Diabetes is little or no ability to move glucose out of the blood into the red blood cells. Nearly 16 million people have diabetes in the United States, which narrows it down to about 1 out of every seventeen people. About 2,150 new cases are diagnosed each day. Many of us do not clearly know what diabetes is and the different categories that it is classified in. The first type of diabetes that will be discussed is type 1 diabetes and steps that can be taken to diagnose diabetes.
The second type of diabetes that will be talked about will be type 2 diabetes and how it effects patients. The third type of diabetes is gestational diabetes and how exercise can help control diabetes. This paper discusses type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes, their causes, diagnosis, treatments, and how they effect the patient.
The first type of diabetes that will be talked about will be type 1 diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. People with type 1 diabetes don’t produce insulin and need regular shots of it to keep their blood glucose levels normal (What is Diabetes, Type 1). Almost half of the people with this type of diabetes are aged 20 and younger (Bernstein 167).
That is why type 1 diabetes was once called juvenile onset diabetes, but the name has been dropped because it also strikes young adults. Type 1 diabetes accounts for only about 5 to 10 percent of the disease. The vast majority has type 2 diabetes. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are a family history of the disease, the white race and being at an age less than 20. Half the people diagnosed with type 1 diabetes are under the age of 20. One of the causes of type 1 diabetes are genetics.
Scientist suspect that heredity plays a major role in type 1 diabetes and researchers have found several genes that appear to increase the risk of type 1 . Another cause is viruses. Type 1 diabetes often strikes shortly after a viral infection. The viruses that cause this are mumps, German measles, and a close relative of the virus that causes polio. Another cause is chemicals and drugs. Studies show that ingestion of pyrinimil, a poison used to kill rats, can trigger type 1 diabetes.
So can the prescription drug pentamidine, used to treat pneumonia. The last cause is cows milk. Cows milk contains a protein similar to a protein found on beta cells. Exposure to cows milk during infancy may increase the risk of type 1 diabetes (Diabetes Research Institute).
There are many different procedures that can be taken for the diagnosis of diabetes. A series of light flashes, each at a different wavelength is used to excite various proteins in the eye, each according to a particular length and the proteins emit fluorescent light.
The pattern of light emissions reflects the distribution of carious proteins, which changes according to various psychological conditions (Scientific American Medical 22). This new method is based on synchronous fluorescent spectrometry, which combines a detector with a light source to measure the intensity of light emitted by proteins in the eye from each wavelength shown into the eye. A computer then compares the patient’s peaks and valleys of such measurements with corresponding spectra form normal and diabetic eyes. Any one of the following three tests shows the diagnosis values for diabetes: a measurement of fasting plasma glucose, a blood test done after not eating for 8 hours, showing more than 125 mg/dl, and a oral glucose tolerance test after the person drinks a sugar solution containing 75 grams in glucose in which the blood sugar levels is more than 199 mg/dl at 2 hours (Matinas 28). Two abnormal test results, using any of the three tests done on two different days, are needed to make the diagnosis for diabetes. A special test is needed for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes (Stenger 2).
A screening test consisting of 50 g oral glucose followed by a plasma glucose determination 1 hour later. A value of greater than 140 mg, 1 hour after the 50 g load indicates the need for larger tests.
The second type of diabetes that .