A Study on the Influence of “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” in Dietary Supplements on the Buying Behavior of the Customers of Mercury Drug Branches in Dasmarinas, Cavite An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to The Faculty of the COMMUNICATION ARTS DEPARTMENT COLLEGE OF LIBERAL ARTS DE LA SALLE UNIVERSITY-DASMARINAS Dasmarinas, Cavite In Partial Fulfilment Of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Arts in Communication Cervantes, April E. Vergara, Anna Lou C. Vidamo, Margielyn L. April 2010 APPROVAL SHEET
This undergraduate thesis entitled: Influence of “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” in Dietary Supplements on the Buying Behavior of the Customers of Mercury Drug Branches in Dasmarinas, Cavite by Cervantes, April E. , Vergara, Anna Lou C. , Vidamo, Margielyn L. in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Arts in Communication, has been examined and is recommended for acceptance and approval for oral defense. Roel S. Ramirez, APR MIAN RAYRAY Professor Adviser THESIS REVIEW PANEL Approved by the Committee on oral examination with a grade of __________.Order now
ARTIN UMALI NORNELYN L. CACHUELA MemberMember Roel S. Ramirez, APR Member Accepted and approved in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Arts in Communication. Rosanni Recreo – Sarile Chair, Communication Arts Department Emmanuel F. Calairo, PhD Dean, College of Liberal Arts Abstract De La Salle University- Dasmarinas Dasmarinas, Cavite Title: Influence of “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” in Dietary Supplements on the Buying Behavior of the Customers of Mercury Drug Branches in Dasmarinas, Cavite. Authors: Cervantes, April E. , Vergara, Anna Lou C. , Vidamo, Margielyn L.
Degree: AB Communication Date started: February 11, 2010 Objectives of the Study Statement of the Problem General Problem Statement: To determine the influence of “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” in dietary supplements on the buying behavior of the customers of Mercury Drug branches in Dasmarinas, Cavite. Specific Problem Statements: 1. What is the level of awareness of the customers of Mercury Drug branches in Dasmarinas, Cavite to “No Approved Therapeutic Claims”? 2. How well do the customers of Mercury Drug branches in Dasmarinas, Cavite understand the “No Approved Therapeutic Claims”? . How does “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” affect the buying decision of the customers of Mercury Drug branches in Dasmarinas, Cavite in terms of their: 3. a Buying with conviction, 3. b Buying with hesitation, 3. c Postponement in buying, and 3. d Not buying at all? 4. How frequent do the customers of Mercury Drug branches in Dasmarinas, Cavite buy dietary supplements? Scope and Coverage This study focused on the influence of “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” in dietary supplements on the buying behavior of the customers of Mercury Drug branches in Dasmarinas, Cavite.
The respondents of the study were restricted to the customers of Mercury Drug branches located only in Dasmarinas, Cavite. It did not include other consumers buying from other pharmacies or drug stores situated in Dasmarinas, Cavite. The study only focused on dietary supplements and not on the other types of supplements in the market. It concentrated only on the buying behavior of the customers of Mercury Drug branches in Dasmarinas, Cavite. It did not concern the other types of behavior and the effect of dietary supplements to the respondents’ health.
The study centred only on the packaging of dietary supplements that has the disclaimer “No Approved Therapeutic Claims”. Methodology The researchers used descriptive research to obtain information related to the study. It used survey questionnaire as an instrument to get information needed in the study. The researchers conducted and distributed surveys questionnaires using 100 Statistical Boundary as a sampling technique to the customers of different Mercury Drug Branches in Dasmarinas, Cavite_34 respondents in Robinson’s Pala-Pala Branch, 33 respondents in Dasmarinas Aguinaldo Highway Branch, and 33 respondents Paliparan, Dasmarinas Branch.
The researchers used the Percentage Distribution formula to determine the data of the survey: The formula for the computation of percentage distribution is The second formula helped in determining the mean of the data. That is the weighted mean. With the aid of a statistician, the researchers got the results of the survey of the study. From the results, the proponents based the conclusion of the study. Major Findings Based on the result of the survey, it shows that most of the respondents are aware of “No Approved Therapeutic Claims”.
They understand its meaning and it also affects their decision of buying dietary supplements. Therefore, they agree that they are hesitant to buy dietary supplements. Their opinion is neutral when asked about their determination to buy dietary supplements. They agreed that “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” has an effect to their buying decision. For the topic, frequency of buying dietary supplements, most of the respondents answered that they do not buy dietary supplements followed by they buy it once a month. Conclusion: 1. No Approved Therapeutic Claims” has an influence on the buying behavior because most of the customers are aware of the disclaimer and they understand its meaning. 2. They also agreed that it affects their buying decision. It was found out that the customers’ conviction to buy is only on neutral. They agreed that they are hesitant to buy dietary supplements with the disclaimer. They also agreed that they postpone buying dietary supplements and a great percentage agreed that they do not buy at all after seeing the disclaimer. 3. Moreover, most of the customers do not buy dietary supplements.
Recommendations: 1. This study should be used as a source of information for Advertising and Marketing students because of the data presented are related to the course. 2. Future researchers can include different media tools as they are usually used in advertising and it is also important to have the profile of the respondents to know its relation to the influence of the disclaimer “No Approved Therapeutic Claims”. 3. Advertising agencies must have strategies to convince the customers to buy the products since, disclaimer influences the buying behavior of the customers. List of Figures: . Figure 1. The conceptual Paradigm of the Study 2. Table 1. The awareness of “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” indicated on the dietary supplements 3. Table 2. The level of awareness of the customers of Mercury Drug branches in Dasmarinas, Cavite to “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” 4. Table 3. The level of understanding to “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” as perceived by the customers 5. Table 4. The level of decision of buying dietary Supplements 6. Table 5. The level of conviction of the customers in buying dietary supplements with “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” 7. Table 6.
