Craig R. KevorkianBell C Health SeminarJanuary 31, 2001Diabetes Type 21.Insulin in a healthy human body1.Insulin1.a pancreatic hormone that helps the body to convert glucose into energy.2.Effect of Insulin on Protein Synthesis(1)the total quantity of protein in the body is increased by insulin(1)results from three functions of insulin similar to growth hormone(1)increased active transport of amino acid into the cells1)amino acids- the basic building blocks of proteins(2)accelerated translation of the messenger RNA code by the ribosomes to form increased quantities of proteins1)Ribosomes- the sites within a cell where protein is manufactured(3)Increased transcription of DNA in the cell nuclei to form increased quantities of RNA, which in turn leads to still further protein synthesis2.Diabetes Mellitus: An Introduction1.90% of all diabetics have type 2 diabetes2.Affects 16 million people in the united states alone, 100 million in the world.1.Estimated that half of all diabetics are unaware that they have it.3.Most common disorder of the endocrine system4.Brought on by disorders in blood levels of insulin.3.Short- and long-term complications1.Hypoglycemia1.A short term effect of diabetes in which the blood sugar is too low2.Can be easily remedied if symptoms are recognized2.Ketoacidosis1.A serious diabetic condition brought on by a lack of insulin2.Blood becomes increasingly acidic from accumulation of ketone(1)ketone(1)toxic by-products produced by the body as it breaks down fat for energy.3.Also occurs if the body is starved for sources of energy.4.Can occur if the body comes under sudden physical stress, illness, or from an accident5.Warning signs:(1)nausea(2)excessive thirst(3)frequent urination(4)extreme weakness(5)abdominal pains(6)rapid deep breathing(7)loss of appetite(8)reddened and warm skin(9)headache(10)drowsiness(11)fruity-smelling breath(12)restlessness(13)ketone in urine6.Failure to respond immediately can result in coma or death3.Diabetes can damage the following1.Eyes(1)Diabetes accounts for twelve to twenty-four thousand of new cases of blindness annually (2)the leading cause of blindness in patients ages twenty to seventy-four2.Nervous system(1)Neuropathy(1)decreased or distorted nerve function particularly in the nerves responsible for sensation(2)numbness(3)tingling(4)weakness(5)burning sensations in the extremities(2)if the nerves are damaged, a person may be unaware of minor wounds that have become infected.(3)if diabetes affects the autonomic nervous system, abnormalities of blood pressure control, bowel and bladder function, and sexual function in males may occur.(4)in some cases neuropathy can block warning chest pains for heart disease and heart attacks(5)diabetic patients should be aware of other signs of a heart attack(1)sudden fatigue(2)sweating(3)shortness of breath(4)nausea(5)vomiting3.Cardiovascular system(1)heart attacks account for 60% of deaths in diabetics(2)strokes account for 25% of deaths in diabetics(3)people with diabetes and no family history for heart disease have the same seven-year risk for heart attacks as a non-diabetic with heart disease.(4)diabetes accelerates the progression of atherosclerosis or blockage of the arteries(1)leads to three major conditions(1)coronary artery disease(2)heart attack(3)stroke(5)people with type 2 diabetes are more likely than the general population to have high triglyceride levels and lower high-density lipoprotein(1)risk factors for heart disease4.Kidneys(1)kidney damage is a very serious complication of diabetes(2)the risk for kidney damage is compounded by the presence of(1)hypertension(2)coronary artery disease(3)problems in the urinary tract(3)symptoms include(1)swelling in the feet(2)swelling in the ankles(3)fatigue(4)pale skin color5.Overall resistance to infections4.People with diabetes are prone to gum problems5.Prone to yeast infections4.What Causes Type 2 Diabetes?1.Causes of Insulin Resistance1.Insulin resistance is believed to be caused by elevated levels of three factors.(1)free fatty acids(1)acids in the blood produced by the breakdown of fat(2)leptin(1)a protein produced by fat cells(3)tumor-necrosis factor or TNF(1)a component of the immune system(2)? (4)how each of these factors are involved is under investigation2.Genetic Factors1.Impairment of beta cell functions and an abnormal response to insulin are involved.2.P2 gene(1)appears to be a critical link between obesity and insulin resistance3.Researchers have identified a link between low birth weight and diabetes type 2.4.Women have a higher rate of insulin resistance than men.3.Age1.Onset typically occurs after age 402.Major concern for increase of diabetes type 2 in children possibly due to rising rate of child obesity4.Obesity1.Rate of obesity in type 2 diabetics is very high2.Regardless of family history, even mild weight gain is associated with an increased risk for diabetes.3.Excess body fat plays a strong role in insulin resistance, but the way it’s distributed is also important(1)weight concentrated around the abdomen and in the upper part of the body (apple-shaped body) is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes.(2)fat that settles around the hips and the flank (pear-shaped body) appears to have lower association with these conditions.5.Smoking1.Smokers are at a higher risk .Order now
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