ARPA, Internet and Internet2 CIS532 Strayer University 12/1/2013 Contents Abstract……………………………………………………………………………3 What is the Internet………………………………………………………………4 Computer Networking and Evolution of the Internet……………………………. 4 Packet Switching Technology……………………………………………………. 5 X. 25 Technology……………………………………………………………………… 6 Frame Relay Protocol……………………………………………………………. 6 ATM Protocol…………………………………………………………………….. 7 First Computer Network…………………………………………………………9 Communication Protocols………………………………………………………. 0 TCP/IP……………………………………………………………………………11 LAN………………………………………………………………………………. 12 Internet2…………………………………………………………………………. 14 References ……………………………………………………………………….. 16 ABSTRACT Most of the people that use Internet today are not aware that Internet was not developed by a single person or a single company; in fact even less people know that Internet evolved from many technologies created by ARPA (Advanced Project Research Agency). Internet is a computer network made of many computer networks. Computer networking is a broad and complex field that does not have one single point of origin.
It is the results of continuous evolution in computer technology. One of the first computer networks was ARPANET. US Government and its scientist like J. R. C. Licklider, Lawrence Roberts, Bob Kahn and Vint Ceft had vision to develop US into world’s technology leader. Their ideas with help of many organizations and individuals became reality and thank to them we are able to use today technology know as Internet. In last decade and half many universities, private companies and the U. S. government have been working together on echnology known as Internet2 or second generation Internet that provides faster and higher capacity network that is primarily used for research. What is the Internet? If you are information technology professional, you surely have been asked by non-technical person about the Internet. What is the Internet? How does it work? How do you access it? If you just say that the Internet is a worldwide collection of computer networks that exchange data using a common software standard will mean nothing to a non-technical person.
To answer these questions and similar once, you must first explain that the Internet was not invented by a single person or a single company, and the evolution of the Internet was not a result of the some overnight project, in fact it took at least three decades for all technologies to evolve into Internet. In fact the internet was result of the U. S. Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA or ARPA). Computer Networking and Evolution of the Internet Today’s Internet is result of USA determination to be a world leader in technology which was prompted after USSR lunched first artificial earth satellite in 1957.
First step toward today’s Internet was done by Department of Defense which resulted in creation of ARPA (Advanced Project Research Agency) and appointment of J. C. R Licklider, as first head of this organization. J. C. R Licklider, was the first one to write about idea to have computers interconnected that will allow users to access data and programs from any site. The first computers that were built in the 1950 were known as mainframes and they were used only by Government or some University.
These mainframes computers were serving dumb terminals and the only way to connect these dumb terminals with mainframe was through serial connection running on RS-232 interface, but there were also terminals that were not near mainframes computer and the only way to connect them was through Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). In October of 1965, Lawarence Roberts successfully connected TX-2 computer at MIT in Massachusetts to a Q-32 computer in California via direct phone line. From this test and similar tests ARPA learned that existing circuit-switch technology has limitation (i. . inefficiency of phone lines, existing network utility limited variety of interconnected devices). From this point on Lawarence Roberts worked with Leonard Kleinrock who in 1961 wrote paper on packet-switching theory. Packet Switching Technology Packet switching technology was born as alternative to the circuit switch technology that was not designed to handle voice traffic over long distance. Packet switching technology even after this many years of its initial development is still fundamentally the same and is the most effective technology for long-distance data communications.
Data or messages that are put on packet switched network have no defined starting or ending points (unless data is less than 1000 octets) therefore message have to be broken into smaller blocks called packets. Switched network can be configured to deliver these packets in two ways: datagram or virtual circuit. •Datagram – each packet is treated independently and exit or destination nodes are responsible for putting packets back to their original order. •Virtual circuit – there will be pre-establish route and all packets are sent via this route. With packet switching, data are transmitted in short blocks, called packets. Each packet contains a portion of the user’s data plus some control information”. (STALLINGS, 2002) First packet switch standard was X. 25, but technology as Frame Relay and ATM are more dominant today. X. 25 Technology “First, X. 25 provided end-to-end flow control process that offered a high level of security and quality, even through analogue lines of lower grade. Second, X. 25 was designed for both point-to-point and switched communications. Third, rapid endorsement of X. 5 by PTTs around world created a true global service”. (DUNOGUE, 1995) Figure DTEs, DCEs and PSEs Make Up an X. 25 Network Note: Figure obtained from “Cisco Internetworking Technology Handbook”. Retrieved from http://www. cisco. com/en/US/docs/internetworking/technology/handbook/X25. html Frame Relay Protocol “Frame relay by definition is a protocol oriented, packet-switched technology offered by telephone companies and by function it is programmed software located at a telephone company, designed to provide more efficient digital connections form one point to another.
