciousness. had lessened disease and epidemic. it failed to develop the moral and political leading. the state so urgently needs. Education during the American period brought with it advancement. together with its ailments and defects. On the one manus. it is undeniable that the constitution of the public school system was good to the Filipinos and to the Philippines. Even if its impact can non be quantified. it was assumed that higher literacy rate among the people contributed to the betterment of their criterion of life. betterment in public wellness and employment chances that hasten economic growing. It had besides awakened in them their political engagement.
Education was seen as a vehicle for societal mobility and attainment of democratic ideals. The success of public instruction during the American period was an accomplishment cited by Filipino leaders as cogent evidence of their capacity for selfgovernment. On the other manus. American instruction was the H2O that bit by bit diminished the flicker of firing Filipino patriotism. The educational system established by the Americans was non entirely for giving the Filipinos the gift of literacy. but more so for their economic and political intents. This was clearly seen in the Benevolent Assimilation edict of President William McKinley which states. among others “… . . to supply the Filipinos the gift of civilisation either by assimilation or conquering. ” Hence. in malice of the proclamation of the Americans that they were in the Philippines because the Filipinos needed them as their usher and defender. the fact remained that the Filipinos were still a conquered state and that they had to weave their life harmonizing to the form of American laterality. American instruction was a successful instrument of colonisation. It bit by bit disoriented the Filipinos sense of national individuality because it introduced them into an wholly new universe. strange. yet disputing. The usage of English as medium of direction widens the divide between the elite and the Filipino multitudes. The Filipinos started to larn non merely a new linguistic communication but an wholly new manner of life.
They learned everything American. which they believed is the beginning of their instruction. On 2nd idea. since it was the start of their disaffection from their roots. the development of their colonial outlook. it was in world the start of their miseducation. The Filipinos educated during the American period imbibed a different cultural orientation. They were a people possessing no patriotism in their Black Marias which will spur them to give for the public assistance of the state. It is hapless to state that this was the consequence of the failure of Philippine instruction. During the Nipponese invasion and debut of their civilization and extremist patriotism in Asia. the Filipinos fought side by side with the Americans. This was a clear indicant that American instruction succeeded in modeling the heads and character of the Filipinos to appreciate and refund this gift from their “big white brother. ”
The Nipponese business destroyed the public school system by pull stringsing it for their advantage. School edifices. books and other educational stuffs were destroyed. There was a dislocation of the societal values of the Filipinos. Yet. there was a desire for some to gain instruction offered by the Nipponese established schools. The period after the war marked a passage of the Philippines. non merely in footings of political leading but besides in footings of instruction. There was monolithic rebuilding non merely of substructures. but more so of the values of the Filipinos that was wrecked during the war. This was facilitated by the Americans. There was monolithic rehabilitation of school edifices and the Restoration through the school system. of the values that were practiced during the pre-war society. However. the political instability of the freshly independent nation-state affected the schools in seting this aim to world.
The period after the release was marked by rapid economic growing which was matched with the rapid addition in population. urbanisation and demand for societal services. This scenario triggered the Joint Committee of Congress on Educational reform to describe in 1951. that the public school system was in crisis. and the Filipinos must happen solutions to this. Further. the commission recommended the full twenty-four hours session and the offering of Grade seven for the primary degree. but this were non implemented nor acted into jurisprudence. It is to be noted that the failure of the authorities to turn to this crisis became one of the root causes of the perennial instruction crises of the wining decennaries. However. the period from the mid 50’s was characterized by rapid economic growing. doing instruction an built-in constituent for this economic development. Paradoxically. one may inquire how the educational system that is in crisis can lend to economic growing. True. there was growing in the economic system but jobs encountered that were rooted in societal conditions. were frequently blamed on the insufficiencies of the educational system.
Surveies showed that gaining a college grade was non a warrant for a stable occupation that can supply better income. This motivated the educated Filipinos. particularly the in-between category to switch their involvement in happening better paying occupations abroad. This phenomenon contributed to the hegira of the best educated Filipinos ensuing to “brain drain. ” The rise of pupil activism during the 60’s was partially fueled by the instruction crisis. Even with the new ways of bring forthing and conveying cognition developed in the different sectors. this was non plenty to infest the insufficiency of public instruction. Even the 14 old ages of soldierly jurisprudence. characterized by repression and autocratic policies. was non successful in reconstructing the moral aims of instruction. After the EDSA people power revolution. the Aquino disposal brought a new period in instruction history. New constructs were introduced such as schools for the people. democratic and relevant instruction. and instruction as a right non a privilege. emerged and taken up by the civil society.
