In the year of our lord 1095, Pope Urban II started what we know as the Holy Wars or the Crusades. Over the period from 1095-1464, a series of military expeditions were fought to take back the Holy Land, Jerusalem, from the Seldjuk Turks. There were eight crusades which were spurred for many different reasons by many different people that left a lasting effect to the world. These years of bloodshed were led by men of power to bring money, greed, and fame to themselves at the expense of others. Although it brought a lasting uneasiness between the two religions, but trade with the East increased and feudalism became scarce. The crusaders failed to regain the Holy Land, but the Eastern connections opened Europe to a brighter understanding of optimistic ways of living and thinking. This began the formation of modern Europe.Order now
Overview: The leaders and the results
During the Middle Ages, Christians visited Palestine, known as the Holy Land, which was the region where Jesus Christ had lived. The Muslims had captured this land from the Christians, but still allowed religious pilgrimages. Towards 1071 the fierce Seldjuk Turks started conquering the East. The Turks had become Muslims (), but the Turks made it difficult for Christians to reach the holy places.
The military expeditions planned and fought by western European Christians that began around 1095 are known today as the Crusades. The soul purpose of these expeditions was to overtake and gain control of the Holy Land, Jerusalem, from the Muslims. Deus vult! (God wills it!) was the battle cry of the thousands of Christians who participated in the event of the Crusades. It was Christian belief that fate was to gain control of the Holy Land for the glory of God. The origin of the Crusades was a result of the Turkish expansion in the middle east; the Turks invaded the Christian empire, Byzantium, and thus the crusaders were sent out to recover the land which was rightfully theirs.
Around 1071 the fierce Seldjuk Turks started conquering the East. The Turks had become Muslims (), but the Turks made it difficult for Christians to reach the holy places. The Turks decided to continue their reign of terror. In 1095, Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus asked Urban II, pope of the Roman Catholic Church, for assistance in fighting the Turks (). Urban II agreed with two goals in mind to defend Christianity against the Muslims and to recover the Holy Land.
The first crusade was initiated by Pope Urban II. On November 27, 1095, Pope Urban preached to his followers outside the city of Clermont-Ferrand about the action which needed to take place. Preaching words about how God would lead the way because they would be doing his work, Pope Urban urged action to take place. In response to his speech, the people cheered and planned their crusade to regain control of the lost city. Urban brought all the bishops and urged them to encourage their friends and fellow villagers to take part in the expedition. Small self-directing groups began to form, each planning their own path to Constantinople; that was where they would meet and form unity. Their plan was to attack the Turkish forces in Constantinople and regain control of the city. The Christian armies conversed with the Byzantium emperor, Alexius I Comnenus, and agreed to return any of the old land that was recaptured. The armies were unsure about this agreement, however, they agreed to the treaty anyhow.
The first attack by the crusaders was on the Turkish capital, Anatolian. During the same time frame, the Byzantians were also making an attempt to regain the city of Anatolian. The Byzantians used the crusades to their advantage to achieve their goal in capturing the city. Later in the year, Anatolian surrendered the city to the Byzantians, not the crusaders. The crusaders then met once again and together defeated the Turkish army, scoring a great victory. Afterwards, the crusaders went and captured the city of Antioch, and then moved on to their primary goal–Jerusalem. Jerusalem was under heavy guard by the Egyptians at the time period when the crusaders were about to make their attack. The crusaders set up siege machines and