We may differ in caste, creed, colour, sex and language but except equality among ourselves. Nature is the universal thing we all have in common. It’s our duty to protect us and future generations. Environmental problems differ across various regions in the world. We took one from polar region: Sweden and other mixed climatic region (humid subtropical, tropical monsoon): India.
Different planetary boundaries like Population which leads to excess land use, freshwater usage, are compared between these countries. Sweden is developed country having high concern about environmental policies. In Sweden 7% area is used for crop production, two third of land is covered by forests, 5% manufacturing industry. India is a developing country needed high boosting for economic growth and development by industrialisation. In India 51.09% of total land is used for crop production.21.81% is covered by forests.
In Sweden population has not increased due to various reasons:
- Half of the country is in Arctic Circle there is no daylight for months and cold climate likely to be annoying deadly conditions.
- There is more gender equality women are salaried personnel’s, contraceptives methods are accessible.
- Family and sex education were taught in schools since 1950 by addressing issues like pre adult sexual desire, reproductive practice.
In India population was increased due to various reasons:
- Universal marriage system- a girl after attaining a puberty stage parents are interested in getting married of their child. Minimum age for a girl in getting married is 18 and for boys are 21.
- Poverty and illiteracy: 22% people are still in BPL so they can’t feed the children and they want to get rid of the child; sex education is not taught in schools as in Swedish schools they don’t have the secondary education about age of child bearing, methods and materials for contraception.
- Illegal immigration from Bangladesh also leading to increase in population. So, more population leading to excess land usage and other environmental problems in India.
Freshwater Usage: Sweden-there is a decline in freshwater usage of 5% from 2010 to 2015.here freshwater is mainly used for agriculture and manufacturing industry they took sea water as a substitute for industrial purposes roughly very few percentage of fresh water is used for industrial sector and house hold sector uses 23% they have very strong environmental policies regarding usage. This can be treated as an environmental advantage for Sweden.
While coming to India there is a serious concern in usage due to over use to support agriculture and chemical industries. Serious concern is due to indigent drinking water supply, due to variations in monsoon climate people are depending more on ground water for agriculture, and electric pump declined leading to high concentration of harmful elements like fluoride, arsenic in various areas. Strong administration is required for the execution of country scarce water resources.
Sweden environmental policies achieved some advantages like control over land usage, low carbon dioxide, nitrogen, emissions, freshwater usage, and also facing some environmental issues with logging industry as the country is main exporter of timber due to this forest dwelling; species are endangered, eutrophication and overfishing resulted in marine imbalance, as a large exporter of iron ore constituents created a huge carbon emissions; strong measures were taken by government to control them.
India is a growing economy and emissions are very less when compared with western countries. India is depended on coal for 60 %electricity; fossil fuels remains have an essential plan of action. In India there is an adequate land for agriculture but there is decline in land holdings of Indian farmer’s that is dragging back the agriculture productivity.
To increase the productivity; quality supply of seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and innovative methods are required. Due to poor agriculture practices more people are moving to cities for bread and butter resulting in huge emissions of GHG, shortage of freshwater. So, various programs are required for progress of India as global economic competitor. If the progress is not done properly this might result in economic unsustainability.
Lastly, we conclude saying that although Sweden exceeds in many environmental factors it doesn’t act as a model for future prospective to the rest of the world. As, Environmental problems differ across various regions. Implementation of policies depends on individual outlook, economics, and social status.
While India as a growing economy has different environmental policies policies for renewable resources goals for automotive market since, industrial revolution it carries little obligation for rise in GHG emissions. Every country has to set boundaries within their own framework. We want new solutions for environmental problems to be an ideal for interdependent world.