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Music is a kind of art that reflects reality and affects a person through meaningful and specially organized sound sequences, consisting mainly of tones.


Music is a specific kind of sound activity of people. Its ability to express the thoughts, emotions and volitional processes of a person in an audible form and serve as a means of communicating people and controlling their behavior unites it with other varieties such as speech, instrumental and acoustic signaling. At the same time, it differs significantly from all other varieties of people’s sound activity. Preserving some semblance of sounds of real life, musical sounding fundamentally differs from them by strict high-altitude and temporal (rhythmic) organization. These sounds are part of the historically established systems, the basis of which are the tones. In every composition, tones form their system of vertical connections and horizontal follow-ups.

Sensual art

Musical art can be described as “the most sensual among the arts.” Poetry or painting, for example, cannot be perceived at the level of physiological reactions, music can not only be perceived but also reproduced without the inclusion of intelligence, and the horizon of such listening and playing is wide enough (meditative practice of disabling rational thinking through certain tunes, dancing in a disco, singing patients with speech disorders and the disorder of the logical apparatus).

Emotional content

In the content of music, the main role is played by emotional states and processes as well as volitional aspirations. Their leading place in the content is predetermined by the sound (intonational) and temporal nature, which allows it, on the one hand, to rely on the centuries-old experience of external revealing by people of their emotions and transferring them to other members of society through sounds and, on the other, adequately expressing emotional experience as movement, the process with all its changes and shades, dynamic build-ups and downturns, mutual transitions of emotions and their collisions. Of all kinds of emotions, music embodies mainly moods. This allows this kind of art to reveal not only the psychological states of people but also their characters.

Music is able to reveal the content of different kinds: epic, dramatic, lyrical. At the same time, due to its non-pictorial nature, the lyrics are closest to it. The material form of the content, the way of its existence is the musical form. It is a system of sounds, in which emotions, thoughts and imaginative representations of the composer are realized.  Even taken separately, the sounds have already primary expressive possibilities. Each of them can cause a physiological sensation of pleasure or displeasure, excitement or soothing, tension or discharge, and also simple spatial associations.

It is established that the blood pressure, heart rate, rhythm and depth of respiratory contractions varies in humans, rabbits, cats, guinea pigs and dogs under the influence of music. A Japanese experiment showed that breastfeeding mothers who listen to classical one have a 20-100% increase in milk, while jazz and pop reduce its amount by 50-20%. People who suffer from amusia are not able to understand and perform it.

The history of Hip Hop

    It was this seminal event that forced Mathers to realise he had to be a success for his daughter. He moved into music as an MC, and, whilst he experienced considerable resistance from those already on the scene he persevered. He spent most Saturday nights at local battles attempting to gain the respect of the local community, and get signed by a record company. Unfortunately recognition was not to be achieved just yet, so he was forced to release his first album on his own private label . His first album, Infinite was sold in Detroit and was by no means a success, "Infinite was me trying to figure out how I wanted my rap style to be, how I wanted...

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The British Working Class Youth in the Sixties?

  This was symbolic of the change that was happening at the time, as this broad range of consumer choices was something new. ' I used to buy Playboy magazine. You know why? Because in Playboy you used to get fantastic pictures of Burlington socks. ' Carlo Manzi (Soul Stylists 2001) A standard male outfit would consist of a sharply cut continental suit with narrow trousers. The standard female outfit was the polka-dot dress or mini-skirt. ' If you talk to any original Mod he knows what smartness means...

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The Beatles Influence

S. E. A. R. C. Hing has been used in order to uncover social differences between different groups in society. Each letter stands for the different categories in which individuals may be socially advantages and disadvantaged. S stands for Sex In society men are usually at an advantage to women. Men get all the powerful jobs, which means they earn more money to buy more possessions to show- off their social status. However, in the media, women are becoming a lot more powerful. Decades ago women were in the media purely to promote products such as household items. A popular one was an appliance such as the washing machine or vacuum cleaner. Women were portrayed in the media as housewives either...

