Course Description Art Appreciation focuses on the study and appreciation of representative examples of visual and performing arts, literature, music and significant famous structures around the world. The exploration of interrelationships of the arts and their philosophies emphasizes the nature of humankind and the need to create. The course explores human values, attitudes, and ideas by examining the history and nature of human creative expression from a variety of time periods, art forms, creators and cultural traditions. This course aims to introduce the students to the visual arts, literature, philosophy, music, and the performing arts.
General Objectives 1. To provide the students with a general overview of the humanities making them see their own world from many vantage points and help them grow up to become better human beings. 2. To acquaint the students theoretically to visual, auditory, and performing arts (traditional and contemporary) through the study of the types, medium, basic elements and principles of organization of each form. 3. To become aware of his/her surroundings and associate them with man of the past thereby integrating the two periods together, thus making the world a better place to live in. . To help the students develop aesthetic satisfaction of the different forms of the arts, both local and foreign.
5. To enable the students to develop critical and analytical mind in the appreciation of the different form of arts. 6. To make the students aware of the different works of art particularly those of the Filipino artists to make them feel proud of their heritage. Significant Concepts and General Overview of the Humanities A. History of the Humanities In the West, the study of the humanities can be traced to ancient Greece, as a basis of broad education for citizens.
During the Roman times, the concept of the seven liberal arts1 evolved, involving grammar, rhetoric, and logic (the Trivium), along with arithmetic, geometry, astronomia, and music (the Quadrivium). These subjects formed the bulk of medieval education, with the emphasis being on the humanities as skills or “ways of doing. ” A major shift occurred during the Renaissance, when the humanities began to be regarded as subjects to be studied rather than practiced, with a corresponding shift away from the traditional fields into areas such as literature and history.
In the 20th century, this view was in turn challenged by the postmodernist movement, which sought to redefine the humanities in more egalitarian terms suitable for a democratic society. B. What is Humanities? The humanities is a group of academic subjects united by a commitment to studying aspects of the human condition and a qualitative approach that generally prevents a single paradigm from coming to define any single discipline.
The humanities are usually distinguished from the social sciences and the natural sciences and include subjects such as the classics, languages, literature, music, philosophy, the performing arts, religion, and the visual arts. Other subjects at times included as humanities in some parts of the world include archaeology, area studies, communications, cultural studies, and history, although these are often regarded as social sciences elsewhere. Many students approach Humanities with awe and dread. They feel the material is overwhelming or obscure or, worse yet, irrelevant to their lives.
But this is a false impression. You may or may not believe this now, but you will be reflecting on the material of this course for the rest of your life. Right now, many of you are concerned with very immediate issues: Can I find a job? Can I find a life-partner? Where is the next dollar or peso coming from? Humanities may or may not have the answers to these practical questions right now. But after you have graduated, after you have gotten a job, after you have established yourself in the community, you will come to appreciate the Humanities courses even more.
The Humanities courses have been formally defined as presenting Western civilization through the study of history and in equal measure the study of great books. But presented that way, we are actually focusing upon results rather than causes. The Humanities courses try to answer the questions: 1. What does it mean to be human? 2. What are we here for? 3. What is the meaning of life? (we can ask this in a philosophical way) 4. What do I need to do in order to live well and live better? (we can ask this in a practical manner) C. Three (3) Things that Humanities are and One Thing that it is not,
Humanities deal with: 1. What humans are: the human 2. What humans do: our humanity 3. What humans can be: the humane 1. What Does it Mean to be Human? If humanities come from humanity and humanity comes from human, we might trace this step further. The word “human” comes from the Latin word “humus” which means “earth”, in the sense of “soil”, or “dust”. Interestingly, the name of the Biblical first man, Adam, is derived from Hebrew word “adamah” which means “dust”. On one level, we are children of the earth – We go out, work, propagate, and die. “Dust we are, to dust we shall return. ”
Many of you would say that you are here to get yourself trained for a job. That for many people is the purpose of getting an education. Well and good! We value having a job as much as anyone else. But, important and necessary as job is, it is not sufficient for us to live a fully human life. Much more is possible in living than passing each day mechanically, subject to the push and pull of the moment. Simply put, holding down a job and doing housework is not being fully human. Are we born to bloom and drop? What of “soul”, however one cares to define that intangible “more” that makes human life worthwhile?
We all know – more is possible; and this more is pointed to by Humanities. 2. What Humans Do – Our Humanity Humanities deal with what arises from our humanity and “humanity” refers to all the people who have ever lived, are now living, and who will live in the future. The Humanities deal with what has been accomplished by this great chain of generation through the vast store of human memory we call “history. ” We study those things which are distinctively human: art, language, literature, politics, religion, etc. We create and furthermore we can appreciate what we create.
