MBA Organizational Behaviour and Design Paper on:Human beings have psychological, ethical, and spiritualneedsthattranscend the normal liberal agenda. Liberals have tended tofocusexclusively on economic entitlements and political rights. But most peopleneed something more: We need to be part of loving families and ethicallyand spiritually grounded communities that provide a meaning for our livesthat transcends the individualism and me-firstism of the competitivesociety. People constantly experience emotions, yet in organizational theory, as inorganizational life, the exploration of emotionshasbeenlargelydeemphasized, marginalized, or ignored. Impersonal criteria for makingdecisions and restraints on emotional expression at work have long been thehallmarks of bureaucracy (e.
g. , Weber, 1946, 1981). Recent work has brokenthis emotional taboo, exploring how certain organizations require theexpression of particular emotions at work to maximize organizationalproductivity, an aspect of job performance that has been labeled emotionallabor (Hochschild, 1983). The process of organizing requires the coordination of employees’ behavior. Because coordination may be imperfect:(1) Direct and fully obtrusive:such as giving orders, surveillance, and rules. (2) Bureaucratic and somewhat less obtrusive: such as division of labor andhierarchy; and(3) Fully unobtrusive control of the cognitive premises underlying action:in which the employee voluntarily restricts the range ofbehaviorsconsidered appropriate.Order now
Focus on EmotionsTraditional bureaucratic, normative, and feminist organizations differregarding theirorientationstowardemotionalissues. Traditionalbureaucratic organizations echo Weber in emphasizing control by impartialand impersonal rules that eschew the personal favoritism that can come withindividuating solutions to problems (e. g. , Hellriegel and Slocum, 1979). Traditional bureaucracies also attempt to keep the public domain of workand the private domain of personal and family life separate, so that if anemployee experiences difficulties balancing work and familydemands,responsibility for the problem and the solution lies with the individualemployee, not the employing firm.
Robert Weisberg, 2003) offered a modification of the feminist position onthese emotional issues. They introduced bounded emotionality as a limitedand pragmatic approach totheproblemofemotionalcontrolinorganizations, for a different formulation of bounded emotionality. as”feelings,sensations,andaffectiveresponsestoorganizationalsituations,” although the acknowledged that such work feelings stem fromand affect emotions arising from one’s personal history and home life. Bounded emotionality encourages the expression of a wider range of emotionsthan is usually condoned in traditional and normative organizations, whilestressing the importance of maintaining interpersonally sensitive, variableboundaries between what is felt and what is expressed. Bounded emotionalityhas six defining characteristics: inter-subjective limitations, emergent(rather than organizationally ascribed) feelings, tolerance of ambiguity,heterarchy of goals and values, integrated self-identity, and communitybuilding. Empowerment has emerged as a conceptual paradigm to guide theory, old andcurrent research, and practice in community psychology (Rappaport, 1981;Swift & Levin, 1987).
Community psychologists have been in the forefront inarticulating and evaluating collaborative processes designed tohelphistorically disenfranchised groups access health, mental health, and otherresources. The intent of these interventions is to create a psychologicalsense of community that can break the cycle of oppression. Lesbians and gaymen are a substantial population which has been historically marginalizedby law, social policies, and social custom. However, the concerns oflesbians and gay men have remained largely invisibleincommunitypsychology. For instance, a review of community psychology journals between1965 and 1985 revealed four papers on lesbian and gay topics. These studiesfound that lesbians and gay men are underserved in mental health, socialservice, and health care settings.
More recent reports describe socialsupport systems in university communities (D’Augelli, 1989a; Edelman, 1986)and rural settings (D’Augelli, Collins & Hart, 1987; D’Augelli ; Hart,1987), and the impact of the HIV epidemic on gay male communities (Martin,Dean, Garcia ; Hall, 1989). The career counseling needs of battered women vary across settings, overtime, and with their individual experiences of domestic abuse, challengingcounselors to accurately assess their needs and to balance immediate andshort-term safety needs with longer term career and educational pursuits. Previous authors have described how SCCT might be applied to careercounseling with a variety of populations. Battered women are faced with theparticular challenge of the multifaceted deleterious effects of domesticviolence. Accordingly, we now present E.
H. McWhirter’s (2003) empowermentmodel as an appropriate framework for applying SCCT to assist this specialpopulation. (a) Become aware of the power dynamics at work in their life context,(b) Develop the skills and capacity for gaining some reasonable controlover their lives,(c) Which they exercise,(d) Without infringing on the rights of others, and(e) Which coincides with actively supporting the empowerment of others intheir community”). Recommendations for empoweringbatteredwomenandfordevelopinginterventions that address the variables and relationships defined by SCCTare aligned with the five Cs of empowerment: collaboration, context,competence, critical consciousness, and community. Many barriers still exist in these societies that provide obstacles topersonal, family, and community development among lesbians and gay men.
Themost powerful barriers are:(1) Stresses related to coming out;(2) Heterosexism; and(3) Difficulties identifying with a community. Each barrier can serve as afocal point for community psychologists to collaborate with lesbian and gaycommunities. Strategies to evade the stigma associated with homosexuality:The process of coming out is a gradual eradication of these boundaries suchthat one is known as lesbian or gay in all crucial life domains, includingfamily life, work, and community life. Lesbians and gay men maintain self-esteem most effectively when they identify with and are integrated into alarger lesbian/gay community (A.
Richards, Glenda M. Russell; Stressor andresilience factors for lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals confronting antigaypolitics; 2003). “Coming in” refers to this process of identifying with alarger group of lesbian and gay people. Lesbians and gay men report moreprimary support from partners and friends than from family Exploration oflesbian and gay subcultures and socialization into its norms facilitatelearning the folkways, behavior, language, and structure of the community.