It is emerging technology that will provide a faster, more cost-effective method for computer networking”. (CUTRIGHT & GIRRARD, 1996) Figure A simple Frame Relay Network Connects Various Devices to Different Services over a WAN Note: Figure obtained from “Data Connect Enterprise”. Retrieved from http://www. data-connect. com/Frame_X25. htm ATM Protocol “Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), was developed as part of the work on broadband ISDN but is used in non-ISDN environments, where very high data rates are required”. (STALLINGS, 2002)
Both ATM forum and ITU-T standardization body contributed to ATM development, ITU-T is responsible for its standardization and ATM forum for its applications. The base of ATM architecture is cell which is chunk of data that has fixed length. To better describe ATM architecture and functionality it is necessary to know that its functionality is mapped to the physical and data link layers of the OSI reference model. ATM reference model is composed of three layers: •Physical layer – manages medium-dependent transmission. •ATM layer – provides cell switching and routing services. ATM adaption layer – has two functions: a)Segmentation and reassembly of large data sets into ATM cells. b)Provide specific services for transport of different types of data. In addition to three layers ATM reference model consists of three planes: •Control plane – responsible for generating and managing signaling requests. •User plane – responsible for managing data transfers. •Management plane – made of two components: a)Layer management – manages specific functions (detection of failures and detection of protocol problems). )Plane management – manages and coordinates functions related to the complete system. Figure The ATM reference model relates to the lowest two layers of the OSI reference model. Note: Figure obtained from “What is a ATM? ”. Retrieved from http://www. pulsewan. com/data101/atm_basics. htm ATM is connection oriented technology which means that before communication can take place on ATM network, a virtual circuit must be setup. If there are multiple virtual channel connections (VCC) with the same endpoint they can be grouped together and configured into virtual path connections (VCP).
As mentioned earlier in this text, data is transmitted in units called cells, each cell carries 53 bytes of data of which 5 bytes are dedicated to header and the remaining 48 bytes to payload. Although ATM network is designed to handle simultaneously different types of traffic, the data flow inside network will be handled differently and will depend on the requirements of the application. First Computer Network Leonard Kleinrock’s theory successfully transferred into reality by ARPA in 1969 and connected computers at four ARPA site to form ARPANET.
In 1970 the head of the Network Working Group, Steve Crocker and his team finished modifying original ARPANET host-to-host protocol and named it NCP (Network Control Protocol). This was possible because of IMP (Interface Message Processor) creation by Bob Kahn. IPM enabled computers to interact with other computers from other packet-switched networks (known today as a LAN – Local Area Network). “One of the first LAN technologies was ARCNET (Attached Resource Computer NETwork), it was developed by DataPoint Corporation in 1976 and first commercial installation was in December 1977 at Chase Manhattan Bank in New York”. DIGITAL HISTORY, 1995) Another LAN technology that was widely used is Token ring, in token ring technology all of the entities are logically organized in a ring topology and special three-bye frame is passed around the ring and possession of the token will grant you permission to transmit on the medium. Communication Protocols In order for computers to talk to each other (exchange data) they all have to speak same “language”, this “language” is call computer protocol.
Prior to the ARPANET project (which explore packet-switching technology and protocols that could be used for cooperative and distributed computing), each different computer system needed a different terminal. First two applications (TELNET and FTP) that were developed by ARPANET offered new functionality: •TELNET – if each computer system had software written to support TELNET terminal than one TELNET terminal could interact with all computer systems. •FTP – allowed transparent transfer of files from one computer to the other over the network.
Because ARPANET grew and was successful, ARPA applied the same packet switching technology to tactical radio communication (Packet Radio) and to satellite communication (SATNET). All three networks operated in different communication environments with different values for certain parameters, (different values for maximum packet sizes). There was need to integrate these three networks and Vint Cert and Bob Kahn of ARPA started to develop methods and protocols for internetworking that would enable communications across arbitrary, multiple, packet-switched networks.