Soon. the Philippine educational system is faced by several issues that need to be addressed in order to better the bringing of instruction to the most figure of the population. One of this is the quality and handiness of instruction to its takers. Undeniably. the Philippines authorities. in malice of its insufficiency of supplying some basic services to its people. is making its best to supply the basicss of basic schooling to its people for free. Similarly. the 1987 Philippine Constitution provides that public secondary instruction must be free. This legal authorizations resulted to the addition in registration of public simple and secondary schools. Hence. entree to public instruction is now a right of every Filipino kid and a duty of the parents.
However. those who can afford still sponsor private establishments for the instruction of their kids because of the issue of quality. To supply quality instruction to all pupils is the most of import mission of every educational establishment. However. with the many-sided jobs confronting the public schools. its bringing is hindered. Reality tells us that even if the public school instructors are qualified to learn. the deficiency of instructional stuffs. inadequate installations and deficiency of preparation for professional growing hindered them to execute at their best. It is sad to observe that with pupils making up to sixty students and pupils in a schoolroom. the acquisition environment is distorted. This job is besides true even in the private schools. Private schools have to exercise excess attempt to pull a good figure of registrations to see their endurance. The creative activity of the Commission on Higher Education in 1994 did non vouch a pronounced betterment in the bringing of quality instruction in the third degree. Its authorization is to modulate higher instruction establishments including State Universities and Colleges. except establishments which are granted Autonomous position.
Its map includes the giving of licenses to schools in offering plans. the shutting of plans which do non run into the demands and monitoring of all higher instruction establishments. Sadly. CHED. in malice of all its attempts. failed to modulate the gap of plans. This resulted to a mismatch of the educational system to the demands of the society. Universities and colleges produce alumnuss who can non be absorbed by the labour market in the Philippines. These state of affairss bring us to look into the different issues and concerns now confronting the Philippine educational system. Filipino Education: ISSUES AND CONCERNS Let us foremost place the of import issues impacting the Philippine educational system. The first issue is the function of instruction in national development. Several research workers had delved into the different constituents impacting the educational system. more specifically. whether it can work out the many-sided jobs in society. Education has been looked into as the agencies of relieving poorness. diminishing criminalisms. increasing economic benefits and finally elating the criterion of life of the Filipino multitudes.
With these in head. the authorities on its portion has been continuously puting so much resource into the instruction sector. However. with the complexness of educational issues. solutions are far from world. Allied with this issue is the readying of our pupils from the basic instruction up to third degree. The inquiries of how good are the schools equipped and able to develop the students under their attention are important. It is a sad world that merely seven out of 10s students who enroll in Grade 1 finish the simple course of study. and from the seven who continue to secondary. merely 3 are able to finish the course of study. From these three merely one can finish the third instruction. Based on this scenario. how can we anticipate our pupils to assist in state edifice when they do non hold the necessary accomplishments and preparations? World is that. formal instruction has non achieved what it was supposed to accomplish.
Our schools right now are in a predicament on how to maintain kids in school. with the increasing rate of bead outs. The functional literacy of the Filipinos is at its lower limit reflecting the sad province of instruction. There are rampant jobs of child labour. where kids who are supposed to be in the schoolroom are working to assist augment household income. Unemployment rate is lifting every twelvemonth as more pupils graduate from colleges and universities. who can non be accommodated by the labour market. Underemployment is the name of the game since professionals are forced to accept employment far from their countries of specialisation and preparation because they need to work and gain for their households. The spread between the few who are rich and the bulk who are hapless is going wider and bigger. Now what has instruction got to make with this? If experts claimed that instruction is an instrument for national development. where does the job prevarication? Another of import issue facing the educational system is the course of study that is non antiphonal to the basic demands of the state. Let us reflect on the constituents of the present course of study. specifically in the basic instruction.
Our simple students are required to hold nine to ten topics viing for clip allotments. More clip is allotted for topics like English. Science and Mathematics with other topics like wellness. music. values instruction. civics integrated into the Makabayan course of study. Added to this are enrichment topics like Computer literacy. Ethical motives among others ( particularly in the private schools ) . This reflects the precedences of the authorities in educating our immature people. It is a world that a class 1 student carries so many books to school ( inquiring whether all these stuffs are really read in the category ) . This overloaded course of study consequences to difficulty in cognition and accomplishments soaking up among our students. With this pattern how can we anticipate our immature people to develop love of state. nationalism. and other chauvinistic traits. when their constructs of these are non decently taught? Worse. many students drop out of school before they reach the 6th class because of poorness. therefore increasing their opportunities of losing the incipient literacy acquired. and hence. give up the privilege of developing loyal and chauvinistic attitudes.
