Back to top


Artscolumbia / Visual arts  / Sculpture

The sculpture is a kind of fine art, whose works are three-dimensional and tangible. It is divided into a circular, freely placed in space, and a relief in which volumetric images are arranged on a plane.

An Ancient Kind of Art

This is one of the most ancient art forms. Various forms of sculpture have existed for all the peoples of the world for a long time, for example, women’s figures and reliefs of the Neolithic.

Main Expressive Means

Like any other art, the sculpture reflects in the artistic images the real world, and reflects it in its own way, using special means and methods. The artist expresses a person’s spiritual world and ideas about the surrounding, embodies his aesthetic ideals.  Like other types of art, sculpture has its own specifics, which is expressed both in content and in the choice of material and expressive means.

· The main expressive means is a three-dimensional volume-plastic shape. Through it the content of the work is revealed, the sculptor’s intention is conveyed to the viewer.

· The rhythm is of particular importance. It is the repetition of the same motives. Rhythm can serve not only the design of the subject, but also express a certain mood, movement. Light and shadow serve as a means of revealing the artistic and plastic essence of the work. They are located on the surface in accordance with the nature of modeling, as well as with the location of the light source. Light can be artificial and natural.

· In the artistic design of any sculpture, the pedestal, the boundaries of which define the framework of the work, separates the creation itself from the real space that surrounds it. The pedestal should correspond not only to the architectural environment, but also to the nature and style of the work.

· A specific feature of the sculpture and its content is that it depicts mostly a person. in the image of the person himself, the sculptor can reveal the life of society, the characters of people, their moods and actions. The artist always distinguishes those qualities of a person that are worthy of imitation: kindness, courage, intelligence, moral purity, creative impulse.

Venus de Milo

[caption id="attachment_21126" align="alignright" width="264"] Venus De Milo[/caption] This graceful statue of a goddess has intrigued and fascinated since its discovery on the island of Melos in 1820. Is it Aphrodite, who was often portrayed half-naked, or the sea goddess Amphitrite, who was venerated on Melos? The statue reflects sculptural research during the late Hellenistic Period: classical in essence, with innovatory features such as the spiral composition, the positioning in space, and the fall of the drapery over the hips. The discovery of a mutilated masterpiece The Venus de Milo was discovered in 1820 on the island of Melos (Milos in modern Greek) in the south-western Cyclades. The Marquis de Rivière presented it to Louis XVIII, who donated it to the Louvre the following...

Read More

Michelangelo – my vision

Michelangelo was a man of many trades who, throughout his life, created, painted, and designed artistic masterpieces. He was a marvel of his time.. "He was celebrated as the greatest artist ever because of his great work in the areas of sculpting, painting, drafter, architecture, and poetry". A genius with his ingenuity and thought process in the way he came up with the ideas that have now become modern masterpieces and wonders to us. Hard work and education to his true passion led to his success and fame in cities all around. He is a man who truly lived life to the fullest. He worked every day of his life and finally rested on his deathbed. Michelangelo was born on March...

Read More

Gothic Architecture in Medieval France

Gothic Architecture in Medieval France As with most modernization, new concepts are often refined versions of previous techniques. Although structural design during the Middle Ages was already advancing at a large scale, distortions of the classical style were not too apparent until the Gothic era occurred. Taking place during a time of turmoil with the Hundred Years' War and the Black Plague, the Gothic age emerged right as European society was forced into a reflective change. With an increase in trade and a growing violation, an associated development of cities also occurred. Since it was more plausible to centralize churches and monasteries within towns, advancements of stone architecture began in order to meet the needs of the general public. First appearing...

Read More

Sculpture in the Indian subcontinent

Sculpture in the Indian subcontinent From Wisped, the free encyclopedia Part of a series on the Culture of India History People Languages Mythology and folklore[show] Cuisine Festivals Religion Art[show] Literature[show] Music and performing arts[show] Media[show] Sport Monuments[show] Symbols[show] Culture portal India portal Bronze Vishnu Gain figure of Thirthankarasuparshvanath, 14th century, marble One of the first representations of the Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE, Kandahar The first known sculpture in the Indian subcontinent is from the Indus Valley civilization (3300-1700 SC), found in sites at Enjoy-dare and Harp in modern- ay Pakistan. These include the famous small bronze female dancer. However such figures in bronze and stone are rare and greatly outnumbered by pottery figurines and stone seals, often of animals or deities...