The level of hesitation to buy dietary supplements with “No Approved Therapeutic Claims”. 8. Table 7. The level of postponement in buying dietary supplements with “No Approved Therapeutic Claims”. 9. Table 8. The level of people not buying at all buying dietary supplements with “No Approved Therapeutic Claims”. 10. Table 9. The number of times the respondents buy a box of dietary supplements 11. Table 10. The Summary on the influence of “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” in dietary supplements on the buying behavior of the customers of Mercury Drug branches in Dasmarinas, Cavite
Acknowledgement This thesis would not be possible without the help of these people who had been a major part of our college life: First of all, we would like to thank God Almighty for guiding us, protecting us, and providing us the strength to finish this study. If not for His loving presence, we would have never completed this study and may have, in the process, damaged our friendship. To our families: the Cervantes, Vergara, and Vidamo family, we thank them for being the people who never stood their backs against us and continued to push us and inspire us to do the right things.
They may be different people but one thing is common with them and that is their patience towards us. We thank them most especially for the love they give us everyday of our lives. To the Communication Arts department and to our professors and mentors who served as our second family, we thank you for your encouragement. To our friends especially our Com 42 family who never failed to cheer us up and have been part of our support system together with our families, we appreciate the love and the laughter. TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE1 APPROVAL SHEET 2 ABSTRACT 3-8 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 9 TABLE OF CONTENTS 10-11 Chapter I. Background of the Study Introduction12-17 Statement of the Problem 17- 18 Theoretical/Conceptual Framework 19-25 Hypothesis 26 Scope and Delimitation 26-27 Significance of the Study 27-29
Definition of Terms 29-31 Chapter II. Review of Related Literature Conceptual Literature 32-48 Research Literature49 Synthesis50-51 Chapter III. Methodology Research Design 52-53 Research Locale 53 Sample and Sampling Technique used 53-54 Instrumentation 54-56 Statistical Analysis 56-58 Chapter IV. Results and Discussion Specific Question No. 1 59-63 Specific Question No. 2 64-65 Specific Question No. 3 66-73 Specific Question No. 4 73-77
Chapter V. Summary, Conclusion, Recommendation Summary 78-79 Findings 80 Conclusion 80-84 Recommendation 84-85 References 86-89 Appendices 90-95 Curriculum Vitae Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND This chapter delves on the introduction of this study including the statement of the problem, the rationale, the hypothesis, and the framework used by the researchers. It also includes the study’s scope and limitation, the definition of terms and the significance of the study to different people. Introduction
Advertising nowadays is a basic part of the people’s day to day lives. The public see and hear advertisements every day, from the moment they wake up in the morning and read the latest stories in the newspaper up to the time when they get back from work and watch the late news. It never fails to be included on anything man reads, watches, and listens to. It is a very powerful tool that companies from all over world lavishly use in order to introduce their products or services in the market and then eventually sell them. Advertising is a massive world of its own.
It requires creativity in all its aspects in order to catch the attention of the public (at first), and then persuade these people to come and try their offered products and services. It is a tried and tested medium that allows a product to be a part of the lives of the potential market and permits a service to be a handy assistance that can be used as a functional necessity or a relaxing luxury. It is a paid form of service that reaches out to the masses and intends to persuade them into buying whatever they are offering. It uses the tri-media which is the use of television, radio, and print.
Advertisers buy the airtime to put in their commercials which is played in between television shows and radio programs. On the other hand, print space is what people call to that area in the newspaper, magazines or journals used for print ads. An advertisement is a way that companies use to show the people the benefits that they can acquire from using their products. Most of the time, it is divided into health, beauty/ vanity (which also includes hygiene), food, and other different service products. People use whatever merchandise present in the market that promises the most number of benefits in comparison to other products.
Beauty ads guarantee people a better and improved part of their body like a healthier and whiter skin in 7 days, a straighter and smoother hair, and even smaller eye bags in just a few day’s use. Food ads nonetheless focus on enticing the public with mouth-watering delights that people can experience from different restaurants or fast food chains. Health advertisements, on the other hand are about medicines, supplements, and any kind of pharmaceutical drugs intended to cure or improve a person’s wellbeing. It is, by any means, one of the most important aspects man should give prior attention to.
Health is a vital part of the great experience of living. The truth of this has been known from early times. Every age has made new discoveries about health, thereby providing man with new weapons to fight diseases. Today, steady progress is being made in the field of education, nutrition, medicine, and surgery as well as public health. Attempts are being made to give everyone a fair chance to lead a healthier and fuller life (Nisha, Maimun, 2006). People from all walks of life make conscious efforts to take good care of their health as it defines the kind and the quality of life that one can have.
The correct protection and attention to one’s health also determines the length of a person’s life span. The Filipinos are known to be health conscious individuals who devote a lot of their time attending to their health. The Filipinos ingenuity regarding their physical condition confirms their attitude and perspective about health which can be traced back to the native Filipinos wherein they make use of different herbal and organic plants abundant in the environment to cure their sicknesses and ailments.
However, health nowadays is mixed up with man’s conscious efforts to beautify oneself which results to a conflict on what to better prioritize. With this issue of man’s obsession to stay fit and slim and become healthy at the same time, different means have been utilized to help maintain a desired figure and protect man’s health. And one of these ways which is present in the market today is the use of supplements. Supplements are slowly becoming a trend to Filipinos. These are used to help alleviate health problems and support one’s healthy wellbeing.
Supplements are known to be additional intake that is meant to make up for any deficiency that is present in a person’s body. Some of the examples of supplements are food supplements, herbal supplements, and dietary supplements. In the Philippines and in the United States, food, herbal, and dietary supplements are regulated as foods. This statement means that they are only additional intakes that do not meet the same standards that drugs and over-the-counter medications can provide. Dietary supplements, in particular, are called as nutritional supplements or neutraceuticals.
This type of supplements contains vitamins, minerals, herbs or other botanicals, amino acids, enzymes, and/or other ingredients intended to supplement the diet. This has been very in demand in the market since it not only helps a person regulate his/her weight and “diet” but at the same time acts as a healthy option that is made up of herbal ingredients that assure the people of its safety. In the United States in 1990, all dietary supplements were tightly regulated by the FDA and only included essential nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and proteins.
