Strict Construction: Judges should use strictly legal precedent for legal opinions. This is also known as legal formalism. Broad Construction, also known as Legal Realism, involves adapting and changing the law to fit the needs of contemporary society. Impoundment is another legal term.
Refusal to fund a program if he doesn’t support it. Judicial activism (liberal) advocates an active role for courts. They should use judicial review to strike down laws that violate the Constitution.
Or its principles, judicial review interprets the constitution and the actions of government branches.
Judicial self-restraint should be exercised to ensure a restrained role for courts. They should only find actions of other branches of government constitutional and permissible. This approach aligns with libertarian ideals of individual freedom.
Freedom encompasses all aspects of politics, including government liberalism, social equality, and government involvement in economic problems. A plebiscite is a national poll used to gauge approval or disapproval for policies or leaders in power. A pocket veto occurs when the president refuses to sign or veto a bill during the 10-day consideration period. If Congress remains in session, the bill becomes law without the president’s signature.
Signature, Pol. Culture, and shared values of society affect what people want and how they express those demands. Functionally, parties recruit candidates.
Promote policies, connect streets and local branches nationally, assign people to tasks and positions in government once elected, have internal dialogues on how to govern, and provide national organization to coordinate functions. Thomas Paine’s Common Sense came from Britain; he hated monarchy and believed that as long as central power existed, the rights of individuals were in danger.
Charges against parties: no clear vision or broad choices; aimed at getting elected; corrupted by interest groups. Breakdown in party loyalty changed the nature of political leadership and weakened government.