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The narrative set by the lyrics

  For this video they have used the 'telephone' as a metaphor for Gaga's brain which has been involved within her costume as a head dress and the fact that she is not answering anyone and appears 'disconnected' from reality, this presentation is shown when Gaga stares blankly whilst the character played by Tyrese Gibson is eating a meal which she has covered in poison. An illustrative narrative involves a literal representation and a heightened meaning of a selected text. Do it like a dude8 by Jessie J uses the concept of illustration narrative combined with a non-linear narrative as within the video she and the other girls who are performing in the video show literal gestures which are commonly scene within...

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Can Debussy’s Music be accurately described as Impressionist?

    Another Symbolist aspect to Debussy is that of his interest in Wagner; the Symbolists were ardent admirers of his music. Debussy first encountered Wagner during his studies at the Paris Conservatoire in 1872. 17 Parallels can be drawn between both composers' works, especially in the similarities between Tristan und Isolde (1860) and Pelli?? as et Mi?? lisande (1904); bothhave similar thematic material and narrative methods and employ leitmotif liberally. 18 19 While Debussy later rejected Wagner's compositional methods, it is clear that the German's music had a great influence upon his own. 20 Richard Holloway argues that Debussy's music is too original to be classed as Wagnerian, but maintains that it could not exist without Wagner. 21 A further influence excluded...

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Definitions of popular music

    It is generally regarded that that this genre of popular music started in the early nineties with acts like Boyzone and the Spice Girls 'gracing' our televisions and radios. It has steadily progressed or, in recent articles in newspapers and debates on television, regressed to a state where no one wants it any more. Songwriters such as Cathy Dennis who writes for S Club 7 and Kylie Minogue have declared they have become a part of it and don't want to be anymore. Radio DJ's have ran anti-pop campaigns. A solution for record companies could be to sign a credible pop act that teenagers can adore and adults can at least bear to listen to. Everywhere in the media there are...

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Madonna Phenomenon

    O'Hagan points out that this resulted in Madonna being paid five million dollars by Pepsi to reproduce her work in advertisement form, which in turn helped in making her single to the Number One spot in the pop charts. In this vein, it could be argued that whilst 'Like a Prayer' is promoting and empowering black people in popular culture, it is more the case that Madonna is mixing together race, religion and sexuality in order to achieve her own ends in maintaining her icon status. Equally, Madonna has been criticised for her 'Vogue' video where she appropriates a form of dancing found in gay clubbing scenes. The question is whether Madonna is promoting open acceptance of the gay lifestyle in...

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Dance music and club culture

  However it was the island of Ibiza where dance culture really began to establish itself, originally an impoverished island with a poor economy reliant upon the trading of salt; Ibiza eventually became known as the "clubbers hot spot", by the mid 1960s tourist attraction had grown as homosexuals, Americans, and the British began visiting the beautiful island. It is argued by many that the club culture stemmed from the attitudes and behavior of the hippies in the 1970s. The large clubs in Ibiza grew out of the hippy counter-culture; the club 'Amnesia' was once an old working farm used as a venue for bohemian parties for hippies and artists. By the 1980s, Ibiza had been commercialized so much, it held some...

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The sounds and structures of language rep

  This can be contrasted by the long-term goals of Al Qaeda that are more politically and especially socially motivated. However to further these long-term aims a short term solution in the form of a colossal attack on the enemy is indirectly politically orientated, as it will help to damage the US economy and bring the inevitable forceful retaliation will damage the opponents own political and social legitimacy. This highlights the less apparent economic tactics that go with the socio-political implications. It is also important to remember that some people do not separate the political and religious spheres. Religious extremism is a fairly obscure aspect of terrorism because usually terrorist organisations will have specific aims and objectives that their use of violence...

