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Different metals Essay

Introduction

Different metals get ionised at different rates. For e.g. , metals like Na when exposed to air unite about immediately with the O present therein ( sodium atom gives up an negatron about every bit shortly as it is in contact with O ) . On the other manus, metals like gold if exposed to aerate even for a really long period, do non respond with air. Even if gold is dropped into an acid, it remains unaffected.

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Based on the easiness with which metals lose their negatrons and organize their ions, the metals are besides arranged in a series called Metal Activity Series. Metallic elements that ionise most easy are placed at the top of the Metal Activity Series, and those that ionise least easy are placed at the lower most terminal.

Most of the elements of the periodic tabular array can be arranged in such a manner, which reflects their order of activity. This agreement of elements in order of their increasing rates of ionization i.e. oxidising and cut downing strength, is besides called the activity series or the electrochemical series.

ELECTROCHEMICAL SERIES

Half-reaction

E° ( V )

Ref.

N2 ( g ) + H++e?HN3 ( aq )

?3.09

Li++e?Li ( s )

?3.0401

N2 ( g ) + 4H2O + 2e?2NH2OH ( aq ) + 2OH?

?3.04

Cs++e?Cs ( s )

?3.026

Rb++e?Rb ( s )

?2.98

K++e?K ( s )

?2.931

Ba2++ 2e?Ba ( s )

?2.912

La ( OH ) 3 ( s ) + 3e?La ( s ) + 3OH?

?2.90

Sr2++ 2e?Sr ( s )

?2.899

Ca2++ 2e?Ca ( s )

?2.868

Eu2++ 2e?Eu ( s )

?2.812

Ra2++ 2e?Ra ( s )

?2.8

Na++e?Na ( s )

?2.71

La3++ 3e?La ( s )

?2.379

Y3++ 3e?Y ( s )

?2.372

Mg2++ 2e?Mg ( s )

?2.372

ZrO ( OH ) 2 ( s ) + H2O + 4e?Zr ( s ) + 4OH?

?2.36

Al ( OH ) 4?+ 3e?Al ( s ) + 4OH?

?2.33

Al ( OH ) 3 ( s ) + 3e?Al ( s ) + 3OH?

?2.31

H2 ( g ) + 2e?2H?

?2.25

Ac3++ 3e?Ac ( s )

?2.20

Be2++ 2e?Be ( s )

?1.85

U3++ 3e?U ( s )

?1.66

Al3++ 3e?Al ( s )

?1.66

Ti2++ 2e?Ti ( s )

?1.63

ZrO2 ( s ) + 4H++ 4e?Zr ( s ) + 2H2O

?1.553

Zr4++ 4e?Zr ( s )

?1.45

TiO ( s ) + 2H++ 2e?Ti ( s ) + H2O

?1.31

Zn ( OH ) 42?+ 2e?Zn ( s ) + 4OH-

?1.199

Ti2O3 ( s ) + 2H++ 2e?2TiO ( s ) + H2O

?1.23

Ti3++ 3e?Ti ( s )

?1.21

Mn2++ 2e?Mn ( s )

?1.185

Te ( s ) + 2e?Te2?

?1.143

V2++ 2e?V ( s )

?1.13

Nb3++ 3e?Nb ( s )

?1.099

Sn ( s ) + 4H++ 4e?SnH4 ( g )

?1.07

SiO2 ( s ) + 4H++ 4e?Si ( s ) + 2H2O

?0.91

B ( OH ) 3 ( aq ) + 3H++ 3e?B ( s ) + 3H2O

?0.89

TiO2++ 2H++ 4e?Ti ( s ) + H2O

?0.86

Bi ( s ) + 3H++ 3e?BiH3

?0.8

2H2O+ 2e?H2 ( g ) + 2OH?

?0.8277

Zn2++ 2e?Zn ( Hg )

?0.7628

Zn2++ 2e?Zn ( s )

?0.7618

Ta2O5 ( s ) + 10H++ 10e?2Ta ( s ) + 5H2O

?0.75

Cr3++ 3e?Cr ( s )

?0.74

?+e?Au ( s ) + 2CN?