It was also in the 1990’s when the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act expanded the category to include “herbs or similar nutritional substances”. In 1994, a law was passed that drastically changed the dietary supplement marketplace. That law is the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) that expanded the category of dietary supplements to further include substances such as: “Ginseng, fish oils, enzymes, glandular products such as hormones and steroids, and mixtures of these. According to the US Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994, a dietary supplement is a product that contains substances like vitamins, minerals, foods, botanicals, amino acids and is intended to supplement the usual intake of these substances. Dietary supplements are found in pill, tablet, capsule, powder or liquid form and are meant to be taken by mouth. Some of the examples of these dietary supplements that are present in the Philippines are Fitrum, Slenda, Xenical and more. In the Philippines, however, dietary supplements as required by the law HB03544 must claim a “No (Approved) Therapeutic Claim”.
This House Bill is an act regulating the use of “No (Approved) Therapeutic Claim” on supplemental medicines and other related preparations thereby mandating proper package labelling and establishing a standard of protection and promoting the welfare of consumers and for other purposes. In the US, “No approved therapeutic claims” would generally mean that a supplement has not yet been determined by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) to be as safe and effective as advertised. It could also mean that no studies and long-term research have yet been done to determine the efficacy of the pill, or herb in actually treating anything.
This phrase usually serves as a disclaimer of sorts. This is the reason why the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA) was passed by US Congress which ensures consumers’ rights to access safe and effective dietary supplements. BFAD is the Philippine agency that oversees the safety of foods (including dietary supplements), medicines, medical devices and cosmetics. Last March 2008, BFAD issued a public advisory stating that supplements have no medical benefits except as additional nutrients which simply means= “HINDI NAKAGAGAMOT”.
There are now 21,310 food products registered with BFAD including food supplements and neutraceuticals wherein 32 are herbal meds and over 12,500 pharmaceuticals are registered. This overflowing number of supplements including dietary supplements is available in different pharmacies and drug stores around the Philippines and the biggest one would be Mercury Drug. Because of the engaging benefits presented in the advertisements and also in the packaging of these dietary supplements amidst some disclaimers, people could not help but purchase them.
The effectiveness of advertisements is clearly affecting a persons buying behavior. The buying behavior is defined as the acts and processes people go thru in buying and using a certain product. The buying behavior is an important aspect that helps customers to decide whether or not s/he will purchase a product. The buying behavior of a customer is susceptible to different stimulus that may influence and affect one’s decision. The label “No approved therapeutic claim” is an example of a stimulus that can influence a person’s buying behavior.
Statement of the Problem General Problem Statement: To determine the influence of “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” in dietary supplements on the buying behavior of the customers of Mercury Drug branches in Dasmarinas, Cavite. Specific Problem Statements: 5. What is the level of awareness of the customers of Mercury Drug branches in Dasmarinas, Cavite to “No Approved Therapeutic Claims”? 6. How well do the customers of Mercury Drug branches in Dasmarinas, Cavite understand the “No Approved Therapeutic Claims”? 7.
How does “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” affect the buying decision of the customers of Mercury Drug branches in Dasmarinas, Cavite in terms of: 3. a Buying with Conviction, 3. b Buying with Hesitation, 3. c Postponement in Buying, and 3. d Not buying at all? 8. How frequent do the customers of Mercury Drug branches in Dasmarinas, Cavite buy dietary supplements? Framework of the Study Theoretical Framework Herzberg’s theory Frederick Herzberg developed a “two factor theory” of motivation, which distinguishes between dissatisfiers (factors that cause dissatisfaction) and satisfiers (factors that cause satisfaction).
This theory of motivation has two implications. First, sellers should do their best to prevent dissatisfiers from affecting the buyer. These dissatisfiers might be a poor training manual or a poor service policy. Second, the manufacturer should carefully identify the major satisfiers or motivators of purchase and be sure to supply them. This study, which focuses on the Influence of the disclaimer “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” to the buying behavior of the customers, uses the same basic factors and philosophy which is implied to Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation.
If these terms are to be used in the study, the disclaimer “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” would be classified as a dissatisfier because the “real definition ” of “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” is a supplement that has not yet been determined to be as safe as advertised and that no studio and long term research have yet been done to determine the efficacy of the pill or herb in actually treating anything. According to Herzberg, a person’s buying choices are further influenced by five major psychological factors- motivation, perception, attribution, learning, and beliefs and attitudes. . Motivation. A person has many needs at a given day. Some needs are biogenic. They arise from physiological state of tension such as hunger, thirst, discomfort. Other needs are psychogenic. They arise from psychological states of tension such as the need for recognition, esteem, or belonging. There are three best known theories of human motivation- Freud’s theory of Motivation, Maslow’s Theory of Motivation, and Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation. There is a drive that people feel in something like he needs.
In connection with the study, people are motivated to buy a product if it has a good effect to him, if a lot of people use it and if it is approved in the market. b. Perception. Perception is “the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world”. Perception depends not only on the physical stimuli but also on the stimuli’s relation to the surrounding field and on conditions within the individual. People can emerge with different perceptions of the same object because of hree perceptual processes: selective attention, selective distortion, and selective retention. c. Attribution. Attribution is the causal inference that a person makes about a behavior. Attributions can either be internal or external. A person’s behavior has a corresponding reason why it is acted out. They have reasons why they buy or not buy a particular product. Like with dietary supplements, they also have their own reason why they do not buy dietary supplements and one reason would be the presence of the disclaimer “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” to its packaging. d. Learning.
When people act, they learn. Learning involves changes in an individual’s behavior arising from experience. Most human behavior is learned. Learning theorists say that a person’s learning is produced through the interplay of drives, stimuli, cues, responses, and reinforcement. People will learn through stimuli, that is messages that they see in the environment. They have different interpretation on how they perceive messages like disclaimers on packaging of a product or advertisement. e. Beliefs and attitudes. Through going and learning, people acquire beliefs and attitudes.
These, in turn, influence their buying behavior. People do not have to interpret and react to every object in a fresh way. If people have beliefs and attitude towards a product, there is no more explanation on his actions. People will think the way they perceive things through learning. Under perception there are three perceptual processes where people can emerge with different perceptions of the same stimulus object- selective attention, selective distortion and selective retention. In Selective Attention people are exposed to a tremendous amount of daily stimuli.