This is uniquely human. 3. What Humans Can Be – The Humane And finally, Humanities deal with what creates our truest or highest humanity. We become more aware of and more sensitive to the many dimensions of human life. We become more humane – we grow in knowledge and sympathy. 4. What Humanities is Not: Humanism2 / Secular Humanism When some people hear the word “Humanities”, they associate it with the word “humanism” by which they usually mean “secular humanism” – a belief system that denies the transcendent and the divine. Secular humanism focuses on this life alone.
It says that this world is all that there is – there is no transcendent dimension. But Humanities does not necessarily mean “secular humanism. ” Secular humanism is only one of many different ways of interpreting what life and history are about. The Humanities courses focus on human achievement; to do so in no way deny that there may be a transcendent dimension to human life as well. Why Study Humanities The most usual question ask by the students regarding the inclusion of humanities in the curriculum is the relevance of the subject to the course. At first, the question sounds reasonable.
It is true that the subject does not direct anyone to finding fortune. It does not teach anyone how to produce rice. But moving further into the deep of humanity unsheates the question with its credibility. The question becomes a demonstration of a complete ignorance to the true meaning of life. If this world is made up only of material things such as food, car, money, sex and others, then the artists have no right to inhabit this planet. They can live somewhere in the limbo where perhaps a decent being recognizes the reason of the artists’ existence.
The basic reason why humanities is included in the curriculum is to equip students with a culture that is necessary to complete his being. This is the culture that frees man from sticking to the mandates of the world. Man is a highly cultures if he could live happily beyond the things that satisfy only the practicalities of life. Saint Thomas Aquinas said: art is opposite to the practical. Art is not concerned whether man has fine dresses, delicious food or if he has money. Art is concerned on something that lives beyond matters. Novelists write without thinking of any monetary return.
They do it because there is something that they want humanity to understand. Student should remember that Total Human Development, as the meaning of education does not mean to finish a degree, find a ob and gather wealth to heap. Like the artists, man should labor beyond the value of money. The Branches of Humanities The Humanities can be grouped generally into three: fine arts, practical arts, and performing arts. The following are considered fine arts: 1. Painting. This is a kind of art, which main process is applying color or pigment to a surface.
There are different mediums and various types of painting. 2. Literature. This is a kind of art which main medium are the written words. There are two main classifications, prose and poetry. The following are considered performing arts: 1. Dance. This combines movements of feet, hands and body in rhythm. Its aesthetic element is seen on the unity and harmony of the movements. 2. Singing/Music. The art of putting together the sounds in order. Its medium/media are either human voices or instruments, or a combination of the two. . Cinema. Or motion picture that blends together the fundamental and vital elements of music, painting, literature, and music.
The following are considered practical arts: 1. Sculpture. Refers to the breaking, and or piecing together hard stone or other shapeable materials to represent something imagined or real. This is an art presented in three dimensions. 2. Architecture. This is an art of designing and constructing a building or other type of structure. Materials include concrete, brick, wood, steel, glass, and plaster.
Art as, Personal, and Culturally Significant Meaning By deducing, we can say humanities, in broad terms, is a record of man’s quest for fundamental questions. By etymology, humanities came from the Latin word HUMANUS which means human, cultured and refined which underscores man’s essential worth for capacity for self advancement. However, humanities is applied to ancient writings of Latin authors. During the medieval age, it refers to philosophy & theology (the quest for spiritual life or a preparation to life hereafter).
In Renaissance, it is applied to disciplines taught in Universities (traditional branches are grammar, rhetoric, history, literature, music, philosophy, theology, language), a body of knowledge which asserts intrinsic value of man’s life on earth (as opposed to medieval times) or in other words, would make man’s life richer and more meaningful. In 19th cent. , humanities loss its prestige because of sciences which believed that they can procure everything that man needs & wants. Consequently, science tones down its rising and humanities finds leverage when science hamper lives & nature (atomic bombs, drugs, inventions, etc. , in which science can be well use if it’s controlled by individual w/ high ideals (the bright side which humanities offers) Furthermore, humanities, controversially, is closely connected to philosophical view of humanism (indebted to Protagoras dictum that “man is the measure of all things” which emphasizes dignity & worthiness of man and recognizes creative expressions). Now, humanities refers to group of cultural subjects or to arts (visual, auditory, performing, literature), a branch which concerned to human thought, feelings & relations.
Although some universities when they talk of humanities they refer it to philosophy, theology, arts etc. Or by saying humanities, it talks about the inner space program concerned in thoughts, creations, and actions of man in the past & in the present (matters of values, sentiments, priorities, insights, interrelations, transcendental realities). Humanities and Science By definition, science is systematized, organized body of knowledge, obtained from observation, studies and experimentations. It deals with the objective and external world of man.
While humanities talks about expression, appreciation & perception, personality, heart. It deals with the subjective or internal world of man. Importance Science educates minds, hearts; humanities educates feelings & sensitivities so that we may use our things without forgetting that we are human beings. humanizing,’ Salvador Gonzalez says. Furthermore, science alone is not adequate to make man truly humane/educated, humanities is really imperative for humanization. Looking in education system, it prepares us for life’s career (work, work, work) but not for a better life! a life which not living for work alone.