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Torch Song Trilogy

The lifestyle of a person is a reflection of who they are. Identity is revealed by the way a person lives. I decided to view a film about the life of a gay man. The film title is "Torch Song Trilogy. Viewing the film enabled me to gather my feelings about homosexuality. "Torch Song Trilogy" is about a gay man, Arnold, who slowly becomes more comfortable with himself. Early in his life he knew what he was. His mother did not agree with his behavior. This caused Arnold to look at it more humorously, which brought about his lifestyle as a drag queen. Arnold has several relationships throughout the movie. He becomes involved with a bisexual who is unsure of who he...

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Top 5 Ways To Settle Down

In a world where music plays serious enough of a role to people that they act out what they hear, no lyrics can be taken lightly. It can be so easy to relate to someone else's stories that it is even possible to be drawn into the same emotions expressed by the musician. If "High Fidelity" were a pop song, it would be sappy in connection to love, depressing in connection to heartbreak and it would be uplifting in connection to settling down. "High Fidelity" represents mans struggle to grow up, settle down, and at the same time, not feel like he or she is simply "settling" for what he or she can get. The use of pasting the chronology of...

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The music changes between non-diagetic and diagetic sound

The music changes between non-diagetic and diagetic sound as now, instead of being heard over the dialogue, it is given the form of the car CD player of which Julie brandishes the cover at David to see; this is another sign of her insecurity for it shows that she thinks she may win his approval via a materialistic and pop culture axis. David is becoming more anxious as the dialogue continues and the wiping of his hands over his face shows his nervousness; he is a wealthy bachelor whom has always sought a quick-fix in regards to women but is now facing the reality that their casual relationship is anything but as Julie holds stronger feelings for him. His wide smile,...

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Communication and popular culture

The first is the use of the word 'understanding'. One definition of understanding is 'the power of comprehending; esp the power to make experience intelligible by applying concepts and categories'1. There are numerous theories and arguments surrounding popular culture, and as such it could be argued that we still do not truly understand it. Secondly, comes the assumption that the reader agrees with the suggestion that Barthes' writings on myth did in fact have an impact on the way we assess popular culture. There are several facts that can be used to highlight this point. For example, it could be argued that as Barthes did not have a following of thinkers who modelled their own theories after his, and that as...

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Synchronised sound film

The sales pitch for the feeding machine is delivered by a mechanical salesman on a phonograph record and this in itself is significant. 'Modern Times' is Charlie Chaplin's "final stance against the synchronised sound film" and it was his last full- length silent film. There is no traditional voice dialogue in the film, but voices and sounds do emanate from machines, e.g. the feeding machine, the television screens and indeed Chaplin's actual voice is heard singing. Many reviewers seem to agree that 'Modern Times' is an angst over the studio's transition to sound, by "verbally indicating machines or automation as intrinsically bad" (David A. Gerstein: Historian Dan Kamin emphasises how human actor's voices are only heard on loudspeakers whereas when...

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Canadian Music

However such discriminate leanings towards pop music still exists. Two former New Zealand Prime Ministers displayed two clashing viewpoints. In 1938, the then Prime Minister Robert Muldon, heading a National (Conservative) administration, justified a continued argument for a cut in the sales tax on records, this being a two tier system as such a tax was not applicable to other cultural products like books, etc. He claimed that Pop Music could not be considered cultural (even with the masses endorsing in it) "If you use the word "culture" in its normal sense, I don't think Splitz Enz and Mi-Sex are cultural" He did receive a fair amount of backlash to this comment the Arts Council Director of New Zealand, saying the...

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Music and the Media – Pop music

Popular music has long been awash with state polices and attitudes, and has been a major factor in the rising of popular music within Popular Culture. There are of course many views and leanings on 'Culture' itself, and such state concepts are a topical debate over government economic intervention in the market place versus the operation of the 'free market' (Shuker, 1994: 53) in forming, doctoring and maintaining cultural identity. In Popular Music, most governments have held a traditional conservative view of 'culture' - but this is an (music) industry that is not regulated as such in terms of content etc. However there are concerns across the board, being partly the reason why governments may like more say. Such as if...