Looking at commercial stimuli alone, the average person may be exposed to over fifteen hundreds a day. It is impossible for a person to attend to all of these stimuli. It means that marketers have to work especially hard to attract consumer attention. Here are some findings: a. People are more likely to notice stimuli that relate to a current need. b. People are more likely to notice stimuli that they anticipate c. People are more likely to notice stimuli whose deviations are large in relation to the normal size of the stimuli.
Dietary supplements could be one of the needs of people; it is mostly seen on television and drug stores. People will notice it if they are really after the supplement. The disclaimer “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” is always indicated on the packaging, being shown on television and being stated in radio ads of dietary supplements. This is an indicator that people will be aware not only on with dietary supplement but also with the disclaimer. The message is spread to masses with the use of media and the packaging of the supplement itself.
In Selective Distortion it describes the tendency of people to twist information into personal meanings. People interpret information in a way that will support rather than challenge their perceptions. “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” has its own and real definition but people have different interpretation at it. If people really know the meaning of this, there is a tendency that they are not supposed to buy the product because of its meaning that it is not yet been proven as an effective drug or on the other side they will still buy because they use it and it has a good effect to them.
If they have the awareness and understanding towards “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” own definition, they stick to what it really means. It could affect to their decision in buying the product. Their knowledge towards a product or a message shown on dietary supplements could also be an indicator if they will buy it or not. In Selective Retention people will forget much that they learn. They will tend to retain information that supports their attitudes and beliefs for chosen alternatives. People will remember the good points about their chosen product where they are interested in, if it is effective to them and if they get benefit from it.
But if the information that is retained to them is the real meaning of “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” their attitude and beliefs will be based depending upon on how they perceive the disclaimer. There will be a behavior of determination or hesitation towards the product otherwise it has no effect to them. Their buying will be affected, it could either be they do not buy or still buy often depending to their needs. Conceptual Framework The study aims to know the influence of “No Approved Therapeutic Claims to the buying behavior of the Customers of Mercury Drug branches in Dasmarinas, Cavite.
In figure 1, the conceptual framework of the study, there are eight boxes in the conceptual framework. Each box is connected to the specific problem statements of the study. The No Approved Therapeutic Claims disclaimer that the researchers pertain to in this study is the one indicated on the packaging of the dietary supplements. The first box is labeled as Packaging of Dietary Supplements because this is the source of information regarding the disclaimer. The box below it is the No Approved Therapeutic Claims that can be seen on the packaging of dietary supplements.
The dietary supplements in this study are the ones that can be bought at Mercury Drug. It is also the reason why this is the next box after the No Approved Therapeutic Claims. The next box is the customers of Mercury Drug. They are the ones who are considered as the receiver of the message of the disclaimer. Subsequently, it is followed by the buying behavior box. This is where the buying decision and buying frequency takes place. The researchers analyzed the buying decision and buying frequency for the results of the study. Packaging of Dietary Supplements No Approved Therapeutic Claims
Mercury Drug Customers of Mercury Drug Buying Behavior Buying Decision Buying Frequency Analysis Figure 1. The Conceptual Paradigm of the Study Hypothesis “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” does not influence the buying behavior of the customers of Mercury Drug Branches in Dasmarinas, Cavite. Scope and Delimitation The researchers provided a list of its scope and limitation in order to focus on a specific side and angle of the research study. It discusses how the proponents limited the range of this study which helped them concentrate to a single and particular topic.
The respondents are limited to the customers of Mercury Drug branches which are only located in Dasmarinas, Cavite. It does not include other buyers purchasing from other pharmacies or drug stores situated in Dasmarinas, Cavite. 1. The main discussion of this study focused and was limited on the influence of “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” in dietary supplements on the buying behavior of the customers of Mercury Drug branches in Dasmarinas, Cavite. 2. The respondents of the study were limited to the customers of Mercury Drug branches located only in Dasmarinas, Cavite.
It did not include other customers buying from other pharmacies or drug stores situated in Dasmarinas, Cavite or other areas in the Philippines. 3. The study focused on dietary supplements and not on the other types of supplements found in the market. 4. The study concentrated on the buying behavior of the customers of Mercury Drug branches in Dasmarinas, Cavite. It was not concerned with the other types of behavior that may be affected or caused by the disclaimer “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” nor the effects caused by dietary supplements to the respondents’ health. 5.
The study focused only on the packaging of dietary supplements that have the disclaimer “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” 6. The study concentrated on the frequency of the purchase of the customers per month. 7. The reasons for the customer in buying and not buying dietary supplements were not tackled anymore by this study. 8. The gender and the age of the respondents were not part of the study and were not treated as variables that influence the buying behavior of the customers so to focus on the influence made by the disclaimer “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” to the buying behavior. Significance of the Study
This study was conducted to find out the influence of “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” in dietary supplements on the buying behavior of the costumers of Mercury Drug branches in Dasmarinas, Cavite. This study will benefit the following: Students of De La Salle University-Dasmarinas. Students in general will be enlightened by this study because it will discuss how disclaimers like “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” in particular influence the buying behavior of customers. This study will also discuss the true meaning and importance of such disclaimers seen in dietary supplements and in other products too.
AB Communication Students with Advertising as a course track. The students taking up AB Communication with Advertising as their course track will fully benefit from this study as they could further learn the importance of using claims or disclaimers in different products seen in the market. This study will also provide data on how customers perceive a certain product and the influence of the disclaimers attached on the customer’s buying behavior. This would also enlighten them about the significance of these claims to their future market that would use their products in the future.
Marketing Students. Marketing students who also have Advertising in their curriculum will also benefit from this study as they can be able to see the value of using such disclaimers like “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” to the public. This study can be a helpful reference in studying the buying behavior of the customers. Advertising Agency. Advertising agencies will be enlightened and informed about the influence of disclaimers like “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” to the customers, to the market and to their buying behavior.
It will also update them about the significance of putting such trivial data on the commercials, radio plugs, and printed materials of these kinds of products. Definition of Terms In order to further understand the terms used in this study, the researchers made a list of these terms and their functional definition. Awareness. The initial stage wherein people encounter some new terms or labels like “No Approved Therapeutic Claims”. This is the first thing one must look for in order to see the disclaimer’s influence of effectivity.
