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Diabetes Essay

Type 1 Pathophysiology

Stage 1:genetic predisposition
Stage 2:environmental triggers
Spring and fall
Epidemics of various viral diseases
Stage 3:active autoimmunity
ICA’s and insulin antibodies progressively decrease the effective circulating insulin level
Stage 4:progressive beta cell destruction
Stage 5:overt Diabetes Essay mellitus

Type 2 Pathophysiology

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Insulin is a building (anabolic) hormone. w/o 3 metabolic problems occur
Decreased glucose utilization
Increased fat mobilization
Increased protein utilization

Decreased Glucose Utilization
Cells that require insulin as a carrier for glucose can take in only 25% of the glucose they require for fuel

Do Not Require Insulin for Glucose TransportRequire Insulin
Nerve tissueAdipose tissue
ErythrocytesSkeletal muscle
Cells of intestinesCardiac muscle
Liver
Kidney tubules

Inadequate amounts of insulin = levels of glucose rise

Elevation continues to rise b/c liver cannot store glucose as glycogen w/o sufficient insulin levels

Return to homeostasis = kidney excretes excess glucose = urine acting as osmotic diuretic = increased water loss aka fluid volume deficit.

Increased Fat Mobilization
Body turns to fat stores for energy production when glucose unavailable
Type 1
Type 2 w/severe stress

Fat metabolism causes breakdown products called ketones

Ketones accumulate in the blood, are excreted through kidney ; lungs, is measured in blood and urine.

High levels = uncontrolled diabetes

Ketones interfere w/body’s acid-base balance by producing hydrogen ions

Decreased pH = metabolic acidosis

Sodium follows excreted ketones = sodium depletion and further acidosis

Excreted ketones also = increase in osmotic pressure = increased fluid loss

B/c fats are primary source of energy body lipids increase to 5x normal = atherosclerosis

Increased Protein Utilization
Protein wasting = lack of insulin

w/o insulin to stimulate protein synthesis, the balance is altered = catabolism
amino acids are converted to glucose in the liver increasing glucose levels
untreated = emanciated appearance

Diagnosis of Diabetes
Physical exam, medical history, labs

Labs
Fasting Glucose >125

Casual Glucose >200

Postprandial >200

HbA1c

C-peptide
.

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Diabetes Essay
Artscolumbia
Artscolumbia
Type 1 Pathophysiology Stage 1:genetic predisposition Stage 2:environmental triggers Spring and fall Epidemics of various viral diseases Stage 3:active autoimmunity ICA's and insulin antibodies progressively decrease the effective circulating insulin level Stage 4:progressive beta cell destruction Stage 5:overt Diabetes Essay mellitus Type 2 Pathophysiology Insulin is a building (anabolic) hormone. w/o 3 metabolic problems occur Decreased glucose utilization In
2019-02-12 08:08:19
Diabetes Essay
$ 13.900 2018-12-31
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