?0.60

Ta3++ 3e?Ta ( s )

?0.6

PbO ( s ) + H2O + 2e?Pb ( s ) + 2OH?

?0.58

2TiO2 ( s ) + 2H++ 2e?Ti2O3 ( s ) + H2O

?0.56

Ga3++ 3e?Ga ( s )

?0.53

AgI ( s ) +e?Ag ( s ) + I?

?0.15224

U4++e?U3+

?0.52

H3PO2 ( aq ) + H++e?P ( white ) + 2H2O

?0.508

H3PO3 ( aq ) + 2H++ 2e?H3PO2 ( aq ) + H2O

?0.499

H3PO3 ( aq ) + 3H++ 3e?P ( ruddy ) + 3H2O

?0.454

Fe2++ 2e?Fe ( s )

?0.44

2CO2 ( g ) + 2H++ 2e?HOOCCOOH ( aq )

?0.43

Cr3++e?Cr2+

?0.42

Cd2++ 2e?Cd ( s )

?0.40

GeO2 ( s ) + 2H++ 2e?GeO ( s ) + H2O

?0.37

Cu2O ( s ) + H2O + 2e?2Cu ( s ) + 2OH?

?0.360

PbSO4 ( s ) + 2e?Pb ( s ) + SO42?

?0.3588

PbSO4 ( s ) + 2e?Pb ( Hg ) + SO42?

?0.3505

Eu3++e?Eu2+

?0.35

In3++ 3e?In ( s )

?0.34

Tl++e?Tl ( s )

?0.34

Ge ( s ) + 4H++ 4e?GeH4 ( g )

?0.29

Co2++ 2e?Co ( s )

?0.28

H3PO4 ( aq ) + 2H++ 2e?H3PO3 ( aq ) + H2O

?0.276

V3++e?V2+

?0.26

Ni2++ 2e?Ni ( s )

?0.25

As ( s ) + 3H++ 3e?AsH3 ( g )

?0.23

MoO2 ( s ) + 4H++ 4e?Mo ( s ) + 2H2O

?0.15

Si ( s ) + 4H++ 4e?SiH4 ( g )

?0.14

Sn2++ 2e?Sn ( s )

?0.13

O2 ( g ) + H++e?HO2• ( aq )

?0.13

Pb2++ 2e?Pb ( s )

?0.13

WO2 ( s ) + 4H++ 4e?W ( s ) + 2H2O

?0.12

P ( ruddy ) + 3H++ 3e?PH3 ( g )

?0.111

CO2 ( g ) + 2H++ 2e?HCOOH ( aq )

?0.11

Se ( s ) + 2H++ 2e?H2Se ( g )

?0.11

CO2 ( g ) + 2H++ 2e?CO ( g ) + H2O

?0.11

SnO ( s ) + 2H++ 2e?Sn ( s ) + H2O

?0.10

SnO2 ( s ) + 2H++ 2e?SnO ( s ) + H2O

?0.09

WO3 ( aq ) + 6H++ 6e?W ( s ) + 3H2O

?0.09

P ( white ) + 3H++ 3e?PH3 ( g )

?0.063

HCOOH ( aq ) + 2H++ 2e?HCHO ( aq ) + H2O

?0.03

2H++ 2e?H2 ( g )

0.0000

?0

AgBr ( s ) +e?Ag ( s ) + Br?

+0.07133

S4O62?+ 2e?2S2O32?

+0.08

Fe3O4 ( s ) + 8H++ 8e?3Fe ( s ) + 4H2O

+0.085

N2 ( g ) + 2H2O + 6H++ 6e?2NH4OH ( aq )

+0.092

HgO ( s ) + H2O + 2e?Hg ( cubic decimeter ) + 2OH?

+0.0977

Cu ( NH3 ) 42++e?Cu ( NH3 ) 2++ 2NH3

+0.10

Ru ( NH3 ) 63++e?Ru ( NH3 ) 62+

+0.10

N2H4 ( aq ) + 4H2O + 2e?2NH4++ 4OH?

+0.11

H2MoO4 ( aq ) + 6H++ 6e?Mo ( s ) + 4H2O

+0.11

Ge4++ 4e?Ge ( s )

+0.12

C ( s ) + 4H++ 4e?CH4 ( g )

+0.13

HCHO ( aq ) + 2H++ 2e?CH3OH ( aq )

+0.13

S ( s ) + 2H++ 2e?H2S ( g )

+0.14

Sn4++ 2e?Sn2+

+0.15

Cu2++e?Cu+

+0.159

HSO4?+ 3H++ 2e?SO2 ( aq ) + 2H2O

+0.16

UO22++e?UO2+

+0.163

SO42?+ 4H++ 2e?SO2 ( aq ) + 2H2O

+0.17

TiO2++ 2H++e?Ti3++ H2O

+0.19

SbO++ 2H++ 3e?Sb ( s ) + H2O

+0.20

AgCl ( s ) +e?Ag ( s ) + Cl?

+0.22233

H3AsO3 ( aq ) + 3H++ 3e?As ( s ) + 3H2O

+0.24

GeO ( s ) + 2H++ 2e?Ge ( s ) + H2O

+0.26

UO2++ 4H++e?U4++ 2H2O

+0.273

Re3++ 3e?Re ( s )

+0.300

Bi3++ 3e?Bi ( s )

+0.308

VO2++ 2H++e?V3++ H2O

+0.34

Cu2++ 2e?Cu ( s )

+0.340

3?+e? 4?

+0.36

O2 ( g ) + 2H2O + 4e?4OH? ( aq )

+0.40

H2MoO4+ 6H++ 3e?Mo3++ 2H2O

+0.43

CH3OH ( aq ) + 2H++ 2e?CH4 ( g ) + H2O

+0.50

SO2 ( aq ) + 4H++ 4e?S ( s ) + 2H2O

+0.50

Cu++e?Cu ( s )

+0.520

CO ( g ) + 2H++ 2e?C ( s ) + H2O

+0.52

I2 ( s ) + 2e?2I?

+0.54

I3?+ 2e?3I?

+0.53

?+ 3e?Au ( s ) + 4I?

+0.56

H3AsO4 ( aq ) + 2H++ 2e?H3AsO3 ( aq ) + H2O

+0.56

?+e?Au ( s ) + 2I?

+0.58

MnO4?+ 2H2O + 3e?MnO2 ( s ) + 4OH?

+0.59

S2O32?+ 6H++ 4e?2S ( s ) + 3H2O

+0.60

H2MoO4 ( aq ) + 2H++ 2e?MoO2 ( s ) + 2H2O

+0.65

+ 2H++ 2e?

+0.6992

O2 ( g ) + 2H++ 2e?H2O2 ( aq )

+0.70

Tl3++ 3e?Tl ( s )

+0.72

PtCl62?+ 2e?PtCl42?+ 2Cl?

+0.726

H2SeO3 ( aq ) + 4H++ 4e?Se ( s ) + 3H2O

+0.74

PtCl42?+ 2e?Pt ( s ) + 4Cl?

+0.758

Fe3++e?Fe2+

+0.77

Ag++e?Ag ( s )

+0.7996

Hg22++ 2e?2Hg ( cubic decimeter )

+0.80

NO3? ( aq ) + 2H++e?NO2 ( g ) + H2O

+0.80

?+ 3e?Au ( s ) + 4Br?

+0.85

Hg2++ 2e?Hg ( cubic decimeter )

+0.85

MnO4?+ H++e?HMnO4?

+0.90

2Hg2++ 2e?Hg22+

+0.91

Pd2++ 2e?Pd ( s )

+0.915

?+ 3e?Au ( s ) + 4Cl?

+0.93

MnO2 ( s ) + 4H++e?Mn3++ 2H2O

+0.95

?+e?Au ( s ) + 2Br?

+0.96

Br2 ( cubic decimeter ) + 2e?2Br?

+1.066

Br2 ( aq ) + 2e?2Br?

+1.0873

IO3?+ 5H++ 4e?HIO ( aq ) + 2H2O

+1.13

?+e?Au ( s ) + 2Cl?

+1.15

HSeO4?+ 3H++ 2e?H2SeO3 ( aq ) + H2O

+1.15

Ag2O ( s ) + 2H++ 2e?2Ag ( s ) + H2O

+1.17

ClO3?+ 2H++e?ClO2 ( g ) + H2O

+1.18

Pt2++ 2e?Pt ( s )

+1.188

ClO2 ( g ) + H++e?HClO2 ( aq )

+1.19

2IO3?+ 12H++ 10e?I2 ( s ) + 6H2O

+1.20

ClO4?+ 2H++ 2e?ClO3?+ Water

+1.20

O2 ( g ) + 4H++ 4e?2H2O

+1.23

MnO2 ( s ) + 4H++ 2e?Mn2++ 2H2O

+1.23

Tl3++ 2e?Tl+

+1.25

Cl2 ( g ) + 2e?2Cl?

+1.36

Cr2O72?+ 14H++ 6e?2Cr3++ 7H2O

+1.33

CoO2 ( s ) + 4H++e?Co3++ 2H2O

+1.42

2NH3OH++ H++ 2e?N2H5++ 2H2O

+1.42

2HIO ( aq ) + 2H++ 2e?I2 ( s ) + 2H2O

+1.44

Ce4++e?Ce3+

+1.44

BrO3?+ 5H++ 4e?HBrO ( aq ) + 2H2O

+1.45

?-PbO2 ( s ) + 4H++ 2e?Pb2++ 2H2O

+1.460

?-PbO2 ( s ) + 4H++ 2e?Pb2++ 2H2O

+1.468

2BrO3?+ 12H++ 10e?Br2 ( cubic decimeter ) + 6H2O

+1.48

2ClO3?+ 12H++ 10e?Cl2 ( g ) + 6H2O

+1.49

MnO4?+ 8H++ 5e?Mn2++ 4H2O

+1.51

HO2•+ H++e?H2O2 ( aq )

+1.51

Au3++ 3e?Au ( s )

+1.52

NiO2 ( s ) + 4H++ 2e?Ni2++ 2OH?

+1.59

2HClO ( aq ) + 2H++ 2e?Cl2 ( g ) + 2H2O

+1.63

Ag2O3 ( s ) + 6H++ 4e?2Ag++ 3H2O

+1.67

HClO2 ( aq ) + 2H++ 2e?HClO ( aq ) + H2O

+1.67

Pb4++ 2e?Pb2+

+1.69

MnO4?+ 4H++ 3e?MnO2 ( s ) + 2H2O

+1.70

H2O2 ( aq ) + 2H++ 2e?2H2O

+1.78

AgO ( s ) + 2H++e?Ag++ Water

+1.77

Co3++e?Co2+

+1.82

Au++e?Au ( s )

+1.83

BrO4?+ 2H++ 2e?BrO3?+ Water

+1.85

Ag2++e?Ag+

+1.98

S2O82?+ 2e?2SO42?

+2.010

O3 ( g ) + 2H++ 2e?O2 ( g ) + H2O

+2.075

HMnO4?+ 3H++ 2e?MnO2 ( s ) + 2H2O

+2.09

F2 ( g ) + 2e?2F?

+2.87

F2 ( g ) + 2H++ 2e?2HF ( aq )

+3.05

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Oxidation / decrease and the electrochemical series

Oxidation and decrease in footings of negatron transportation

Reducing agents and oxidizing agents

A reduction agent reduces something else. That must intend that it gives negatrons to it.

Magnesium is good at giving off negatrons to organize its ions. Magnesium must be a good reduction agent.

An oxidising agent oxidises something else. That must intend that it takes negatrons from it.

Copper does n’t organize its ions really readily, and its ions easy pick up negatrons from someplace to return to metallic Cu. Copper ( II ) ions must be good oxidizing agents.

Metallic elements at the top of the series are good at giving away negatrons. They are good cut downing agents. The cut downing ability of the metal increases as you go up the series.

Metallic ions at the underside of the series are good at picking up negatrons. They are good oxidizing agents. The oxidizing ability of the metal ions increases as you go down the series.

The more negative the E° value, the more the place of equilibrium lies to the left – the more readily the metal loses negatrons. The more negative the value, the stronger cut downing agent the metal is.