Vint and Bob published very influential paper in 1974 (CERF74) that outlined their approach to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) which was refined by the ARPANET community and European Networks and EIN which later became the TCP/IP protocol suite. TCP/IP Protocol The TCP/IP protocol was split into two protocols where one protocol is responsible for addressing and routing of packets on a network (IP) and the other protocol is responsible for transport of data which can be reliable (TCP) and unreliable (UDP). IP is responsible for setting up rules on how to address and direct packets, fragment and reassemble packets, provide security information, and identify the type of service being used. Since IP is not connection based protocol it cannot guaranteed successful transition of data. •TCP (connection-oriented) is responsible for reliable end to end transport of data. This means that TCP will requires two computers to first establish a session before data is transmitted among them. Once session is created computers will start exchanging data.
Since data is a stream of information with no defined starting or ending point this data will have to be broken into smaller pieces for efficient transport. Each smaller piece of data will be coupled with TCP header and will form segment (encapsulation) and will be send to another computer. TCP header contains source and destination port for this communication which guarantees delivery of these data packets, it will also contain sequence and acknowledgement numbers and will include a checksum for detecting any errors during this transition.
Applications that will use TCP are: FTP, Telnet, SMTP, HTTP, POP, IMAP, NNTP, NetBIOS, BGP, NFS. •UDP (connectionless) – User Data Protocol is also transport protocol but is not connection oriented like TCP, this means that UDP does not create a session among two computers before data is transmitted which will not guaranteed that the data is delivered in order or that it will be retransmitted if data is lost. Since UDP has very little overhead and is very quick which makes UDP a preferred protocol choice for communications such as broadcasts, general announcements to the networks and real time data.
Applications that will use UDP are: DNS, IPTV, VoIP, TFTP and many online games. Once engineers developed common protocols, the next step was to develop local area network (LAN). LAN is a computer network that connects computers and devices in small geographic area, and has relatively high data transfer rates. LAN “A LAN is made up of two basic components: the entities that want to share information or resources and the medium that enables the entities to communicate”. (ROGERS, 1999)
The entities are servers, desktops, printers, and the medium are cable segment and Wi-Fi technology. Physical layout of entities on network is known as topology, (Bus, Star, Mesh, Ring). Having entities and medium connected is not sufficient for data exchange; in addition all of the entities must support communication protocol, which is the rule for exchanging messages among entities. Two LAN technologies that are in used most widely today are Ethernet and Wi-Fi. Ethernet is the most common LAN technology in use today. The name came from the physical concept of the ether.
Ethernet was developed at Xerox PARC between 1973 and 1975 by Robert Metcalfe, who convinced DEC, Intel and Xerox to work together to develop Ethernet standard, the standard had defined speed, source and destination and Ethernet type field. One of the first Ethernet standards was thick-net or 10Base-5 that ran over coaxial cable, which was followed by another standard thin-net or 10Base-2 which had much thinner coaxial cable. Both thick-net and thin-net used bus topology but the later standards use star topology and run on UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) or FC (Fiber Optic) cabling.
Further technology development resulted in NCP replacement with TCP/IP protocol in 1983, as TCP/IP became favorite protocol it also resulted in ARPANET retirement and transfer to NSFNET (National Science Foundation) in 1990. NSFNET was replaced by CSNET (Computer Science Network) and in 1995 US Government transfer management of Internet to independent organizations: •ISOC – Internet Society •IAB – Internet Architecture Board •IETF – Internet Engineering Task Force •IRTF – Internet Research Task Force •ICANN – Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers •IANA – Internet Assigned Numbers Authority NSI – Network Solutions •Accredited Domain Name Registrars We can conclude that for today’s Internet is the most responsible ARPA and its scientist, they recognized that computers needed to be interconnected, but existing public switched telephone network was not adequate for it. ARPA’s scientist developed new switching technology and new protocols (X. 25, Frame Relay and ATM) that were able to handle more bandwidth at higher speed and better quality. After these innovations scientist were able to form computer networks known as LAN, which uses Ethernet technology and TCP/IP protocols.