This sad province. proliferate the rhythm of poorness that the Filipino masses experience. With the changeless alteration in the basic instruction course of study. instructors need to upgrade themselves in order that they can properly implement these alterations. Upgrading requires attending to preparations. seminars. conferences and even registration in alumnus instruction. But with the present conditions of the instructors in the populace schools merely really few can afford this. unless authorities intervenes and supply upgrading activities for free. Another issue that is of import is the changeless execution of plans in instruction which are non decently monitored. It is a fact that technocrats in the instruction section are political appointees. hence they serve at the caprices and pleasances of the naming officer. It is besides a fact that every political disposal wanted to hold their names imprinted in every authorities plan or undertaking. This is really true in the Department of Education. when for case. a section secretary appointed by a peculiar president assumes office. he will be implementing plans and undertakings attuned to the battlecry of that disposal.
Therefore. the old plans and undertakings implemented by the old disposal shall be discontinued. regardless that plan or undertaking is feasible and effectual. because it is non the precedence of the present disposal. and does non transport their names. Added to that is the non rating of plans implemented. A really concrete illustration is the Bridge plan implemented a few old ages ago. This plan screens grade six students by subjecting them to proving. Those who were non able to go through were required to reiterate grade six as a span for their secondary instruction. As a consequence. many students were required to re enroll in class 6. adding a twelvemonth to their simple instruction. But. after many ailments and unfavorable judgments. this plan was discontinued. But what about the losingss incurred by the section? The added twelvemonth in the academic life of the students affected? The added fiscal load to parents? Who will reply and be accountable for this blooper? Is this merely a instance of test and mistake plan execution? Presumably. the plan was non decently studied. but was merely implemented to fulfill the self-importance of the technocrats in the instruction section. Anent to these issues are concerns that the instruction sector have to turn to. First concern is the alleged globalisation of instruction.
This concern was a response to the of all time altering surroundings in the international academic community where pupils must be globally competitory. Therefore. schools must transform their orientation from being parochial to broad. Programs must be realigned to run into international criterions. Qualifications of instructors. installations of the establishments and instructional stuffs and schemes must conform with international accreditation demands. But how many of our establishments. are able to run into this demand? Third establishments continue to bring forth alumnuss who do non hold the necessary employability accomplishments. non merely in footings of the local norms but more so with international criterions. Sadly. even if our alumnuss work abroad they end up working as labourers. house servants and other bluish neckband workers which do non suit their educational certificates. I believe. that you will hold with me that is this non the construct of globalisation we have in head. The Department of Education will implement the K-12 plan by the following school twelvemonth.
This is in response to the alliance of the basic instruction course of study to international criterions. The present system of 6 – 4 – 4. harmonizing to the instruction experts lacks the needed figure of old ages that our pupils have to pass in school. from the simple. secondary up to the third degree. Hence. there is a demand to add two more old ages to our basic instruction so that the pupils will hold more old ages in developing the necessary employability accomplishments they must hold after they graduate from secondary school. But is this truly the reply to the present disability of our educational system? Will adding two old ages bring more benefits? Or will it merely ensue to more fiscal deductions. non merely to the parents but besides to the authorities? This is a concern that has to be addressed before it becomes excessively late for us to recognize the impact it will make in the succeeding old ages. The educational system does non have much budget from the authorities. This resulted to hapless installations. Schools in the rural countries do non have much support from the authorities. School supplies such as books are received by them about at the terminal of the twelvemonth. What usage will it give the students and pupils?
To add more abuse. text editions contain a batch of mistakes in spelling and facts presented. This is a clear indicant of a government’s failure to supply the basic services needed by its people. The same job is besides experienced by State Universities and College when the authorities decided to cut down their budget allotment. News studies of pupils from the University of the Philippines and other State Universities picketing before Congress demanding for the addition of their budget is non a rare scenario. Students took it upon themselves to air out school budget concerns for these can redound to increase in their matriculation fees. non- upgrading or updating of school and library installations. and non hiring of extra module members. among others.
State tally establishments are empowered to bring forth their income in order that they can pull off their fundss and non depend so much from authorities subsidies. It is in this context that school decision makers do their best to win favours from politicians. whom they believe can back up their school plans and undertakings. This consequences to another concern of excessively much political relations in instruction. Politicss in instruction is an issue that soon pervades educational system in the state. The authorities. specifically the legislators. is awkward in explicating Torahs that can turn to the crisis in the educational system. A sad world that is go oning right now is the preparation of policies with the chief intent of doing our educational system at par with those in other states. but there are no concrete guidelines as to how these are to be implemented. Most educational experts are technocrats with no experience in the field. Yes. their plans are good. to state the least. but because of their deficiency of experience in existent schoolroom learning. they fail to analyze the application of these plans. One specific illustration is the Bridge Program that was implemented a few old ages ago. This plan assessed the competence of Grade Six pupils to be promoted to High School. There were grade six students who scored below the passing grade that were made to reiterate grade six to bridge their admittance to high school. Therefore. this added another twelvemonth of simple schooling.