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Comparison of approaches to writing about music and words

  Many carols are now considered to be sacred, although some with a more secular theme, eg Jingle Bells, can also be classified as a type of carol. Whereas in the beginning, it would seem that the structure of the carol and the actual lyrics themselves were important, as time progressed and the use of carols became more widespread, the tune seems to have become the more familiar aspect to people. Often, the tunes of carols are heard being performed by brass bands and orchestras, whereas rarely if ever do you hear the lyrics being chanted or recited in the form of poetry. This would suggest that perhaps the lyrics are not necessary in order for the carol to have the correct...

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Story of an hour

  Thomas Hardy begins "the arch deciver" with the non-out of the ordinary, compliments of a woman towards his main character, Tony kytes. "T was a little,round,firm,tight face,with a seam here and there left by the small pox, but not enough to hurt his looks in a woman`s eye," Straight away we know that this story is going to be about a desirable man-(in which i expected), you can see from the above Thomas Hardys`s idea of a perfect woman an "idealistic" woman, always paying compliments "he was a womans favorite". This maybe shows how Thomas Hardy liked to be seen. Carrying on we find out "disapointingly", that "Tony got fixed down to one in particular, Milly Richards", this gives us a...

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Portrayal and music

Hitchcock was renowned for his skills in film making, when it came to suspense building. In this essay I will assess Camera shots, Symbolism, Character portrayal and music used in the film, these all create tension and suspense in the film. Throughout Frenzy and Psycho suspense was either being built up or maintained, this keeps the reader on the edge of their seats till the very end of the film. This creates a perfect murder thriller. Both films start off without any suspense this feeling is created by symbolism. In both films the sun is out and it is a nice day, this makes the audience feel good and there is no suspense. After this bit the sun is never out...

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Baroque music

The presence of Baroque music will have an affect on the time taken to complete a problem-solving task in comparison to Mozart classical music. Hypothesis - 2: The presence of Renaissance music will have an affect on the time taken to complete a problem-solving task in comparison to Mozart classical music. Null Hypothesis - 1: The presence of Baroque music will have no affect on the time taken to complete a problem-solving task in comparison to Mozart classical music. Any slight variations in performance will be put down to chance. Null Hypothesis - 2: The presence of Renaissance music will have no affect on the time taken to complete a problem-solving task in comparison to Mozart classical music. Any slight variations...

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Baroque and Renaissance music

This study follows the report of the "Mozart effect" by Rauscher Shaw, and Ky (1993, 1995). They indicated that problem solving related skills are enhanced after listening to music composed by Mozart. The objective of this study was to examine whether other music styles of a historical period (Baroque and Renaissance) other than Mozart affect problem solving ability. The method involved twelve participants individually undertaking a test (attempting three problem solving tests each). The experiment was counter balanced so they therefore did not all complete the same problems to the same music as each other. The participants were all selected via opportunity sampling as this could guarantee thorough and more respectable cooperation with the participants throughout the test, which would improve...

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Popular Music And Declining Culture

The ideas behind high culture, social order, knowledge of familiarity versus formal knowledge, perceptions of our environment, maturity, and significance all center around one broad, yet inescapable foundation, truth. While it sounds trite and clich to say that the human experience is validated through the quest for truth, it is nevertheless, I believe, the core underlying motivation in discussions of social commentary. The readings for this week spanned across a number of diverse topics, but also centered around a certain theme of social construction, or social evolution. In his essay, "Culture and Anarchy," Mathew Arnold emphasizes a connection between culture and governed social order. Arnold, who seems to have little objection to coming off as a priggish elitist, suggests that human...

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Music out of Africa

A major misconception of the oral tradition is that it consists of and continues through words or (for the purpose of this essay) lyrics only. This misconception is defied every time a musician plays a note on his instrument. Along with words, vocalized tone and rhythm play an important role in the oral tradition. These two elements are just as important in oral communication as words because it allows for communication of a nonverbal nature, even subconsciously at times, in all languages. Bornman insists that "while the whole European tradition strives for regularity - of pitch, of time, of timbre, and of vibrato - the African tradition strives precisely for the negation of these elements." Traditionally African languages did not restrict...