Read More

Indian Overview Fashion Dress

Harpoon statues, which have been dated to approximately 3000 b. C. E. , depict the garments worn by the most ancient Indians. A Priestley bearded man is shown wearing a toggling robe that leaves the right shoulder and arm bare; on his forearm is an armlet, and on his head is a coronet with a central circular decoration. The robe appears to be printed or, more likely, embroidered or applique©d in a trefoil pattern. The trefoil motifs have holes at the centers of the three circles, suggesting that stone or colored faience may have been embedded there. Harpoon female figures are scantily clad. A naked female with heavy bangles on one arm, thought to represent a dancer, could have been a...

Read More

Leonardo Da Vinci

Leonardo Dad Vinci Leonardo dad Vinci was born in Vinci, Italy on April 15, 1452. He was an Italian artist, painter, sculptor, architect, engineer and a scientist. He was also one of the greatest minds of the Italian Renaissance. Renaissance is the transitional movement in Europe between medieval and modern times beginning in Italy in the 14th century and ending in the 17th century. It was marked by a humanistic revival of classical influence showed it a flowering of the arts, literature and by the beginnings of modern science. The Italian Renaissance is the time period when Italy was the center of the Renaissance. He was born to unmarried parent's who were Seer Piper dad Vinci (he was an official who...

Read More

Middle Age and Renaissance Art

Gothic Art is art of the Middle Ages. Early Middle Age art is also known as the Dark ages (410 AD-ADDED). After the Dark ages came the Medieval era (1066-1485) Then on to the Renaissance era. In the Middle Ages the Roman Empire was spilt into two sections, the Eastern and the Western part of the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire fell, the Western part disintegrated, while the Eastern or Byzantium Empire stayed intact. The art reflects the differences between the development of Catholic Religion and the Byzantium Empire. Byzantium Art had characteristics of religious art, somber tones, flat, one dimensional, no shadows, narrow, and solemn faces. Medieval Gothic Art broke away from Byzantium Art and Romanesque styles. Changes included :...

Read More

Renaissance and Discovery

Renaissance and Discovery I The Renaissance in Italy A. The renaissance was the period when people began to adopt a rational and statistical approach to reality and rediscovered the worth and creativity of the individual. Most scholars agree that the Renaissance (which meaner "rebirth" in French) was a transition from medieval to modern times. Before the change, Europe was a fragmented feudal society with an agricultural economy with a church who dominated their thoughts and culture. Once the change happened, Europe was a growing nation, an urban economy, and people had new opinions on thought, culture, and religion. The Italian Renaissance began with the deaths of Patriarch (the "father" of humanism) and Biochip (author of the Decadence). With that, the Florentine...

Read More

Baroque Art

Challenge II Baroque Art: What is it and why do we care about it? The Baroque is often thought of as a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, and music. The style began around 1600 in Rome, Italy and spread to most of Europe. It's defined as "a style of European architecture, music, and art of the 17th and 18th centuries that followed mannerism and is characterized by ornate detail. In architecture the period is exemplified by the palace of Versailles and by the work of Bernie in Italy. Major composers include Vivaldi, Bach, and Handel; Carving and Rueben are important baroque...

Read More

Renaissance and Reformation

Renaissance and Reformation Test Humanism- Classical texts from the Greek and Roman culture lead to humanism. Humanism focused on human potential and achievements. People stopped worrying about Christian teachings. Influenced artists and architects. History, Literature, and Philosophy are humanities subjects. Secular- People became concerned with the here and now Predestination- Calling's book/doctrine; Institutes of the Christian Religion states that everyone is sinful by nature and God has known from the beginning who he will save. Council of Trend- Pope Paul Ill 4th step toward reform was to call a great council of hurt leaders to Trend. Catholic Bishops and Cardinals agreed on several doctrines: 1) Church interpretation of the bible was final anyone who substituted there ideas was a heretic 2)...