1. Heterosexism: “an ideological system that denies, denigrates, andstigmatizes any nonheterosexual form of behavior, identity, relationship,or community”: . With the stigma of mental illness removed, lesbian and gay people havesuccessfully confronted the organized mental health establishmentwhose diagnoses disempowered them. . Identification of other causes of societal disempowerment. The mostheuristic analyses have used the concept of Heterosexism “fuels thedisenfranchisement of lesbians and gay men by perpetuating the viewthat their sexual orientation is inherently flawed, manifests bothcultural and psychological levels”.
(Anthony R. D’Augelli, 2003). 2. A second strategy has been to raise the consciousness of lesbians andgay men about the sources of their oppression .
Community Education “(1) invisibility and stigma; (2) the uniquenature of lesbian/gay personal identity; (3) the lack of groupidentity from birth; (4) and low awareness of the history of lesbianand gay communities” . Campus Organizing: “As organizing in high schools, colleges, anduniversities have been threefold:(1) to create an environment which ensures equitable treatment andfreedom from harassment;(2) to encourage research and scholarship in the areas of lesbian andgay; and,(3) to increase visibility of lesbian and gay students, faculty, andstaff on campus . Religious Institutions: “Lesbians and gay men are demanding to beaccepted as full members in Mosques, churches and synagogues. Severalreligious organizations for lesbians and gay men have been created,such as Affirmation (Mormons)” . Anti-Lesbian/Anti-Gay Violence: “Using Different multilevel approachhas been used to confront violence against lesbians and gay men”.
. Collaborations to Prevent Prejudice, Discrimination, and Violence:”Collaborativestrategiestoaddressanti-lesbian/anti-gaydiscrimination and violence include documentation of its incidence andpatterns in a variety of contexts and settings, of its mental healthconsequences, of institutional responses, and of prevention efforts”. . Caring for the Community: Mental Health and Health Enhancement:”Building and establishing lesbian and gays professional health-related organization to provide supporttolesbianandgaypractitioners (youth and older)”. . Confronting the HIV/AIDS Crisis: “confrontattitudes,developprograms, and challenge political roadblocks, prevention of furtherHIV infections, development and expansion of AIDS prevention models,and research and education to address AIDS-related stigma and anti-gayattitudes”.
. Promotion of Civil Rights: “further researchdocumentingtheinequities in civil rights experienced by lesbians and gay men;promotion of public and organizational policies that provide legalprotection and nondiscrimination and fosterlegalrecognition;research focused on the impact of social, legal and politicalinfluences on lesbian and gay lives (e. g. , effectsofanti-discrimination legislation or the restrictiveness of child custodylegislation); and development of information programs onanti-discrimination policies and on legal rights for dissemination to thelesbian and gay communities on both local and national levels”. .
Gay Bar Scene “gay bars have functioned as a haven for them to meetnew friends and sex partners”. . Homophobia Homophobia is defined as the irrational fear of people andthings related to lesbians and gay men (Weinberg, 1972), and it havetwo kinds:1. Externalized homophobia: comes from the heterosexual communitywho dislikes or fear homosexuals. Conversely,2.
Internalized homophobia comes from within the lesbian or gayman. . Childhood Sexual Abuse (CSA): “Sexual abuse is defined as any unwanted sexual experience , and substance abuse may become a strategy used by childhood sexual victims to cope with their pain”. .
HIV/AIDS and Alcohol Effects: “The experience of losing friends to AIDS leads many lesbians and gay men to worry constantly about their own health and the health of their friends and their lovers, and thus, Because alcohol and drugs may suppress the immune system, the relationship between drinking, substance abuse, and AIDS has received great attention in the gay community”. . Coming-Out Process: “many gay people demonstrate fears and anxieties about rejection from friends, families, and society. For many these fears and anxieties are born of actual, devastating experiences”.
Federal Laws:Devolp new acts aware of LGB as: . Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatmentand Rehabilitation Act. . Human Health and Human Services Act.
Confidentiality: . In order to ensure that people with substance abuse problems activelyseek mental health services without worrying about being stigmatizedor criminalized. . A client’s sexual orientation, especially if a client is a gay orlesbian.
Which means, keep in mind that disclosing a client’s sexualorientation without the client’s consent can result in devastatingconsequences. Community psychologists can fulfill that promise through applied researchand action to continue the tradition of empowerment started by members oflesbian and gay communities. The complex influences of history, law, andsocial policy on the psychological adjustment and community life oflesbians and gay men in different communities provide rich opportunitiesfor community psychologists. Graduate training in community psychology mustincorporate a focus on lesbian and gay communities to take advantage ofthese opportunities. Training a new generation of community psychologistsby involving them in the pressing problems of lesbian and gay life is thebest approach to ending the invisibility of lesbians and gay men incommunity psychology.
Community psychologists have much to give to lesbianand gay communities in their continuing struggle to create a place forthemselves in the whole world society. ———————–Community Building with Suicidal BehaviourIntroduction:CONTROL IN THREE IDEAL TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONSBounded EmotionalityEmpowering lesbian and gay communities (Historical Background):EMPOWERMENI AND Social Cognitive Carrier Theory SCCT (Krista M. Chronister,Ellen Hawley Mcwhirter, 2003):Empowerment is defined as “the process by which people, organizations, orgroups who is powerless or marginalized:ONGOING BARRIERS TO PERSONAL, FAMILY AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT:FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO LESBIANS’ AND GAY MEN’S SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROBLEMS:(Zhankun Cheng, 2003):STANDARDS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELING PRACTICES (Riggar, 2003):Conclusion: