The film is a collection of photographic images (frames) sequentially arranged, connected by a single plot and intended for playback on the screen
Complexity of the phenomenon
In the cinema art, the aesthetic properties of literature, theatrical and visual arts, and music are synthesized on the basis of strictly inherent, expressive means, of which the photographic nature of the image, which allows reconstructing with any certainty any pictures of reality, and editing, is the main one. The visibility of the images embodied on the screen and the availability of films to the broad masses, together with all other possibilities, determine the significance of cinema as the most important of all arts.
The creation of a film is usually a complex creative and production process in which the work of artists of different specialties is combined. These professions include:
· a screenwriter (scriptwriter, director, who determines the interpretation and implementation of the idea and guides the work of the rest of the production;
· actors who embody images of heroes;
· an operator, which formalizes the action of the means of compositional, light and color interpretation of frames;
· an artist who finds an illustrative characteristic of the environment of action and the costumes of the characters (and in the animation the external characterization of the heroes);
· a composer and others.
The creation of films and their demonstration require a highly organized technical base and is associated with large material costs. The cinematography is not only an art field but also a special branch of industry and commerce. Consequently, in bourgeois countries, monopoly capital not only took over the cinema economy (production and rental of films, exploitation of the network) but also established a rigid ideological control over the content of the films being screened and demonstrated.
During the development of the cinema art, its four main types were formed:
1. Artistic cinematography which embodies adapted works of prose, drama, poetry with the means of performing art. The possibilities of epic, lyric and drama are available for artistic cinematography, but in films that have a narrative character, there are always traits that bring them closer to the drama, in particular, the dramatic conflict.
2. Documentary cinematography, which is a special kind of figurative journalism, based primarily on direct fixation of reality. Documentary cinematography has the full breadth of the possibilities of journalistic genres of literature and journalism. It combines both works of figurative journalism and information films.
3. Animated cinematography, which “gives life” to graphics or puppet characters. Images of graphics and volumetric animation are created by shooting fixed sequence phases of motion of drawn or puppet characters. It pays special attention to the creation of films for children.
4. Popular science cinematography which uses the means of these three types for the dissemination of scientific knowledge. Popular science cinematography acquaints viewers with the life of nature and society, scientific discoveries, and inventions, recreates the course of creative searches for scientists and artists, and demonstrates physicochemical and biological processes. To solve these problems, it uses both purely didactic and artistic means, depending on the theme and task of the movie.