Read More

Mason-Caree, Renaissance Architecture

Part. B: Matson-Career. Since High Renaissance period was highly influenced by the Roman culture, the Roman orders of columns were applied in the architecture and most building plans and fade were symmetrical. One of the examples which can be brought from Roman times is the Matson-Career. It is an ancient building located in southern France, and considered to be one of the best preserved Roman temples. The three stepped floor was replaced with a tall platform, and the columns along the sides of the temple were converted to engage columns. Roman Architecture: Essential Humanities") Units of measurements were based on the human scale and it was in mathematical proportions. One of the best examples of this is Laurent Library by...

Read More

Pablo Picasso and Stelarc

Introduction- Pablo Picasso and Stellar are two artists who both use shock tactics to create artworks that resonate with the audience. Although ones a modernist and the other a postmodernist, they both share similarities in their subject matter, and that is shock value. Body 1- Pablo Picasso was a Spanish artist who was born in 1881. Picasso was a painter, printmaker, ceramicist, sculptor and stage designer who spent majority of his life living in France. Picasso showed outstanding talent from a young age, who painted in a realistic manner throughout his entire childhood, and into adolescence. Picasso as seen to be one of the most creative artists of the 20th century, who played a major impact influencing young artists. Picasso is...

Read More

European Renaissance & Reformation

Chapter 1 European Renaissance & Reformation Unit 1 - Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance Revolution - the Italian Renaissance was a rebirth of learning that produced many great works of art & literature. Renaissance art & literature still influence modern thought & modern art. Renaissance - period of European history, 1300-1600, rebirth, a renewed interest in classical culture lead to changes in art, learning, & views of the world. Humanism - Renaissance intellectual movement that focused on studying classical texts, human potential & achievements. Secular - Renaissance society was worldly rather than spiritual & concerned with the ere & now. Patron - a person who supports artists, especially financially. Perspective - an artistic technique that creates the appearance of 3 dimensions...

Read More


Summary about Renaissance Renaissance is the Fresh term was used to describe an entire period of rebirth - "rebirth" of ancient traditional, took as its foundation the art of Classical antiquity, but transformed that tradition by the absorption of recent developments in the art of Northern Europe and by application of contemporary scientific knowledge. It is the painting, sculpture and decorative arts of that period of European history known as the "Renaissance", parallel with developments which occurred in philosophy, literature, music and science. It started in Italy, take place between the 4th and 17th centuries and then spread throughout the European countries in the 16th century. It emerging as a distinct style in Italy. Renaissance art history, especially the Italian Renaissance...

Read More

How Historical Architecture Elements Have Been Destroyed

How historical architecture elements have been destroyed in the buildings of Lass Vegas Lass Vegas is a city in the state of Nevada and the city is extremely populous and internationally known for the fine dining, gaming and shopping (Stern, Peggy and Alan 13). Lass Vegas proclaims itself as the world's capital of entertainments due to its famous hotels combined with casinos. It may seem like all the great architecture of the world is gathered in one place: there's Venice, Caesar Palace, Luxury, New York and Camelot Statue of Liberty, Eiffel Tower, the Leaning Tower of Pisa and etc. Directly low the Eiffel Tower, cicadas buzz in branches of the Roman pines that overlook the waters of an Italian lake. Suddenly,...

Read More

History of Sculpture

Assyrian Black Obelisk of Salamander Ill a large and solid late one. The conquest of the whole of Mesopotamia and much surrounding territory by the Assyrian created a larger and wealthier state than the region had known before, and very grandiose art in palaces and public places, no doubt partly intended to match the splendor of the art of the neighboring Egyptian empire. The Assyrian developed a style of extremely large schemes of very finely detailed narrative low relief in stone for palaces, with scenes of war or hunting; the British Museum has an outstanding collection. They produced very little sculpture in the round, except for colossal guardian figures, often the human-headed lamas, which are sculpted in high relief on two...

Read More

Italian Renaissance: Earliest Form of the General

1. Italian Renaissance - earliest form of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy. 2. Jacob Birthmark - historian of art and culture, and an influential figure in the historiography of each field 3. Oligarchies - small group that ruled a city and its surrounding countryside 4. Conditioner - the mercenary soldier leaders (warlords) of the professional, military free companies contracted by the Italian city-states and the Papacy from the late middle ages and throughout the Renaissance. 5. Republic of Florence - The Republic of Florence, or the Florentine Republic, was a city-state that was centered on the city of Florence, located in modern Tuscany, Italy 6. Medici Family - political dynasty,...