Connecting many LANs into one large network we have today’s Internet. Internet2 At the end of last decade issues such as security, spam, slow downloads were some of the problems with conventional Internet, which prompted new initiatives to develop the Internet of the future, better known as Internet2. In 1996 a group of 36 scientists got together in Chicago and discuss ideas how to develop and implement Internet2. At first Internet2 was administered by the University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development (UCAID), but today we have large number of universities, private companies, organizations and U. S. overnment laboratories working continuously on Internet2 technology to provide leading edge network capabilities and promote worldwide partnerships to support and enhance educational and research missions. “Internet2 has four primary areas of interest and development, according to it Web site: •High performance networks – networks that have high bandwidth. •Advanced network applications – applications which improve collaboration among people and to provide interactive access to information and resources. •New network capabilities – •Middleware – examples are telecommunications software, messaging and queuing software”. MATIS, 2006) Internet2 is not new network that will eventually replace conventional Internet, although it is a separate physical network from conventional Internet. Interent2 is made up of several logically different but related networks: •Advanced IP network – this network support advanced networking protocols, multicast, IPv6. •Virtual circuit network – is dedicated bandwidth with optical paths between endpoints. •Core optical network. Conventional InternetIntenet2 •Is open and available to anyone who has a computer. •Is made up of old telephone lines. •Average cable mode moves data around 4 Megabits per second. Is only available to selected organization. •Is made up of large capacity fiber optic cables. •Moves data at 10 Gigabits per second. Before Internet2 is mesh with conventional Internet following needs to happen: •Must be backward compatible, since existing infrastructure will continue to be the access path to all non participants in Internet2. •Must provide ability that any node can communicate with any other node in a compatible transport format. •(IPv6) – Internet Protocol version 6 must be backward compatible with IPv4. •Internet2 must enable application to support QoS. Interent2 needs to be affordable to large mass. References A Short History of the Ethernet, (n. d). Retrieved from http://bugclub. org/beginners/history/EthernetHistory. html Cisco Internetworking Technology Handbook, (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://www. cisco. com/en/US/docs/internetworking/technology/handbook/X25. html Cutright, P. , & Girrard, K. (1996). Frame Relay. What does it mean? Online 20 (3), 68. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database. Digital History, (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://www. old-computers. com/history/detail. asp? n=23&t=5 Dunogue, J. (1995). From X. 5 to ATM: The evolution of data networks. Telecom Asia, 6 (3), 28. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database. Gromov, G. (2009). Roads and Crossroads of Internet History. Retrieved from http://www. netvalley. com/cgi-bin/intval/net_history. pl Internet2. (1997). Retrieved from http://eng. internet2. edu/97engineering. html Matlis, J. (2006). Internet2: Retrieved from http://www. computerworld. com. au/article/165527/internet2/ Oppenheimer, P. (2001). Top-Down Network Design, Indianapolis, IN: Cisco Press Rogers, S. (1999). Network+ Certification Study Guide, Berkeley, California: McGraw-Hill
Stallings, W. (2002). Network Architecture and Analysis: Custom Edition (2nd ed. ) NJ: Pearson. The Internet, (n. d). Retrieved from http://www. livinginternet. com/i/i. htm Unuth, N. (n. d). Circuit Switching vs. Packet Switching: Retrieved October from http://voip. about. com/od/voipbasics/a/switchingtypes. htm • You must write a paper on the history of the Internet. The paper must be written in formal APA style, must be at least 8 pages of content in addition to a title page, abstract, table of contents, and citations page. Make sure you use descriptive headings within the content area.
Your paper should include how the Internet was invented and evolved over time. Include ARPANET and all of the events on a timeline up to today, and you must describe the events in a way that a non-technical peson might understand. The networking protocols must be discussed, discuss Internet2 and it’s relationship to the conventional Internet. You must attach your paper as an MSWord doc file (not docx) to the link provided. Anyone submitting in any other format will receive no credit. Note that strict APA citation format is required. That means that any material that is not your own must be cited within the test area.
If that is not done, I will asume that the material was copied and not cited. In that case, a zero will be awarded as a grade. In cases wwhere that has happened in the past, the student has failed the course. This means any line of material used from any other source must be cited. Answer Selected Answer: ElvirKaric_FinalExam_12192010. doc Response Feedback: Good job! However, for perfection, you must learn to make better use of transitions at the end of each section. Look at your first section as an example – — you summarize it very well; and introduce the idea that ” In fact the internet was result of the U.
S. Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA or ARPA). ” In the next section, you follow on that idea; however, your first line in that section talks about . . . “Today’s Internet is result of USA determination to be a world leader in technology which was prompted after USSR lunched first artificial earth satellite in 1957. ” When it sghould have mentioned DARPA or ARPA. Bottom line, the intro section must be tightly linked to how you closed the previous section; and this must be done in the first line of the section. Sunday, December 19, 2010 9:04:45 PM EST