BFAD/FDA. This is the governing body that is concerned with the regulation of food and drugs n the Philippines thus encompasses the control of dietary supplements. Buying behavior. This is the decision processes and acts of people involved in buying and using products. It is the innate natural set of actions of customers that they face or experience in purchasing any kind of goods and services. Buying Decision. This is the process that a customer goes to in deciding to buy a particular good or services.
There are different factors that affect buying decision such as information search, purchased decision, attention getting factor and the alternatives. Comprehension. This is the understanding of the people regarding the disclaimer. Conviction. The decisiveness of a person to buy something such as dietary supplements that has the disclaimer “No Approved Therapeutic Claims”. Customer. They are the people who give their custom or trade to a particular business or industry, purchasers of goods or services whether for their own satisfaction or for resale to other.
They may be regular or occasional buyers of products and are not patronizers of any kind of goods or services. Dietary supplements. This is a type of supplement which is also known as nutritional supplements or nutraceuticals that is focused on the dietary functions of a human being. It contains vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other botanicals, amino acids, enzymes, and/or other ingredients which is intended to supplement the diet. Disclaimer. This is a denial of the effectiveness of a supplement or any kind of product for that matter.
It is a noun used to categorize “No Approved Therapeutic Claims”. Frequency in Buying. This is the rate or number of purchase by a person of dietary supplements with the disclaimer “No Approved Therapeutic Claims”. HBO3544. This is the house bill passed regarding supplemental medicines that talks about the proper package labeling and establishing a standard of protection and promoting the welfare of consumers and for other purposes. Hesitation. This is the uncertainty of a person to buy something such as dietary supplement that has the disclaimer “No Approved Therapeutic Claims”. No Approved Therapeutic Claims”. This is categorized as a disclaimer which is seen in the packaging and advertisements of products like supplements ingested by humans. These disclaimers presented in the products generally mean that products such as supplements have not yet been verified to be as effective and safe as it is advertised. It also informs the public that no studies and long-term research have yet been done to determine the efficacy of the pill, or herb in actually treating anything. Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter contains three parts.
The first part is the conceptual literature which consists of the factors that may influence the buying behavior and its types coming from the books, news about “No Approved Therapeutic Claims”, advertising laws, laws from BFAD regarding health claims on the packaging or label of a medicine, and news articles concerning dietary supplements from the internet. The second part is the research literature that included the research studies regarding influences of buying behavior and effects of a program to the health consciousness of the people.
The last part is the synthesis which summarized the researcher’s review of related literature and how it helped to the study. The researchers collected and reviewed information from different books, theses and articles from newspapers that are all related to the variables of the study. These variables are buying behavior, no approved therapeutic claims, dietary supplements, Mercury Drug and other literature that supported the variables. A synthesis is also provided to further understand the use of Conceptual Literature and Related Literature on the study. Conceptual Literature
Buying Behavior According to the book Marketing Management: an Asian Perspective 2nd edition (Kotler et al. ), there is a list of the major factors influencing buying behavior. It also included the types of buying behavior which are complex buying behavior, dissonance-reducing buying behavior, habitual buying behavior and variety seeking buying behavior. Factors Influencing Buying Behavior: 1. The Cultural Factors The cultural factors exert broadest and deepest influence on consumer behavior. a. Culture. Culture is the most fundamental determinant of a person’s wants and behavior.
A growing child acquires a set of values, perceptions, preferences, and behaviors through his or her family and other key institutions. b. Subculture. Each culture consists of smaller subcultures that provide more specific identification and socialization for its members. Subcultures include nationalities, religions, racial groups, and geographical regions. Many subcultures make up important market segments, and marketers often design products and marketing programs tailored to their needs. c. Social Class. Virtually all human societies exhibit social stratification.
Stratification sometimes takes the form of a caste system as in traditional India where the members of different castes are reared for certain roles and cannot change their caste membership. More frequently, stratification takes the form of social classes. Social classes are relatively homogeneous and enduring divisions in a society, which are hierarchically ordered and whose members share similar values, interests, and behavior. Social classes can be broken into the upper, middle, working, and lower classes. Social classes have several characteristics.
First, persons within each social class tend to behave more alike than persons from two different social classes. Second, persons are perceived as occupying inferior or superior positions according to their social class. Third, a person’s social class is indicated by a number of variables, such as occupation, income, wealth, education, and value orientation rather than by any single variable. Fourth, individual s can move from one social class to another-up or down- during their lifetime. The extent of this mobility varies according to the rigidity of social stratification a given society. . The Social Factors A consumer’s behavior is also influenced by such social factors as reference groups, family, and social roles and statuses. a. Reference groups. Many groups influence a person’s behavior. A person’s reference groups consist of all the groups that have a direct (face-to-face) or indirect influence on the person’s attitudes or behavior. Groups having a direct influence on a person are called membership groups, such as family, friends, neighbors, and coworkers with which the person interacts fairly continuously. Primary groups tend to be informal.
A person also belongs to secondary groups, such as religious, professional, and trade union groups, which tend to be more informal and require less continuous interaction. People are also influenced by groups in which they are not members. Groups to which a person would like to belong are called aspirational groups. Marketers try to identify the reference groups of the target consumers. People are significantly influenced by their reference groups in at least three ways. Reference groups expose an individual to new behaviors and lifestyles.
An opinion leader is the person in informal product-related communications who offers advice or information about a specific product, such as which brand is best, or how a particular product may be used. b. Family. Family members constitute the most influential primary reference group. We can distinguish between two families in the buyer’s life. The family of orientation consists of economics and a sense of personal ambition, self worth, and love. c. Roles and statuses. A person participates in many groups throughout life-family, clubs, and organization.
The person’s position in each group can be defined in terms of role and status. 3. Personal factors A buyer’s decisions are also influenced by personal characteristics, notably the buyer’s age and life-cycle stage, occupation, economic circumstances, lifestyle, and personality and self concept. a. Age and life cycle stage. People buy different goods and services over their lifetime. b. Occupation. A person’s occupation also influences his or her consumption pattern. c. Economic Circumstances. Product choice is greatly affected by one’s economic circumstances.