Read More

Egyptian Architecture

Egypt: Art and Architecture Architecture The great architectural achievements of the past are built of stone. Stone quarries supplied the large blocks of granite, limestone, and sandstone that were used for building temples and tombs. Architects planned carefully as building was done without mortar, so the stones had to fit precisely together. Only pillars were used to sustain short stone supports. At the temple of Kara, a ramp of adobe brick can be seen leading to the top of the temple wall. Such ramps were used to allow workmen to carry stones to the top of structure and allow artists to decorate the tops of walls and pillars. Pillars were built in the same way. As height was added, the ground...

Read More

European Gothic Sculpture

"Name and discuss in detail two Gothic sculptures making references to the period in which they were produced, them, composition and style. Discuss briefly the role of a sculpture in a named Cathedral from the Gothic Period. " The word "Gothic" was given to the style of architecture that evolved between 1150 and 1499 in Europe. It was invented by the Renaissance historians and artists to express their negative attitude to an art they thought was barbaric. Gothic culture was urban based unlike Romanesque culture which was, for the most part, rural based. Cathedrals became retreat centers for education and political power during the Gothic period. Initially, it was slow to spread throughout Europe but it lasted for a long time....

Read More

The Art of the Renaissance

The Art of The Renaissance by Maria Large Did you know that most likely the most famous painting in the world, the Mona Lisa, was painted in the time of the Renaissance? The oil painting of the straight faced woman (or man), painted by the famous Leonardo De Vinci, is said to be painted between 1503 to 1506. No one knows who the person in the painting is. No one even knows whether or not it is De Vinci himself, a relative or even a man or a woman! The English name "Mona Lisa", came from a description by Renaissance Art historian "Giorgio Vassar". There were many exquisite paintings done in the time period of the Renaissance. I'm going to briefly...

Read More

Egyptian Art case

They dedicated enormous resources to Egyptian rituals and the construction of temples. Because of their beliefs, they developed an exquisite and unique form of art. Their art works centered on their gods and the preparation for eternal life after death. They created sculptures, forms of pottery, paintings and hieroglyphs to decorate burial tombs for their eternal afterlife Journey. This civilization is the most well known for their monumental sculptures, but they also created small sculptures made of stone, wood, and bronze. These were often a suture of a human body with the head of an animal (falcons). They were also known for their astonishing pottery made out of clay which held images of animals, people, and last but not least; their...

Read More

The Renaissance and the Harlem Renassance

The Renaissance and the Harlem Renaissance: A Comparison and Contrast The Renaissance Period of the 14th-16th century was a time of change and growth in the world of art. All art forms experienced progress not only in terms of the human aspect of imagination, creativity and philosophy, but also in terms of progress in available technologies and available materials and tools. The Harlem Renaissance of the sass's and ass's was similarly a time of change in the human condition as well as technique and subject matter. The medium of visual art, particularly painting, of both periods provides a fascinating study of comparison and contrasts. The Renaissance was a time of prolific production of paintings, many that are now considered masterpieces. At...

Read More

Fashion Cycle

What is the fashion cycle? Fashion cycle - a period of time or life span during which the fashion exists, moving through the five stages from introduction through obsolescence. - When a customer purchases and wears a certain style, that style is considered accepted. The acceptance leads to the style becoming a fashion! Fashions do not always survive from year to year GOAL: The ability to gauge the timeliness or occurrence at the right time, of a fashion is critical in the development and marketing of fashion products. Stages of the Fashion Cycle Fashion moves through different stages during its cycle of existence. Not only design but special features also go through a cycle such as color, texture, and fabric Introduction...

Read More

The sculpture in the Temple of Zeus

Olympia is known as the first home of athletics, where many remains of Ancient Olympics are located. In addition, the masterpiece of the ancient architecture?the Temple of Zeus is also a special scenery here. The Temple of Zeus was designed by Albino. It was constructed on 470 B. C. The Temple of Zeus was built with carved mottoes and tryingly friezes. They're many sculptures in the Temple of Zeus. These sculptures were curved between 480 B. C and 450 B. C, when the severe style was popular. The pediments and mottoes on the top of the temple clearly showed the typical supreme and unparalleled creation of severe style at that age. On the west pediment of the temple, the sculptures showed...

