Babies grow and develop at a very rapid rate during the first year of life. They
grow physically, mentally, emotionally, and socially. In this paper I will
discuss the physical growth and development patterns of an infant all the way
through adulthood. Development is the baby’s increased skill in using various
body parts. When dealing with a development of a child there are three basic
First development rule: This rule says that babies develop in
the head region first, then the trunk, and lastly in the legs and feet. For
example, a baby can hold up their head before they can grasp an object with
their hand. Also they can feed themselves before they can walk. Second
development rule: The second development rule explains that children develop
from the mid line, or center of the body, outward toward the fingers and toes.
Third development rule: Finally, this rule reveals that, as the brain develops,
a child responds to more and more sights and sounds in their environment.
Furthermore, they learn to respond to much finer details.
A general rule is that
a baby increases in height by 50% and triples its birth weight in the first
year. Clearly, this is a very rapid growth rate; however, the rate of growth
slows down after infancy. At three months, a baby is alert and responding to the
world. When put on their tummy, they can hold their chest and head up for ten
seconds. They try to swipe at toys hung over the crib. They turn their heads
toward an interesting sound or listen to voices.
Babies love to stare at
people’s faces. They coo and gurgle. At six months a baby is developing control
over its body. They can sit with support and may sit alone for short periods of
time. They can roll over. They will hold out their arms to be lifted up or reach
and grab an object.
They can hold their own bottles and toys. They laugh out
loud, babbles, “calls” for help and screams when annoyed. At nine
months babies are exploring their environment. They can sit unassisted, crawl,
pull to a stand and sidestep along furniture. They can use their fingers to
point, poke, and grasp small objects. They feed themselves finger foods.
know their names and respond to simple commands. She babbles a pattern as if she
were speaking a foreign language. At twelve months a baby is striving for
independence. They stand and may walk by themselves. They climb up and down
stairs and out of the crib or playpen. They prefer using one hand over the other
and can drop and throw toys.
They fear strange people and places. They remember
events, expresses affection, shows emotion, uses trial and error to solve a
problem. Babies that aren’t so healthy do not develop as fast or as much as
normal babies. For example, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a problem that is
increasing all across America. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is the effect of pregnant
women drinking alcohol. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is the leading cause of
It affects more than 8,000 babies in the U.S.A. every year. FAS is
100% preventable; however, because of their mother’s decision to drink alcohol
during pregnancy, none of the thousands of affected babies had the chance to be
born normal. FAS birth effects include facial abnormalities, growth deficiency,
or brain damage.
FAS children need guidance because they are easily distracted
and forgetful. FAS does not go away because brain damage and birth defects are
permanent. Mental retardation’s permanent and irreversible, behavioral problems
are permanent. All of these problems associated with FAS and drug abuse are
permanent. Moving on past the infant stage and into the adolescence and puberty
stages, this is where children start becoming young adults and many new
developments begin to occur. This is also a time when youth start wanting their
independence and begin to challenge societal values in the form of rebellion,
act, and dress radically and form groups.
These actions against the structure of
existing society promote the beginning of independence that reflect their own
rules, structures, class, gender, and ethnic groups. So, the youth culture, in
challenging society’s values, at the same time is reflecting them. Expectations
of the children change as they get older. They know what is expected of them and
want to follow the rules; However, due to peer pressure and other issues, some
children will often break the rules. Many teenagers come from broken homes and
poor communities with little respect .