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An eating disorder associated with a distorted body image that may be caused by a mental disorder. Inadequate calorie intake results in severe weight loss (see also bulimia and intentional weight loss).
Eating disorder – anorexia nervosa
Causes, incidences, and risk factors
The exact cause of this disorder is not known, but social attitudes towards body appearance and family factors play a role in its development. The condition affects females more frequently, usually in adolescence or young adulthood. Gorging followed by vomiting (spontaneous or self-induced) and inappropriate use of laxatives or diuretics are behaviors that may accompany this disorder. Risk factors are being Caucasian, having an upper or middle economic background, being female, and having a goal-oriented family or personality. The incidence is 4 out of 100,000 people.
In some cases, prevention may not be possible. Encouraging healthy, realistic attitudes toward weight and diet may be helpful. Sometimes, counselling can help.
weight loss of 25% or greater cold intolerance constipation menstruation, absent skeletal muscle atrophy loss of fatty tissue low blood pressure dental cavities increased susceptibility to infection blotchy or yellow skin dry hair, hair loss depression (may be present
Anorexia nervosa is a serious, potentially life-threatening eating disorder characterized by self-starvation and excessive weight loss.
Anorexia Nervosa has five primary symptoms:
Refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for height, body type, age, and activity level.
Intense fear of weight gain or being “fat.”
Feeling “fat” or overweight despite dramatic weight loss.
Loss of menstrual periods in girls and women post-puberty.
Extreme concern with body weight and shape.
The chances for recovery increase the earlier anorexia nervosa is detected. Therefore, it is important to be aware of some of the warning signs of anorexia nervosa.
Warning Signs of Anorexia Nervosa:
Dramatic weight loss.
Preoccupation with weight, food, calories, fat grams, and dieting .
Refusal to eat certain foods, progressing to restrictions against whole categories of food (i.e., no carbohydrates, etc.).
Frequent comments about feeling “fat” or overweight despite weight loss.
Anxiety about gaining weight or being “fat.”
Denial of hunger.
Development of food rituals (i.e., eating foods in certain orders, excessive chewing, rearranging food on a plate).
Consistent excuses to avoid mealtimes or situations involving food.
Excessive, rigid exercise regimen–despite weather, fatigue, illness, or injury, the need to “burn off” calories taken in.
Withdrawal from usual friends and activities.
In general, behaviors and attitudes indicating that weight loss, dieting, and control of food are becoming primary concerns.
Health Consequences of Anorexia Nervosa:
Anorexia nervosa involves self-starvation. The body is denied the essential nutrients it needs to function normally, so it is forced to slow down all of its processes to conserve energy. This “slowing down” can have serious medical consequences:
Abnormally slow heart rate and low blood pressure, which mean that the heart muscle is changing. The risk for heart failure rises as heart rate and blood pressure levels sink lower and lower.
Reduction of bone density (osteoporosis), which results in dry, brittle bones.
Muscle loss and weakness.
Severe dehydration, which can result in kidney failure.
Fainting, fatigue, and overall weakness.
Dry hair and skin, hair loss is common.
Growth of a downy layer of hair called lanugo all over the body, including the face, in an effort to keep the body warm.
About Anorexia Nervosa:
Approximately 90-95% of anorexia nervosa sufferers are girls and women (Gidwani, 1997).
Between 1-2% of American women suffer from anorexia nervosa (Zerbe, 1995).
Anorexia nervosa is one of the most common psychiatric diagnoses in young women (Hsu, 1996).
Between 5-20% of individuals struggling with anorexia nervosa will die. The probabilities of death increases within that range depending on the length of the condition (Zerbe, 1995).
Anorexia nervosa has one of the highest death rates of any mental health condition.
Anorexia nervosa typically appears in early to mid-adolescence.
Gidwani, G.P. and Rome, E.S. (1997). Eating Disorders. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 40(3), 601-615.
Hsu, G.L.K. (1996). Epidemiology of the Eating Disorders. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 19(4), 681-697.
Zerbe, K.J. (1995). The Body Betrayed. Carlsbad, CA: Grze Books.