The more positive the E° value, the more the place of equilibrium lies to the right – the less readily the metal loses negatrons, and the more readily its ions pick them up once more. The more positive the value, the stronger oxidising agent the metal ion is.

REACTIVITY SERIES

Thereactivity seriesoractivity seriesis an empirical series ofmetals, in order of “ responsiveness ” from highest to lowest. It is used to sum up information about the reactions of metals withacidsandwater, individual supplanting reactionsand the extraction of metals from theirores.

Traveling from underside to exceed, the metals:

  • addition in responsiveness ;
  • lose negatrons more readily to organize positive ions ;
  • corrode or stain more readily ;
  • require more energy ( and different methods ) to be separated from their ores
  • become stronger cut downing agents.

Chemical reaction with H2O and acids

The most reactive metals ( for illustration, Na ) will respond with hot H2O to producehydrogenand the metalhydroxide:

2Na ( s ) + 2H2O ( cubic decimeter ) > 2NaOH ( aq ) +H2 ( g )

Metallic elements in the center of the responsiveness series ( for illustration, lead ) will respond with acids, but non H2O, to give H and a metalsalt:

Fe ( s ) +H2SO4 ( aq ) >FeSO4 ( aq ) + H2 ( g )

There is some ambiguity at the boundary lines between the groups.Magnesium, aluminiumandzinccanreact with H2O, but the reaction is normally really slow unless the metal samples are specially prepared to take the surface bed of oxide which protects the remainder of the metal.Copperandsilverwill respond withnitric acid, but non by the simple equation shown for Fe.

Single supplanting reactions

An Fe nail placed in a solution ofcopper sulfatewill rapidly change coloring materials as metallic Cu is deposited. The Fe is converted intoiron ( II ) sulphate:

Fe ( s ) +CuSO4 ( aq ) >Cu ( s ) +FeSO4 ( aq )

In general, a metal can displace any of the metals which are lower in the responsiveness series: the higher metalreducesthe ions of the lower metal. This is used in thethermite reactionfor fixing little measures of metallic Fe, and in theKroll processfor preparingtitanium ( Ti comes at about the same degree as Al in the responsiveness series ) .

Al ( s ) +Fe2O3 ( s ) > Fe ( s ) +Al2O3 ( s )

2Mg ( s ) +TiCl4 ( cubic decimeter ) >Ti ( s ) + 2MgCl2 ( s )

However, other factors can come into drama, as in the readying of metallicpotassiumby the decrease ofpotassium chloridewith Na at 850?C: although Na is lower than K in the responsiveness series, the reaction can continue because K is more volatile, and is preferentially distilled off from the mixture.

Na ( g ) +KCl ( cubic decimeter ) >K ( g ) +NaCl ( cubic decimeter )

Comparison with standard electrode potencies

The responsiveness series is sometimes quoted in the rigorous contrary order ofstandard electrode potencies, when it is besides known as the “ electrochemical series ” :

Li & gt ; K & gt ; Sr & gt ; Ca & gt ; Na & gt ; Mg & gt ; Al & gt ; Zn & gt ; Cr & gt ; Fe & gt ; Cd & gt ; Co & gt ; Ni & gt ; Sn & gt ; Pb & gt ; H & gt ; Cu & gt ; Ag & gt ; Hg & gt ; Pt & gt ; Au

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The places oflithiumandsodiumare changed on such a series: gold and Pt are besides inverted, although this has small practical significance as both metals are extremely unreactive.

Standard electrode potencies offer a quantitative step of the power of a reduction agent, instead than the qualitative considerations of other responsiveness series. However, they are merely valid forstandardconditions: in peculiar, they merely apply to reactions in aqueous solution. Even with this provision, the electrode potencies of Li and Na – and hence their places in the electrochemical series – appear anomalous. The order of responsiveness, as shown by the energy of the reaction with H2O or the velocity at which the metal surface tarnishes in air, appears to be

K & gt ; Na & gt ; Li & gt ; alkalic Earth metals,

the same as the contrary order of the ( gas-phase ) ionization energies. This is borne out by the extraction of metallic Li by the electrolysis of aeutecticmixture oflithium chlorideandpotassium chloride: Li metal is formed at the cathode, non K.