Read More

Comparison of two Egyptian Sculpture Relief Depicting

Comparison of two Egyptian Sculpture Relief Depicting a Man Inspecting His Stables; Ships Unloading Merchandise and Relief Block, Plucking and Roasting Fowl, Herds Crossing Water By shackles Comparison of two Egyptian Sculpture Relief Depicting a Man Inspecting His Stables; Ships Unloading Merchandise and Relief Block, Plucking and Roasting Fowl, Herds Crossing Water In Egyptian art, the greatest achievements are tomb relief, huge number of tomb relief shows the people who were rich enough at that period want to bring their rich and glory even after they dead. The Early royal relief are somewhat too idealism on the figures, heir figures on the tomb relief are usually rough on the surface. However, the technique of making tomb relief developed extremely quickly starting...

Read More

Modernist Styles, Including Cubism, Orphism, and Futurism

Modernist styles, including Cubism, Orphism, and Futurism challenged the practices of traditional representational art. I will argue that modernist styles including Cubism, Orphism and Futurism did challenge the practices of traditional representational art. While some may argue that that the fact that modern styles were concerned with subject gives doubt to how challenging they really were to representational art I oppose this idea entirely. All art is representational in some way. Rather than a dismissing the concept of representation in art the modernist styles challenged the validity of the external representation, which had previously en the foundation of art, by focusing on conceptual representation. Traditional representational art is based on the representation of an image as it is, at a fixed...

Read More

Egyptian architecture

Ancient Egyptian Architecture The Egyptians have survived for thousands of years, and are considered to be the hallmark of human civilization. They are the first known culture to have a stable society for such a long period of time. The reason their society was so stable is because they all believed in the same thing, which was that the gods were the first priority and that their pharaoh was a man who ascended to the level of a god. Another reason that the Egyptians survived for so long was because their architectural prowess was unmatched for thousands of year by any other civilization. Not only do buildings and statues show us how great the Egyptian kingdom was, but it also gives...

Read More

Modern architecture and traditional architecture

Modern architecture and traditional architecture Nowadays, as we known the architectural community has had a strong and continuing interest in traditional and modern architecture. Architecture, this word possesses an immense creativity in itself. Usually, when we hear this word, picture of creative design of physical structures flashes in our mind. Integral to the identity of any country is its architectural heritage, combining modern and traditional architectural designs or product of the blend between splendid modern and traditional architecture. Based on what have found, architecture has been Rosen down into many categories to fit the lifestyle of people in a particular place at a particular time. There are basically two types of architect which are modern architecture and traditional architecture. According to...

Read More

Humanism in Renaissance Art

The Renaissance, occurring between the fourteenth and seventeenth centuries, was a period of great rebirth. Humanism, an important part of the Renaissance, brought about more color, perspective, and realism within the artistic community. A few aspects of humanism include individualism and Greece-Roman influences. Humanist ideals manifested themselves in works of Renaissance art such as Michelangelo Sistine Chapel and his David sculpture, as well as Repeal's School of Athens. Individualism emerged in the works of Michelangelo along with numerous other Italian artists of the time. In Michelangelo Sistine Chapel painting, each of the over one hundred people depicted has its own distinct facial features. Prior to the Renaissance, artists would replicate the same prosaic face onto all of the people in a...

Read More

Renaissance Art

World History 2 Renaissance Art "The Renaissance is studded by the names of the artists and architects, with their creations recorded as great historical events" (Arthur, 2008). The Renaissance was an epoch of great art and literature, and was a period of time when people shifted away from the ideas and traditions of the Middle Ages. Many of the most prominent educators, artists and architects were from this period. Artworks dating from the 1 5th century to the 16th century, during the Renaissance era, express ideas of individualism, imitations of classical antiquity and the understanding of proportions and realism. Michelangelo David, the self-portrait of Raphael, and Leonardo dad Vine's Mona Lisa depicts the idea of individualism. Unlike the paintings during the...

Read More