Humanities provides man with measure/education of his passion, desire, relation w/ others& environment, potentials, and for enjoyment in arts & leisure but productive which man will be recreated, fulfilled, & creative. But subject’s humble objective is for students to be guided in their encounter with arts, find enjoyment in arts not as antidote for dull, boredom, lone moments but capacity to perceive, understand, appreciate arts, as well as personal artistic discovery.
Arts By saying humanities, we simply say were talking of artsOur attitude towards arts may be influenced by these basic assumptions: 1. Art has been created by various people, at all places & time. It exists because it is liked & enjoyed. It does not grow old. 2. Art is something to be seen, heard 3. Art is the product of man’s imagination, good taste and skill in doing things. 4. Nature is artful, its beauty and artistry could be enhanced. Some philosophers have given up the search for an absolute and eternal definition of art.
Although there may be agreement on defining art at any particular place and time, even a cursory look at the history of intellectual thought reveals that people have held quite different views elsewhere and in other periods. Art is always creative, always evolving in style, in purpose, and significantly, in definition. This being the case, art can only have an “open” definition that specifies the traits that are usually present in those things commonly designated as art, even though no single trait is definitely present in all art. However, in any case, it would be facilitating to have a conceptual definition of art to have a grasp of understanding.
Etymologically speaking, arts came from a Latin word ARS which means ability & skill . It covers those areas of artistic creativity that seeks to communicate beauty primarily to the senses. It applies to such activities that express aesthetic ideas by use of skill & imagination in creation of objects/masterpiece. It talks not only of craftsmanship but also proficiency in performing such activity.
Arts is an experienced activity 1) wants to communicate 2) expressing or creating 3) gratification of accomplished work. However, loosely, it’s anything that can be accomplished w/ great skill. Compared to other man’s activities, arts is impractical: it does not meant to meet to the requirements of day to day living, however, by function we say it’s for practical usefulness(functional non functional & satisfying. Working Definition of Art
Art is the communication of feelings/ideas by sensuous medium fashioned into symbolic language marked by beauty of design & coherence of forms. Nature of Ar: 1. Aesthetic value (we always expect an art to be beautiful through our relative perception) 2. man-made (planned activity; not natural ; unburdened/shared feelings ) Medium The very existence of an art style presupposes the existence of a medium in which artworks are executed.
Medium refers to the materials/means which the artists used to objectify (express) his/her feelings/thought (pigment, stone, wood, metal, plastic, sound, words, gestures, etc. ). However, these medium have inherent limitations as well as potentials to exploits. Symbolic Language Symbolic language refers to subject; it refers to what the work of art is represented/described. It could be representational or nonrepresentational but there lies the difficulty in assessing the matter. The subject provides the answer to the question: What is the painting or piece of sculpture all about?
In painting, subject is no problem if the artist has painted realistically. We can somehow understand an artist’s subject in different levels of meaning through 1. factual 2. conventional meaning 3. subjective meaning. Forms The term forms apply to the over-all design of a work of art. 5 Forms refers to the classification of arts: 1. visual 2. auditory 3. performing 4. literature
Meaning in Art Human existence is intrinsically linked to meaning – to comprehend meaning, to communicate meaning, and, in our most distinctively human capacity, to create meaning. Within the genus homo, we have designated ourselves the species sapiens: Our highly developed ability to be sapient – to think, to understand – distinguishes us from our hominid ancestors and relatives. Sometimes nature dictates meaning (“that fruit’s redness means it is ripe enough to eat”). Much of our environment, however, is surely devoid of intrinsic meaning and indifferent to human concern.
Nevertheless, humans do create meaning, postulating that the fruit’s redness is “beautiful,” and that, perhaps, a man from the “red” clan may not marry a woman from the same “red” kin group. In our eternal drive to create meaning, we have generated social structure, systems of myth and religion – and art. 6 Means as Meaning Art’s cultural significance may lie in its capacity to bring about some desired end – that is, one meaning of art lies in its being a means to some goal. In the way that the most salient meaning of “hammer” is “tool for driving a nail,” the meaning of an artwork may be the means it provides to attain an artistic end.
In such cases, religious meanings are often involved. Means-as-meaning is widespread, but it varies in the forms it takes. Sometimes the end is thoroughly concrete and definable. Isadora Duncan, who was instrumental in developing modern dance in the early twentieth century, made a remark when she was asked what her choreography meant. She reputedly replied, “I can’t explain dance to you. If I could say it, I wouldn’t have to dance it! ” A distinct property of art is its capacity to ineffably convey meanings in a way that transcends the rational, the explicit, the unambiguous.
Value-Meaning Associations of Art 1. Art and Beauty 2. Art and Social Values 3. Art and Truth Often art’s central meaning lies in its being a tangible embodiment of abstract norms of beauty and social goodness. Since art is often related to beauty, we would do well to ask about the source of human standards of beauty. Beauty criteria vary from one society to another, of course, but they generally do so within restricted limits, and at least some of these are rooted in practical considerations. “Beautiful” skin is usually healthy skin, free of the blemishes of the disease and wrinkles of advance age.
It is surely no coincidence that sound, white teeth are both attractive and practical. If art often embodies messages about beauty, it also frequently suggests ideas of social goodness. Since Ancient Greece, for example, Westerners have equated certain “attractive” facial features with desirable qualities of character, while others are “ugly” and found only in unsavory individuals, as in Aristotle’s claim that straight eyebrows indicate an undesirable “softness of disposition. ” Art’s value dimension has a third component – art may be conceived as a manifestation of truth.
People from all points of the compass embraced the maxim “If it’s worthwhile, it’s beautiful. ” Functions of Art 1. Personal: vehicles of artist’s expression of feelings/ideas , at the same time it’s a means of expression for us (to relate, therapeutic, educates, understanding of ourselves & around us 2. Social: art is closely related to every aspect of social life.. 1) it tends to influence/arouse collective behavior of people 2) display & celebration 3)social description 3. Physical: for physical comfortability (tool + pleasing)
Conclusion For all the diverse aspects of meaning in art, the central conclusion remains. In very many cases, if not all cases, art has meaning – and usually meaning of considerable significance in the culture it comes from. Culture varies in their definition of what is and what is not significant; and there are differences in the overtness with which the meaning is manifest in the artwork. Nevertheless, art does typically convey, personal, and culturally significant meaning. An Introduction to the History of Art9
The appearance of the earliest paintings can be marked 30,000 years ago during the Old Stone Age. Using various colors of earth mixed with blood, fat, egg white or plant juice, prehistoric people made paints to create their pictures, largely of animals, on cave walls. Their purpose seemed to be for magical or religious reasons. Some of the most famous cave paintings were found in France and Spain. Ancient Egyptians (3100BC – 1500BC), in an effort to record things, painted scenes on temple walls, in tombs of dead people, and even outside coffins.
Through their paintings we have learned a great deal about their life and culture. Classical Art includes paintings and sculpture of both the ancient Greeks and their conquerors, the ancient Romans (1700BC – AD300). They painted figures and scenes not only on walls of palaces and houses but also on vases. In Europe during the Middle Ages (AD300 – AD1400) where the official religion of the Roman Empire was Christianity, paintings were largely of a religious nature telling the life of Christ.
This period showed a wide used of frescoes (painting done on damp plaster) on church walls and painting of wooden altarpieces. Also, monks made religious books where they painted elaborate pictures and decorations on parchment called vellum (illustrated manuscripts). During the Early Renaissance in Italy (AD1400 – AD1500) painters, influenced by the classical art of the ancient Greeks and Romans, began experimenting more with styles of art. Using tempera pigments mixed with egg yolk and water, they painted people and scenes in more realistic ways.
During this same time period, painters in Flanders and Germany were using oil paints rather than tempera and their paintings, many more of which were of a non-religious nature, were filled with detail and use of colors that were jewel-like. The High Renaissance in Italy (AD1500 – AD1527) produced such well-known artist as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael and is considered the period where artistic achievement reached its greatest height. Many religious paintings (including frescoes), commissioned by Popes, were done on the ceilings and walls of various rooms in the Vatican.
In Italy from AD1530 to AD1600 many painters sought to initiate ways of painting that were markedly different from those employed in the High Renaissance. In one dramatic style called Mannerism, artists distorted the figures and space in their paintings. Venetian artists created their own style demonstrating dramatic use of color and light and employed this style in portraits as well as in scenes on altarpieces. This period also marked more prevalent use of oil on canvas rather than on wood panels. In the 17th century Italy, Flanders and Spain saw a new Baroque style of painting develop and flourish.
Artist produced large-scale pictures, especially suitable for churches or palaces. Particularly fashionable was the painting of scenes on ceilings. During this same time-period, Holland which had become an independent and prosperous trading nation, became the center where numerous painters thrived. Instead of religious paintings, which the Protestants there did not approved of, subjects in paintings included still-life objects, landscapes of Holland’s countryside, portraits of Dutch merchants and scenes of everyday life. In the early 18th century, the Rococo style of painting was developed in France.
Houses for the wealthy were decorated in this style using large windows and mirrors, delicate colors and elaborate carvings. Rococo paintings portrayed colorful ‘fairyland’ scenes of life the way French aristocrats would like to have lived. The first public galleries were created during this time. In England, the Neoclassical style of painting was developed during this same century. These artists imitated the more plain and simple style of the ancient Romans and often chose figures from ancient history and myths as their subjects.
In Europe during the early 19th century (AD1800 – AD1850) two new styles of painting arose: Romanticism and Realism. Using strong colors and dramatic effects, Romantic painters sought to express their feelings and emotions in their art and were particularly drawn to painting historical scenes that were exciting and mysterious. In strong contrast were the Realist painters who sought to portray the world in realistic terms and often chose as their subjects the peasants in their everyday lives. The Impressionist movement in France flourished during the 1870s and continued well into the 1880s.