Asaltis a chemical incorporating ametal ionand anegative ionbonded together. The metal ions might dwell of Cu, Na or Zn etc. The negative ions could be sulphate, chloride or oxide etc.

Some metals are stronger than others. If a strong metal is assorted with a salt from a weaker metal, the strong metal grabs the negative ion from the weaker 1. Here is an illustration:

  1. Lead is stronger than Gold, so if Lead is heated with Gold chloride, it reacts to give Lead chloride and Gold
  2. Calcium is stronger than Zinc, so if Calcium is heated with Zinc chloride, it reacts to give Calcium chloride and Zinc
  3. Iron is stronger than Silver, so if Iron is heated with Silver sulfide, it reacts to give Iron sulfide and Silver
  4. Zinc is stronger than Lead, so if Zinc is heated with Lead phosphate, it reacts to give Zinc phosphate and Lead
  5. Sodium is stronger than Iron, so if Sodium is heated with Iron bromide, it reacts to give Sodium bromide and Iron

Features of the electrochemical series ( Activity series )

In the electrochemical series the elements that are lower in the series get discharged ( lose their charge to go impersonal ) more easy than the 1s above them.

Hydrogen is besides included as a mention point in the series.

The positively charged power and the cut downing power of the elements on a regular basis decrease downwards while the negatively charged power and the oxidising power of the elements regularly addition upwards.

Significance of the electrochemical series ( Activity series )

This series is an of import tool that helps in foretelling many electrochemical reactions.

All metals placed above H will displace H from acids while those below it do non displace H from acids.

Elementss with high electropositive or negatively charged power are extremely reactive elements.

Each component in the series will displace any other component below it from a solution of its salt. For e.g. , when we add zinc turnings in Cu sulfate solution, Cu is replaced by Zn because Zn is in higher place as compared to Cu.

In the replacing of one metal ion from its solution by another metal, the component that gives up negatrons most easy to go an ion will be in the solution. This is because it will accept the negatrons back with greatest trouble.

Application of electrochemical series

  1. Higher the SRP, greater is the inclination to accept e- , higher is the inclination to acquire reduced and greater is the oxidising power. Fluorine system ( F2/F ) -has the highest SRP and hence it possesses highest oxidizing power and this increases down the group.
  2. Lower the SRP, lesser is the inclination to accept e- , higher is the inclination to donate negatrons, higher is the inclination to acquire oxidized and greater is the cut downing power.
  3. In the ECS, Lithium has the lowest SRP. Hence, it has the highest cut downing power and this goes on diminishing down the series.
  4. Higher the SRP, greater is the inclination to accept e-to signifier anions, higher is the electro negative nature. In the ECS, Fluorine system has the highest SRP and hence it is most electro negative and this goes on increasing down the series.
  5. Lower the SRP, lesser is the inclination to accept the negatrons, greater is the inclination to donate the e-to signifier cations and higher is the electro positive nature. In the ECS, Li system has the lowest SRP and is extremely electro positive which goes on diminishing down the series.
  6. A metal system happening above H2, displaces H2from dilute acids, from H2O steam depending on its place and gets tarnished.
  7. A metal system happening below H2does non displace H2from dilute acids, H2O or steam does non acquire tarnished.

In general, a metal system with highest SRP, has highest oxidising power, more electro negative, gets displaced by all other system above it and ever Acts of the Apostless as positive electrode.

A metal system with lowest SRP has highest cut downing power, more electro positive, displaces all other systems below it and ever Acts of the Apostless as negative electrode.

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Different metals Essay
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Introduction

Different metals get ionised at different rates. For e.g. , metals like Na when exposed to air unite about immediately with the O present therein ( sodium atom gives up an negatron about every bit shortly as it is in contact with O ) . On the other manus, metals like gold if exposed to aerate even for a really long period, do non respond with air. Even if gold is dropped into an acid, it remains unaffected.

Based on the easiness with which metals lose their neg

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Different metals Essay
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