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African Music

From a performer's standpoint Abdullah Ibrahim has an incredible technical ability, the product of remarkable and meticulous practice. Yet his artistry is less a matter of speed or technical prowess than of a certain passion, born of a sense of discipline and integrity. Almost mystical, his genius is rooted in a tradition that developed long before the trumpets of the new world blared from British ships. This tradition of orality dates back to the beginning of time. All literate cultures grew out of an oral culture at some point in their evolution: all cultures rely on communication through speech and aural perception. Although the oral tradition originates from a ritual of secrecy, through music it is passed down to the masses,...

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Music and hip-hop

The instrumentation in "Testify" is very important in order to understand the meaning of the song, as well as the beliefs and ideals of RATM. At the beginning of the song the drums and guitar can be heard playing a type of 'free styling' sound. Upon first listening, it sounds as if the instruments in the beginning are chaotic and have no set basis in the actual achievement of the entire song. The disorder heard in the beginning is representative of the disorganized culture in the US. Confusion is how one could define the US- ultimately torn between a capitalist-driven economy and the needs of citizens. Next, the bass interjects with the sound of a growing monotonous beat. With the chaos...

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Song of Solomon a novel

Song of Solomon is a novel of hope while Wide Sargasso Sea is a novel of despair. Discuss this assertion with particular comparison to the representation of culture and society. The quest for self identity is extremely important in defining whether Song of Solomon should be considered as a novel of 'hope' whilst Wide Sargasso Sea is epitomised as a novel of 'despair'. Both Rhys and Morrison recognize self identity being vital for the protagonists to fully realise their roles and live a more contented life. In fact Song of Solomon is considered a novel of 'hope', primarily because the protagonist Milkman is given the opportunity to explore the history of his ancestors, allowing him to achieve a greater understanding of...

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Degrading music videos and lyrics

The two tables show the raw data collected from the content analysis. There were women in skimpy clothes in 65% of the 20 videos. In 20% of the videos there were women undressing. In 45% of the videos there was a female artist yearning for a male. There were women touching themselves in 50% of the videos. In 5% of the videos there were women touching other women. In 15% of the videos there was a female artist either crying or depressed. In 30% of the videos there was kissing between anyone. In 50% of the videos there were women dancing seductively alone. In 5% of the videos there were women dancing seductively with other women. There were women grinding on...

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The Music Industry

A study done in 2003 focuses on women in the visual media. The first section discusses women in the media and their appearance. It goes on to discuss whether appearances matter. That they in fact do, otherwise, options such as breast implants, Botox, and liposuction would not exist. Next it discusses women in music videos. The study focuses on rap music videos. It states how rap videos misrepresent women and portrays them to be simply sex objects. It discusses the clothes, erotic dancing, and submissive acts women create in rap videos. It briefly discusses the reasoning for why some women oppose the view that women are degraded and misrepresented in music. The study then discusses the effect music videos have on...

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World Music: Unique Views about Music

Bujumbura Alumna came to play music as it is his family tradition. He spent few years of childhood with his drum chief uncle in Ghana. As Alumna getting familiar with drum, the later years, he started to learn drumming talks and singing from his grandfather, Lund- Ana Innuendo. He practiced Dakota Nee Bi Baa, the beginning of drumming, in the markets. Getting improved, he and other young drummers perform everyday by themselves. To Alumna, music, especially drumming, is a long education. He spent most his life studying and working with it. Drumming is not Just his passion; it is also a responsibility to follow is family tradition. Contrary to Alumna, Andy Luau was born in a poor family with no musical...

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Modern dance music

Dance music has always been attributed with a sense of freedom and expression. Young people have used it as a way to escape the monotomy and consistency of everyday life and enter a world where there is no concern for money or any of life's other problems. However this freedom that music of this nature represents means there are many clashes with the law which embodies the exact opposite of what people believe dance music represents. AS it has become more popular and commercialised so the law has had to become stricter to reinforce the guidelines that citizens must obey. People have always listened to music as it is one of the best forms of freedom, It is a fantastic form...

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