The artists of this movement were more interested in expressing atmosphere through their creative use of light and color and were less interested in the actual subject matter of the painting. Because of their interest in light, impressionists painted outdoors. Favorite subjects included scenes of nature and life in the cafes of Paris. By the 19th century there was a decline in patronage. Art works were no longer simply commissioned by the church, royalty or rich people. Because art dealers began selling uncommissioned art to the public, artists themselves felt they now had more freedom to paint what and how they liked.
This gave rise to the modern art movements where such experimentation began to take place. A variety of different styles were developed in the post-impressionist era. These artists were influenced by photography and Japanese prints that found their way to Europe in the late 19th century. The invention of photography in the 1830s, with its ability to produce highly accurate pictures, encouraged many artists to move away in different directions from painting realistically accurate scenes and figures.
In the 20th century in both Europe and America, abstract artists used colors and shape to express their ideas and their feelings. Representational artists used new methods and subjects in representing real objects as in Surrealism and Pop Art. Painting Painting is generally defined as the application of pigments to a surface. Pigments are available in a wide chromatic range. Their color originates from chemicals and minerals found in plants, animal life, clay, soil and sand. The color in paint comes from its pigments.
The powdered form is mixed with a binding agent or vehicle and a solvent or medium, to form paint – the liquid material that imparts, color to a surface. The most commonly used vehicles are lime plaster, wax, eggs, oil, acrylic plastic, water and gum Arabic. The best vehicle is one that holds the pigments together. It is unfortunate however that most vehicles are subject to a long term problems of crackling, yellowing or discoloration. Medium, on the other hand, provides fluency to the paint so that the color may be readily dispersed over the surface.
Water or turpentine is usually employed as thinning agents for this purpose. Art Elements of a Painting Like all other kinds of arts, painting has also elements of its own which are discussed briefly below. Knowing them is a pre-requisite in appreciating and creating this particular form of arts. 1. Distance. There are three distances to look for in a painting. The part of the painting closest to the viewer is called the foreground. The middle ground is the part between the foreground and the part, which is the farthest away, is called the background.
It’s important to train yourself to look at each of these distances one after the other consecutively. In this way, the viewer will be able to take the notice of and see things that he/she might have missed in the initial viewing of the painting. 2. Color. Artists use colors to convey feelings and moods within their paining. They can create cheerful mood by placing bright colors next to each other. They can create a calm or gentle mood by placing soft colors alongside each other. Basically, colors can be divided into warm (reds, oranges, yellow) and cool (blues, greens and violets) colors.
It is interesting to notice which colors the artist uses, which one stand out and how colors make you feel as you view the painting. When complementary colors (blue and orange, red and green, yellow and purple) are used alongside each other, they intensify each other and look extra bright. The artist also uses black to tone down colors (shades) and white to lighten them up (tints). a. Value. This is the relative lightness and darkness of a color or a quality of light and dark. Practically, knowledge on the value or color helps anyone the best effect he wants to achieve. b. Intensity.
It is worth remembering that colors have psychological and emotional bearings. Sometimes, emotions are shown on the thickness of the color being applied. This is apparent in the fauvism form of art. Fauvists like Van Gogh expressed his emotions by thickening the color of his objects. Red for instance is associated with cheerfulness, warm, and happiness. A fauvist expresses his feeling of happiness by thickening the red color. This refers the element of art known as intensity. Intensity is the brightness or darkness of color. It can be in the same hue but of different intensity.
The color blue can be very thick or bright in the upper portion but can be very dark in the lower portion. But it is still blue. 3. Light. Painters spend a lot of time studying the way light falls. They often experiment with light in their paintings simulating natural light or using hidden spotlights to focus the attention on what they want viewers to notice in the painting. Light affects the color of the subject and objects in the painting look real and solid if the painter shows the way light falls on them. Use of light and darkness also conveys particular moods in the painting.
It is important to look for the light sources in the painting and describe their effect on the appearance of the subjects and on the overall mood it communicates. a. Chiaroscuro or light and shadow. The word is taken from the two Italian word chiaro which means light and oscuro which means dark. This is a pictorial representation using light and shade without the use of colors. 4. Line. Artists use various types of lines (diagonal, curved, vertical, and horizontal) to express ideas and feelings in their paintings. Be sure to look for various lines in a painting and note where they are and what they seem to convey.
A. Straight Lines. Straight lines are most commonly used lines both in art and engineering. Generally straight lines imply simplicity. A person is labeled straight if he is simple. He is extremely opposite to the intricately decorated fellow labeled as baroque. 1. Vertical. A line rising perpendicularly from a level surface. Upright. The fact that it is rising upward, it implies ambition, authority, majesty, and respect. Vertical lines are seen in a man standing straight, a tall tree. These are impressions of dignity. 2. Horizontal. A line in parallel to the horizon. These are lines of repose and serenity.