People’s economic circumstances consist of their spendable income, savings and assets, borrowing power, and attitude toward spending versus saving. d. Lifestyle. People coming from the same subculture, social class, and occupation may lead quite different lifestyles. A person’s lifestyle is the person’s pattern of living in the world as expressed in the person’s activities, interests, and opinions. Lifestyle portrays the “whole person” interacting with his or her environment. e. Personality and self-concept. Each person has a distinct personality that influences his or her buying behavior.
By personality, we mean the person’s distinguishing psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and enduring responses to his or her environment. 4. Psychological Factors. A person’s buying choices are further influenced by five major psychological factors- motivation, perception, attribution, learning, and beliefs and attitudes. a. Motivation. A person has many needs at a given day. Some needs are biogenic. They arise from physiological states of tension such as hunger, thirst, discomfort. Other needs are psychogenic. They arise from psychological states of tension such as the need for recognition, esteem, or belonging.
There are three best known theories of human motivation- Freud’s theory of Motivation, Maslow’s Theory of Motivation, and Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation. b. Perception. Perception is “the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world”. Perception depends not only on the physical stimuli but also on the stimuli’s relation to the surrounding field and on conditions within the individual. People can emerge with different perceptions of the same object because of three perceptual processes: selective attention, selective distortion, and selective retention. . Attribution. Attribution is the causal inference that a person makes about a behavior. Attributions can either be internal or external. Internal attribution is inferring the behavior to luck, fate, or an external party. d. Learning. When people act, they learn. Learning involves changes in an individual’s behavior arising from experience. Most human behavior is learned. Learning theorists say that a person’s learning is produced through the interplay of drives, stimuli, cues, responses, and reinforcement. e. Beliefs and attitudes. Through going and learning, people acquire beliefs and attitudes.
These, in turn, influence their buying behavior. People do not have to interpret and react to every object in a fresh way. Types of buying behavior Consumer decision making varies with the type of buying decision. The types of buying behavior are as follows: A. Complex Buying Behavior. Consumers go through a complex buying behavior when they are highly involved in a purchase and aware of significant differences existing among brands. Consumers are highly involved in a purchase when it is expensive, bought infrequently, risky, and highly self-expressive.
Typically, consumers do not know much about the product category and have much to learn. B. Dissonance- reducing Buying Behavior. Sometimes the consumer is highly involved in a purchase but sees little difference in the brands. The buyer may respond primarily to a good price or the convenience of purchasing at the time or place. C. Habitual Buying behavior. Many products are bought under conditions of low consumer involvement and the absence of significant brand differences. Consumer behavior does not pass through the normal belief/ attitude/behavior sequence.
Consumers do not search extensively for information about the brands, evaluate their characteristics, and make a weighty decision on which one to buy. Instead, they are passive recipients of information as they watch television or see print ads. Ad repetition creates brand familiarity rather than brand conviction. Consumers do not really form an attitude toward a brand but select it simply because it is familiar. So, the buying process is: brand beliefs formed by a passive learning, followed by purchase behavior, which may or may not be followed by an evaluation. D.
Variety Seeking Buying Behavior. Some buying situations are characterized by low consumer involvement but significant brand differences. Consumers are often observed to do a lot of brand switching. Brand switching occurs for the sake of variety rather than dissatisfaction. “No approved therapeutic claims” In a special report of Paul M. Icamina entitled “Some Supplements Don’t Cure, They Actually Harm Patients” published in http://www. manilatimes. net last November 16, 2008, BFAD issued a public advisory that food supplements have no medical benefits except as additional nutrients last March 2008.
The advisory warned that the use or ingestion of dietary supplements in lieu of regular medication is not right and may result in complications or side effects. The intake of supplements is compared to just like eating ordinary vegetables and drinking fruit juices, except that these are in capsules, tablets, syrups, powder forms, concentrates and so on. Sa madaling salita, ANG MGA ITO AY HINDI NAKAGAGAMOT ,” the advisory said. The all-capital-letter emphasis is that of BFAD.
Ben Rosario in his article Local Labeling of Food Supplements Proposed, said that “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” imprinted on all boxes, labels, containers, and bottles as advisories of food supplements should be replaced by the Tagalog phrase “Wala pang pinatutunayang bisa” and other major regional dialects with the same meaning. In house Resolution No. 169, Pampanga Rep. Aurelio D. Gonzales Jr. insisted that the English phrase of the food advisories written on food supplement boxes is not easily understood by consumers who believe that such products have healing effects for certain sicknesses.
Gonzales noted that enterprising manufacturers have launched well-funded advertising campaigns to hoodwink consumers about the medical efficacy of their products. He said that although the Bureau of Food and Drugs has been implementing a law making the medical advisories mandatory in all food supplement containers, many consumers are fooled about the efficacy of the products due to the testimonies aired by endorsers that usually include doctors. The English warning may “be difficult to understand for many Filipinos”. In order for these warnings and advisories to be more meaningful, there may be a need to translate them into the vernacular or in several regional languages so that more people will understand them”, said Gonzales. Additional advice from Gonzales is that Food supplements sold in my district should have this inscription “Ala pang patunayang bisa. ” A similar legislative measure has been proposed by Iloilo Rep. Ferjenel Biron who sought a ban on the advertising of food supplements.
Biron, a doctor, lamented that despite the fact that curative value of many herbal and chemical food supplements have not yet been proven, many physicians have joined advertising campaigns to endorse them. (Rosario, Ben, PDI: Local Labeling of Food Supplements Proposed) Another article, “Herbal Medicines Hindi pang masa? ”, of Edwin P. Santiago states “Lalong naging masidhi ang kanyang pagnanais na malaman pa ang mga misteryong bumabalot sa mga produktong ito ng mapuna ko na ang mga gamut na ipinagbibili ay rehistrado sa Bureau of Food and Drugs bilang mga food supplement at hindi bilang gamot.
