Autism is a disorder that impairs the development of a person’s capacity tointeract with, communicate with, and also maintain regular normal bondswith the outside world. This disorder was described in 1943 by Leo Kanner,an American psychologist. Autism is considered one of the more commondevelopmental disabilities, and appears before the age of three.
It isknown to be four or five times more common in males than in females. Itmost cited statistic is that autism occurs in 4. 5 out of 10,000 livebirths. The estimate of children having autistic qualities is reported tobe 15 to 20 out of 10,000. The gender statement noted before is notuncommon, since many developmental disabilities have a greater male tofemale ratio. Autistic characteristics are different from birth.
Two morecommon characteristics that may be exhibited are the arching of the backwhile being held, to avoid contact, and also failing to anticipate beingpicked up (limpness in the body). Infants with autism are described asbeing either very passive, or very agitated. Sometimes during infancy therewill be cases of head rocking, and or banging, against the crib, but thisis not always the case. Approximately one-third of children developnormally until the ages of 1 1/2 to 3, and then the symptoms emerge,referred to as regressive autism. During childhood, there is a commonalityof the affected child insisting routine.Order now
The reasoning is that the child isnot able to cope with novel situations. Wearing the same clothes, or eatingthe same foods during meals, are examples. Tantrums can occur when theseperseverative behaviors occur. Twenty years ago, most autistic individualswere institutionalized. Now only the most severe cases live ininstitutions.
During adulthood, autistic individuals are known to live withtheir parents, in residential institutions, and some do live independently. Because there are so many forms of this disorder, it has been said thatthere is no true adjective to describe every type of person with autisticsymptoms, or autism. My research shows that there are no physiologicaltests that can be performed to determine whether a person has autism. Thediagnosis is given when a person exhibits the characteristics of thedisorder. Note: In the last five years, researchers have agreed that thosewho display autistic characteristics are commonly suffering from otherrelated but distinct disorders, such as Asperger Syndrome, Fragile Xsyndrome, Landau Kleffner syndrome, Rett syndrome, and Williams syndrome.
Physiological researchers have discovered abnormalities within the brain,but the reason for the abnormalities is not known, and it is not knownwhere the relation to autism lies. These abnormalities range fromunderdeveloped areas in the limbic system, to Vernal lobules VI and VII,being smaller than average. Biochemical research has found elevated beta-endorphins, relating to pain tolerance in autistic action. In the cognitiverealm, there is much talk of the theory of mind, or the inability torealize that other people have their own unique view of the world. SomeCognitive theorists think that the autistic person isn’t able to understandthat other people have different thoughts, plans, and perspectives thantheir own.
Cognitive theorists also examine the 10% statistic of savantskills, an ability that is considered remarkable by most standards. Thesesavant skills are usually spatial in nature. Interventions and therapiesare difficult. Family theorists try to work with the family of the patient,to try to develop appropriate behaviors. There is no reported drug that canbe considered primary for the patient, although Ritalin is dispensed inmany cases. Behaviorists look at the changing of behavior through positivereinforcement, behavior recess, and in turn examine the self-stimulatoryand self-injurious behaviors.
Physiological work such as visual training,and auditory integration training, is used to reduce sensitivities tosounds above normal range, or to sounds the patient can consider painful. When it comes to autism, the most important thing to remember is thatparents and doctors in the medical field are now realizing that there canbe treatments, and interventions, that can be effective. In addition, notethat Federal Law now requires the states to provide early interventionservices for autistic children between the ages of one to three. Theservices exist to provide tools to develop the children academically, andsocially.Words: 714 .