However. after a twelvemonth of its execution. the plan was stopped. Worst. instructors in the schoolrooms were non punctually informed of the grounds for its noncontinuance. This is merely one of the many educational plans implemented in the Philippine educational system that were non decently monitored and evaluated. This brings to a decision that Filipinos are merely good contrivers but non good implementers and judges. Undeniably. decision makers of province tally establishments solicit fiscal support from politicians who can prolong their school undertakings. There is nil incorrect with this. However. if the support given by politician must be equated by some favours from school functionaries. this becomes a major concern by everybody. There are instances where principals. supervisors and even overseer of schools and divisions are appointed because they are recommended by good known senators. congresswomans. governors and even city managers. This pattern extends even up to the lowest degree.
Politicians recommend their relations to be hired as instructors and other school staff. And if the principal has some debt of gratitude to the politician because of the support he is giving to the school. his recommendation can non be refused. This pattern defeats the intent of testing appliers for learning places because even if you are first in the ranking. but you do non hold a political dorsum up. you will be the least precedence in engaging. Although we can non wholly separate political relations in instruction. it is of great import that objectiveness. equity and justness must be observed. It is really dry that schemes like these go on in an establishment that is expected to learn and instill good moral values and virtuousnesss among the immature people of Philippine society. As pedagogues. what so can we make to transform the image that the educational system had propagated through the old ages?
As an pedagogue. I believe that entire transmutation must be implemented in the instruction sector of the state. When I say transmutation of the instruction sector I refer to the entire re orientation of the system which would get down from policy transmutation. Education policies and plans. including the course of study must be carefully evaluated and studied whether they are attuned to the demands of the people and the state. Review of the commissariats must be done in all degrees and engagement of the stakeholders must be solicited. Experts must be realistic in coming up with more come-at-able policies. that will turn to non merely the educational jobs but more so contribute to economic growing and development of the state. I besides believe in the values reorientation of the Filipinos as a key to national development. The integrating of values instruction in the course of study. I believe is still non plenty to turn to this demand.
Valuess become more lasting in the heads and Black Marias of the students and pupils when they are caught. modeled by their wise mans. instead than being discussed as abstract constructs in the schoolrooms. Therefore. there is an pressing call for teacher transmutation. in footings of their values orientation. I believe that instructors can non go effectual theoretical accounts of good moral values unless they undergo some procedure of values transmutation. It is ever wise to state “follow what I say and do. ” instead than “follow what I say. do non follow what I do. ” It is merely when students and pupils concretely observe their instructors systematically pattern these good values that they will be able to retroflex these in themselves. These. I believe is easier said than done. But unless we start making it. we can non claim tested. Last. I believe that teachers’ transmutation must include their upgrading or updating for professional and personal development. Even if the wage of the ordinary public school instructor had been standardized to be competitory. with the increasing economic crisis. it will still be non plenty to afford them attendance to seminars. preparations and registration in alumnus instruction.
Hence. authorities support and intercession. along this line is really much needed. Our instructors are professionals. and I believe their pre-service preparation had equipped them with the necessary accomplishments to learn. Yet. with the promotion in scientific discipline and engineering. there is a great demand for them to get competency in the usage of these province of the art equipments to heighten their instruction accomplishments. The authorities must put on our instructors because it is through them that we train and develop the heads of our hereafter leaders. As they say. demo me your schools and I will state you what society you will hold.
Apilado. Digna ( 2008 ) . A History of Paradox: Some Notes on Philippine Public Education in the twentieth Century. Barrows. David ( 1910 ) . What May Be Expected from Philippine Education? . The Journal of Race Development. Vol 1. No. 2. pp. 156 – 168. Bautista. M. C. . Bernanrdo. A. and Ocampo. D ( 2008 ) . When reforms Don’t Transform: Contemplations on Institutional reforms in the Department of Education. Human Development Network Discussion Paper. Constantino. Renato ( 1959 ) . The Miseducation of the Filipino. Weekly Graphics. Doronila. Ma. Luisa ( 1999 ) . The Transformation of Filipino instruction: An Analysis and Critique of Some Current and Emerging Policy Reforms. Funtecha. H. & A ; Padilla. M. ( 2004 ) . Study Guide in Philippine History for Teachers and Students. Iloilo City: Mindset Publishing. Guillermo. Ramon ( 1997 ) . Apologizing Failures: The Filipino Government in the Education Sector. Manalang. Priscilla ( 1977 ) . Issues in Philippine Education. Philippine Sociological Review. Vol 25. pp. 63 – 68 Pertierra. Raul ( 1995 ) . The Mythology and Politics of Philippine Education. Kasarinlan. Vol. 10. No. 3. pp. 110 – 120. Trewby. James ( 2007 ) . The Philippines: Development Issues and Education. World Wide Web. ajssh. leena-luna. co. jp