Reclining person and landscape of bodies of water are pictures of horizontal lines. 3. Diagonal. A line running in slanting direction. This implies actions and movements. A running man, a bull fighting and other actions are pictures of diagonal lines. B. Curved Lines. Curve lines suggest grace, movements, flexibility and joyousness. They are never harsh or stern. They are formed in gradual change in direction. 1. Circle. A curve that is loci at all points in the plane, that is equidistant from a fixed point called center. 2. Lunet. A kind of curve line that is formed like a crescent. . Oblong. A kind of curve that is indentified with its spherical form by elongation in one dimension. 4. Ellipse. Close curve by a plane that cuts all the elements of a right circular cone. 5. Shapes. An artist uses shapes to express ideas. They may be circles, triangles, rectangles, ovals, or squares. When arranged close together, these shapes add energy to a painting. When placed far apart, they look more serene. It is interesting to find both small and large shapes in a painting, counting how many you find of each and noting the similarities they may possess. . Composition. Artists seriously plan how they will arrange elements like color, line and shapes in their paintings. This is called composition. Some artists make a master plan before they actually begin the painting. Others plan as they go, deciding how to arrange things as they paint. The composition helps to draw the viewer’s eyes into the picture and guides him/her as he/she walks through the painting. A composition is often likened to an invisible skeleton that holds the painting together. 7. Perspective. Through perspective artists convey 3-dimension space.
Perspective makes a flat picture look 3-dimensional and have depth. How the artist layers the three distances of foreground, middle ground and background is one way he/she creates perspective. To create deeper space an artist may have parallel line come together. To give the effect of distance that artist may make the objects in the background smaller in size, lighter in color or less detailed. This is a painter’s technique to appear the object of his art as in the distance or in depth. To draw a highway, painters used to converging lines. The two lines of a railway seem to meet in the distance.
In a long file of things or people, the figures in the distance are smaller than those in the foreground. Object seem to recede in the distance. This is perspective, the distant appearance of an object. 8. Symbols. Artists often include symbolic objects in their paintings. A symbol can be defined as something, which has special meaning or a special message. Artists use them to express such ideas as life, death, hope and faith in God. A painting may have hidden meanings within it as expressed in the symbols the artist uses. 9. Texture. This is the visual appearance of things.
In sculpture, this includes the sense of touch that has something to do with the characteristics of surface. It can be rough or smooth, fine or coarse, shiny or dull. In painting, texture represents the skin, clothes, jewelry and other objects of the artists. Styles of Arts According to the Development Men had already appreciated art long before they learned to write. Paintings, believed to have been mastered before the advent of writing are seen on the walls of a certain cave in Cro-Magnon France. This art on the wall has an extreme theme of naturalism.
They are reflections of things seen by the haunting cavemen. Most are pictures of wild animals and trees. But as shown further, the development of art in the cave was not left behind by the development of the people from food gathering to food producing. Some paintings contain symbolic elements as modern arts do. There are paintings of fallen leaves to indicate summer, zigzag line probably to indicate mountains or seas and fingers-made stripes may represent the rainbow. 1. Baroque Art It is derived from the word barocco, an ill-shaped pearl. The word can be associated to an overly ornamental thing or person.
A person with too much adornment is labeled as Baroque. Curved and zigzag lines, which express vitality and actions, make fit to the standard of baroque art. This art flourished in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries. Baroque art rejects straight lines because in art straight lines imply simplicity. 2. Gothic Art This is recognizable by its pointed arches and ribbed vaults. Pointed towers exemplify faith. Every important structure of gothic architecture served to illustrate its upright position. 3. Renaissance Rebirth, or revival of the classics.
This is a movement in art that aims at bringing back the classic art of the Greeks and Romans. But artists of this period were still free to integrate their own taste into the classic although features of classism such as balance, harmony, proportions and intellectual orders were the standard of the time. 4. Modern Art Modernization is characterized by the advancement of technology. This technology brought several changes to man’s lifestyle and this lifestyle gave birth to several aristic creations. Some modern arts that came out through recent inventions are photography, industrial arts, cosmetics, and advertising.
Cinematography is also an art that emerged together with the modern innovation of man. Methods of Presenting the Art Subjects General Grouping of Painting Generally, painting can be grouped according to its mood of presentation. First, a painting is called abstract when the painter does not show the subject as it appears in reality. The artist shows only his thought and feeling. At first sight of the painting, the meaning is not easily recognized. Other abstract painters present the figures in some recognizable forms but they are presented in a misshapen manner.
Secondly, a painting is considered realistic when the subject is presented as it appears in reality. Critics of arts like Aristotle called this style as mimetic or imitation that the work of art exactly appears in reality. Styles in Painting In presenting anything, methods are employed in order to be effective. There are various methods of presenting art. 1. Realism. In art, this is the attempt to portray the subject as it is. Even when the artist chooses a subject from nature, he selects, changes, and rearranges details to express the idea he wants to make clear.
Realists try to objective as possible. Here, the artist’s main function is to describe as accurately and honestly as possible what is observed through the senses. We can say that an art or work of art is realistic when the presentation and organization of details in the work seem so natural. Realism is a common way of presenting the art subject. In literature, realism has for its goal the faithful rendering of the objective reality of human life. Since the reality is the necessary raw material of all art, realism has certainly existed since literature began. 2. Abstract/Abstractionism.
Abstraction is the process of simplifying or organizing objects and elements according to demands of artistic expression. Abstract: to move away, separate, moves away from showing things as they really are. Abstract presents the subject not as it appears in reality. Abstract art, is a style of painting or sculpture that is non-representational and in which form and color are intended to be appreciated in themselves. The term is generally applied to a distinct style of Western art that developed in the early 20th century and that today is still a central concern of artists and sculptors.
There are various types of abstracts, which are as follow. a. Distortion. This is a kind of abstract which natural form is twisted or distorted. There is a misshapen look of the picture presented. A good example of this style is seen in the works of Spanish painter, Salvador Dali. b. Elongation. The character or the object being painted is elongated or extended. This is to emphasize a certain purpose of the painter. The Resurrection by El Greco for instance applied this style to mean that spirit and not the soul goes to heaven. c. Mangling.
The object is presented as cut, lacerated, mutilated or hacked. This is not well-used kind of abstractionism. d. Cubism. Abstractionism that stressed through the use of some geometrical shapes such as cylindrical, triangular, spherical and other forms at the expense of the other pictorial elements as in the works of Pablo Picasso. e. Abstract Expressionism. It is a style of abstract painting that originated in New York City after World War II and gained an international vogue. Strong color, heavy impasto, uneven brush strokes, and rough textures are other typical characteristics.
Abstract Expressionism departs completely from subject matter, from studied precision, and from any kind of preconceived design. 3. Symbolism. A symbol is a thing or a single object that stands for another thing. It is the visible sign of something invisible such as idea. A flying dove for instance stands for freedom. In painting, the subject is not visible. A sign or an emblem represents it. The objective is to transcend the ordinary sign reality and assumes new and fresh meaning originating from highly personal and even unique association born in the mind of the artist. examples: parables of Jesus, Juan Luna’s Spolarium) Symbolism, use of symbols to convey different meanings. Symbols maybe anything: object, words, colors, or patterns; their defining characteristic is that they stand for something other than their intrinsic property. For instance, while there is nothing intrinsically dangerous about the color red, it has become a symbol for danger in a number of societies. Symbols are equally potent in today’s world. For instance, a national flag or anthem, the crucifix, or indeed the color of sports teams can be charged with meaning and emotion. 4. Fauvism. from the French word “fauves” which means wild beast/animals because of use of uncontrolled, non-natural, and exuberant means. It is a kind of style or movement in painting that is characterized by thick pigment. Fauvism is usually used to express a feeling of joy, comfort or pleasure through extremely Gogh bright colors. A fauvist is too much concerned on the brightness of the colors. Van Gogh’s Starry Night is an example of Fauvism. Fauvism is a relatively short-lived movement in French painting (from about 1898 to about 1908) that revolutionized the concept of color in modern art.
The Fauves rejected the Impressionist palette of soft, shimmering tones in favor of the violent colors used by the Post-Impressionist for expressive emphasis. They achieved a poetic energy through vigorous lines, simplified yet dramatic surface pattern, and intense color. 5. Dadaism. Artistic and literary movement reflecting a widespread nihilistic protest against militarism during and after World War I. The term dada, the French word for the hobbyhorse, is said to have been selected at random from a dictionary by the Romanian-born poet, essayist and editor Tristan Tzara.
In their efforts to express the negation of all current aesthetic and social values, the Dadaist frequently used artistic and literary methods that were deliberately incomprehensible. Their theatrical performances and manifestos were often designed to shock or bewilder, with the aim of startling the public into a reconsideration of accepted aesthetic values. To this end, the Dadaist used novel materials, including discarded objects found in the streets, and new methods, such as allowing chance to determine the elements of their works.
The German painter and writer Kurt Schwitters was noted for his collages composed of waste papers and similar materials. The French artist Marcel Duchamp exhibited as works of art ordinary commercial products – such as a store-bought bottle rack and urinal – which he called ready-mades. Although Dadaist employed revolutionary techniques, their revolt against standards was based on a profound belief, stemming from Romantic tradition, in the essential goodness of humanity when corrupted by society.
Dadaism as a movement declined in the 1920s, and some of its practitioners became prominent in other modern-art movements, notably Surrealism. 6. Futurism. Early 20th – century movement in art that pointedly rejected all traditions and attempted instead to glorify contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing its two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The principles of Futurism were laid down by the Italian poet Flippo Tommaso Marinetti and published by him in a manifesto in 1909. Movies such as Star Wars, Time Machine and others picture out something in the future.
The same thing is portrayed in the paintings. It exalts success in technology. Subject includes supersonic trains, jets, modern houses and anything that relates to the importance of modernization. 7. Surrealism. A movement in literature and fine arts, founded by the French poet and critic Andre Breton. Surrealism grows directly out of Dada, an art and literary movement reflecting nihilistic protest against all aspects of Western culture. Like Dadaism, surrealism emphasized the role of the unconscious in creative activity, but it employed the psychic unconscious in a more orderly and more serious manner.
Surrealism is a style in presenting art by fantastic or incongruous imagery produced by unnatural combinations. Surreal means intense irrationality or beyond natural. It emphasizes activities of the subconscious mind. In other words, surrealism pictures out images in a form of a dream. Surrealism creates forms and images not by reason but by impulse, blind feeling. It attempts to show what inside man’s mind as well as appearance of the outside world. 8. Expressionism. This was a European method that flourished in the first decade of the twentieth century.
In this method, the artist has a freedom to consider his personal style in presenting his subject or expressing his thought or feeling. Types of Painting / Medium of the Visual Arts Throughout the history of art, a variety of supports and tools have been used to create paintings. Here are the characteristics of several types of painting: 1. Water Color. As the word suggests, it is a combination of coloring materials and water. It is the most commonly used medium of painting particularly among school children because it is easy to use and is readily available in stores. 2. Oil.
Oil-based paints produce glossy products. It slowly dries. Oil paint consists of ground pigments mixed with linseed oil vehicle and turpentine medium or thinner. Oil painting is slow in drying and allows corrections or working over. Drying can be facilitated with various agents added to the basis mixture. Since its development near the beginning of the 15th century, oil has gained popularity due to the variety of opportunities it gives to the painter. It presents many options for textural manipulation and is durable. 3. Tempera. It is one of the old mediums that persisted through the ages.
It was well used before oil was adopted. Its mineral coloring is a mixture of egg yolks and ore. This medium is usually applied to a wooden panel that is made very plain with plaster called gesso. This type of painting was popular for centuries but is rarely used today. In egg tempera, ground pigments are mixed with vehicle of egg yolk and thinned with water. Tempera was the exclusive painting medium of artists during the middle ages. In the 1300’s, oil paint was invented in Northern Europe which led to the decline of tempera. If applied to a properly prepared surface, tempera is extremely durable.
It can possibly attain pure and brilliant colors. Also the consistency and fluidity of the mixture allow great deal of precision. Tempera painting is usually done in a wooden panel that has been made smooth with a plaster coating. The pigment is mixed with egg yolk and dries quickly, thus there is a little blending or fusing of colors. 4. Pastel. This is a stick paste made of powdered pigment. It looks like a crayon and it is applied like a crayon. Although it is readily available and very easy to use, it does not attract the attention of the artists because its finished product is difficult to preserve.
Pastel color closely resembles dry pigment. It possesses only surface light and does not give glazed effect. The pigments used in tempera may be used for pastel. The pigment is bound in order to form a crayon which is applied directly to the surface which is usually paper. Painting paper, pasteboard or canvass is used as support for pastel painting. Pastel is a flexible medium which may produce varied effects. However, pastel has not become very popular medium, maybe because no one has yet discovered the way to preserve its original freshness.
The chalk tends to rub off and the picture loses some of its brilliance. 5. Fresco. It is taken from the word fresh, the art of painting on fresh plaster. This medium flourished in the 15th and 16th centuries. Michel Angelo’s Sistine chapel and Leonardo da Vinci’s Last Supper are examples of fresco painting. Fresco is the art of painting on plaster. Buon Fresco, or true fresco is applied on damp lime plaster; Fresco Secco is painting on dry plaster. In Buon Fresco, the pigments are mixed only with water and the lime of the plaster wall acts as a binder.
As the wall dries, the painted image on it becomes permanent. The fresco secco, the pigments are combined with a vehicle of glue that affixes the color to the dry wall. Fresco painting also poses some problems one of which is the fact that the artist is limited to only what he can finish in one day since the paint must be applied to fresh, damp plaster. For this reason, large fresco paintings are composed of small sections, each has been painted in a day. The sections must be arranged in such a way that the joints will not be obvious, yet sometimes it is not possible to do so.
Another problem is that there are some pigments that do not form chemical bonds with lime, thus, making these pigments unsuitable to the medium. Such lime resistance limits the artist’s palette and can make tonal transitions difficult. The Sistine Chapel in Rome is magnificently decorated with paintings by Michael Angelo. The series of frescoes continue to be one of the world’s greatest achievements in art. 6. Acrylic. It is a paint which adhesive element is acrylic resin. Contemporary artist use it because of its quick drying characteristic.
Its good quality is that it preserves the freshness of the art through the years. Acrylic paint is a mixture of pigment and a vehicle that can be thinned with water. Unlike linseed oil, the synthetic resin of the binder dries colorless and does not compromise the brilliance of the colors. Also unlike oil paint, acrylic can be used in various surfaces that do not need special preparations. It is flexible and past drying, and it is water soluble, it requires no flammable substances for use or clean up. Acrylics constitute modern synthetic products and use an acrylic polymer as a binding agent.