Totoo nga na ang karamihan ay naglalagay ng mga babala sa label o kahon, katulad ng “No approved therapeutic claims”, ngunit kapag binasa mo ang mga literature na nakapaloob sa mga sisidlan ay katakut-takot na claims sa pagpapagaling ang mga nakasulat dito. Mayroon pang nagpapagaling ng kanser, nakapagpapatubo ng buhok, nakagagamot sa insomnia, high-blood pressure at iba pa. At ng aking suriin ang mga literature ay napuna ko na mas malamang ang temang panghihikayat sa paggamit kaysa impormasyon ng drug adverse reaction, incompatibility sa ibang gamot, o mga naaprubahang indikasyon sa sakit ang nakasulat dito.
Ang mga literature ay nagsisilbing marketing phamplets ng mga gamot na ipinagbibili na kung minsan ay naghihikayat sa isang namimili na maniwala at magkaroon ng false hope sa mga produktong nabanggit. Sa aking pananaw ay masama ang dulot ng false hope sa may mga sakit na kailangang gamutin ng mga rehistradong gamot na mayroong mga clinical traits at bioavailability studies. Sa aking pagsusuri ay aking napag-alaman na binibigyang pahintulot na ipagbili sa taong-bayan ang mga herbal products bilang “food supplement” sa dahilang wala pang documented na pag-aaral na isinumite sa BFAD upang patunayan na ang mga ito ay nakagagaling ng sakit. No approved therapeutic claims” Requirements BFAD—a Department of Health agency—specifies, subject to space, the font size (14 points) and type (Arial) and all capital and bold letters for the “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” label. The only nutrition claims permitted relate to energy, protein, carbohydrate, fat, fiber, sodium, vitamins and minerals. Health claims must be based on current scientific substantiation. Any health claim must be acceptable to health authorities and the claimed benefit should come from the consumption of a “reasonable quantity” of the food cited in the article of Paul M.
Icamina published in http://www. manilatimes. net last November 16, 2008. According to the article of Michael Tan in the Philippine Daily Inquirer, the only requirement BFAD has is that “no therapeutic claims” is made by distributors, but this rule is observed more in the breach. Often enough, the products are sold without any medicinal claims; sometimes they’ll even have a sticker saying “No Therapeutic Claims,” but promotional materials will often name all kinds of sicknesses for which the supplement is supposedly effective.
Sometimes, too, the promotional literature will contain all kinds of testimonies, and so-called scientific explanations for the products’ “effectiveness. ” Dietary Supplements According to the article of Vanessa Doctor from http://ezinearticles. com, the use of herbal and dietary supplements poses major health risks and these risks are largely due to the varying nature of herbal preparations, as well as the lack of consumer protection generally given to prescription drugs by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) because herbal and dietary supplements are not officially classified as drugs.
Herbal medicines and dietary supplements are generally processed plant ingredients, solvent extracts, or essential oils of plants. All plants, including herbs, naturally synthesize a lot of complex chemical compounds as part of their metabolic activities. Many of these extracts are not directly related to the plant’s energy production but are toxins synthesized by the plant in order to ward off other plants, herbivores, and plant parasites. Based from the article of Paul M. Icamina published in http://www. manilatimes. et last November 16, 2008, thousands of applications are filed every year and approval takes from three to six months. The PSD is currently processing applications filed from January to February. It is relatively cheap—P3,000 initial fee for two years, renewable at P200 each year. The process is strict. The product, for example, must be in the international Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) list. Among many other requirements, it should conform to the Recommended Energy and Nutrient Intake (RENI) dosage per day.
More than the RENI standards, the product is considered a drug and must undergo separate processes for pharmaceuticals or medicines. For products used for more than 30 days, toxicity tests of 90 days are required; products to be used for more than 30 days are tested on rodents and mice for at least nine months. Evidence of safety is based on documented prolonged and apparently uneventful use of the traditional herbal product. Even then, it is not allowed for use in pregnant, lactating mothers and children below 18 years and should be labeled as such. Based on the article written by Rone Reyes, M.
D. , an increasing number of Filipinos are taking vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other supplements. A few – like folic acid and saw palmetto, for example are beneficial. Some such as soy isoflavones, ginseng, and garlic-may or may not be. And others-especially ephedra, usnic acid, and kava- are dangerous. Found on his research that in 2003, Mary Palmer, MD, an emergency room physician and toxicologist, along with her colleagues, published an article in Lancet which analyzed nearly 500 calls about bad reactions to supplements that had been phoned to 11 poison control centers in the US in 1998.
When Palmer started the study, some of the supplements were found to include heart attacks, liver failure, bleeding, seizures and death. In the US, more than 20,000 complaints about the weight-loss products containing ephedra, including scores of deaths, have been registered during the past decade. Supplements are regulated much more than loosely than drugs that it’s impossible to know how much harm they cause. Drugs can be sold only if companies have enough evidence to convince the FDA and panels of independent experts that they are safe and effective and that their benefits justify their risks.
In contrast, “The dietary supplement market is the Wild West,” says Henry Waxman, a California congressman and longtime champion of measures to protect consumer’s health. According to Tina Aboitiz Juan, in her column, Well and Good, “Supplements containing caffeine or ephedrine are not only substances that can destroy your health. Herbal concoctions may be “natural” but they are not always safe. The United States Food and Drug Administration reports a number of deaths and near-deaths associated with the use of “slimming” teas. These are not the safe herbal teas like ginger, chamomile or mint.
These are the teas sold specifically for “slimming”. They usually contain herbal laxatives, diuretics and stimulants. Long term use of these teas can lead to dehydration and diarrhea which, in turn, can cause life-threatening potassium depletion. Since proper heart function is partly dependent on correct electrolyte balance, a severe deficiency of potassium can trigger a heart attack even in a healthy young adult. BFAD Regulation In the article of Paul M. Icamina entitled “Some supplements don’t cure, they actually harm patients” published in http://www. manilatimes. et last November 16, 2008, the first step to protect the consumer is a cease-and-desist order that stops the distribution of a product that falsely claims therapeutic effects. Then the manufacturer or distributor is required to explain why no administrative sanction should be made by BFAD’s Legal Information and Compliance Division. The fine is anywhere from a few hundred pesos up to P5,000 depending on the violation. A promo without a BFAD permit is fined P200. For an unregistered drug, the fine is P5,000 up to P10,000 per product. Advertising Law According to Pagunsan (2004), the Sec. 26 (Disclaimer) of the book Law and Advertising states that the labeling or packaging is generally an act attributable to the manufacturer, alone or aided by an advertising company. As a rule, therefore, only manufacturers shall be charged with the violation. All others who have a hand directly or indirectly in preparing, however, be included in the illegal act. The requirement is intended to give the consumer as much information about the product, over and above the enticing advertisements on television or radio. House Bill In connection with the researcher’s study, people have their own decision whether to buy or not to buy the product.
The researchers applied the buying decision subtopics: conviction, hesitation, or no effect. An act of regulating the use of “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” on supplemental medicines and other related preparation thereby mandates proper package labelling and establishes standard of protection and promotion for welfare of consumers and for some purposes (www. Congres. gov. ph). This Hose Bill was proposed by Benjamin D Asilo, the 1st District representative from Manila. Mercury Drug An article written by Mariano Que, the founder of Mercury Drug, said that Mercury Drug Corporation today has grown beyond our expectation.
It all began in February 1945 when most of the businesses were destroyed. After the liberation of our country from the Japanese by the Americans, Bambang Street, Sta. Cruz, Manila became the center of much activity – a place where many came to buy and sell merchandise. Encouraged by the crowd and the energy of entrepreneurism, I started Mercury Drug by selling medicines from a pushcart. From the pushcart to the opening of the first small drugstore in Bambang on March 1, 1945, Mercury Drug has grown into a network of over 700 company-owned and franchised stores all over the country.
This is in fulfillment of the company’s vision of bringing safe and affordable health-enhancing and life-saving medicines closer to the people of the Philippines. Looking forward, Mercury Drug dreams to more opportunities of fulfilling business relationship with the public, by renewing its collective commitment of serving its customers whose trust and patronage has allowed Mercury Drug to continue its corporate existence. MERCURY DRUG…. SERVING OUR CUSTOMERS BETTER from its humble beginnings, Mercury Drug has gone beyond expectations.
Shortly after the liberation of Manila from Japanese occupation, Mariano Que, realizing the need of the people for medicines, bought with his hard earned savings of P100 a bottle of 1000 tablets of Sulfathiazole and sold it “patingi-tingi” for P1. 00 per tablet in the sidewalks of Bambang, Manila. From pushcart – peddling and with his previous working experience in a drugstore before the war, he eventually opened his first small drugstore in Bambang Street. Mercury Drug has today grown into a vast network of over 700 company-owned and franchised stores nationwide.
Mercury Drug believes that it owes its success to the millions of customers who have trusted and patronized the drugstore chain all throughout these years. Its feat could also not have been possible without its pool of professional and dedicated staff numbering close to 9,000 today. As a way of giving back to the people, Mercury Drug vows to bring quality, safe and affordable health-enhancing and life-saving medicines closer to the public. In the first place, it is what the name Mercury Drug stands for. In Roman mythology, Mercury is known as the god of commerce and manual skill.
Being the messenger of gods, Mercury needed a winged feet for his swift flights. Mercury Drug remains committed to its name as seen on its corporate philosophy of total and speedy customer service: “To serve you, to have what you want, when you want it. ” Aside from bringing its chain of stores closer to the homes of the people, Mercury Drug has constantly endeavoured to reach the hearts of the customers. To achieve this, Mercury Drug has taken pride in the introduction of many firsts in the drug retailing business —all in an effort to satisfy, please and further serve the people. Research Literature
The study made by Baring (2002) entitled “Effects of the Radio Program “Knowledge Power” on the Health Consciousness of Selected Individuals in Camella Homes, San Nicolas, Bacoor, Cavite”, found out that health consciousness seems to have become a fad; more people are getting aware of their health needs, for certain sectors to have designed programs to suit individual needs in promoting good health. Based on the Review of Related Literature of Digno & Sabillo (2005) in the thesis “A study of Johnson & Johnson’s JPE” Digno and Sabillo found out that consumers’ buying behaviors are influenced by forces that can be separated into three groups.
Psychological influences encompass the complex emotions, motivations, attitudes and other internal forces that lead people to make decisions. These psychological factors are themselves influenced from the outside by the remaining group of forces. Social and Interpersonal influences cover a wide variety of external pressures, including families, friends, ethnic groups and co-workers. Situational influences stem from the circumstances surrounding a purchase such as the time of the year or the reason for making a particular purchase.
Naturally, financial resources-both cash and available credits-affect purchase behavior to a large extent as well. Psychological influences include age, income, and other demographic factors. It also covers the different psychological factor such as needs and motives, attitude and lifestyle. Synthesis The Conceptual Literature provides a comprehensive explanation of the variables used in the study. It guarantees that the variables are not overlooked. The first literature for the buying behavior which is from the book Marketing Management helped the researchers to have more focus, direction and clarity regarding the buying behavior.
It also includes more details about buying behavior like the types of the major influences affecting the buying behavior; these were important to know because they were be used for the survey and in answering the general problem statement. The articles about “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” helped the researchers in explaining the real meaning of the disclaimer “No Approved Therapeutic Claims”. It also gives significance of conducting the study because it supports that there are people who do not understand the meaning of the disclaimer. Confusion for the buyers can also be apprehended from the articles because of the said disclaimer.
These all strengthened the need to conduct the study. The researchers also included the dietary supplements in the Conceptual Literature. Because of this, the readers will be familiar on the previous studies done that are related to this study. The meaning of dietary supplements and other additional perspectives is also discussed to have more knowledge and awareness of dietary supplements and its effect to humans. BFAD Regulation, Advertising Laws and House Bill are conferred to support consideration and the need to display the “No Approved Therapeutic Claims” on dietary supplements.
The article from the website of Mercury Drug supports the reason why the researchers chose Mercury Drug where they can get the respondents for the survey. Mercury Drug has expanded into 700 company opened stores all over the country. This means that the business is still growing and improving over the years and will always be a part of Filipinos’ preference of a leading drugstore. The study under the Research Literature discusses how important health is to people which is another element that holds up the need to conduct the study. The study made by Digno & Sabillo gave added perspectives on the buying ehavior which is an important variable of this study because that’s what the re