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The ancient Romans, heirs, and successors of Greek culture, began to name rhythmically unorganized speech prose.


The prose is originally all non-fiction works (philosophical, scientific, journalistic, informational, and oratorical), later it began to be called the most diverse genres of literary and artistic texts from a short miniature to an epic. A characteristic feature is the absence of the established system of compositional repetitions inherent in poetry. In terms of style, it is the opposite of poetry and verse. Thus, this is oral or written speech, not divided into commensurable segments – verses. That is if in poetry the text is divided into certain segments; in prose, on the contrary, everything is integral. It is an ordinary, unmeasured speech, it can be either oral or written. Prose has no dimensions and it is not divided into proportional segments, its rhythm is the ratio of sentences or periods between themselves.

It was born long ago, even in ancient times, and by the end of the XIX century, it had the opportunity to become an absolute leader in literature. Famous artistic works, in particular novels and stories, are usually emotionally reserved and saturated with intellectual and philosophical content.

Rhythm in it is semantic; it is determined by the alternation of semantic units. The prose is divided into sentences, phrases, words, that is, into semantic segments of different lengths. Rhythmic pauses between units of rhythm are not the same. At the same time, verse beginnings can appear in such texts. Meters, rhymes and many other phenomena characteristic of the verse can also be used. But in general the rhythm in prose is secondary, external; it is easy to do without it.

Prose Genres

The novel. It includes works of great shape, having a rather complex and very developed plot.

The story is a smaller work, designed to tell the reader about any particular event from the life of the hero.

The epic is a work of a rather large form with huge time and event volumes.

The narrative is a work of small form, containing a description of a particular event at a particular moment in time.

The novella is a small work, but with a clear structure and genesis.

The essay is a small-sized work that expresses the author’s attitude to any event or issue. A clear composition structure is absent.

The biography is a work containing a story about the life and activities of a particular person.

Initially, the business, journalistic, religious, preaching, scientific, memoirs and confession forms of text were developed. Art prose is predominantly epic, intellectual in contrast to lyrical and emotional poetry (but lyrical text and philosophical lyrics are possible); originated in ancient literature; from 18 came to the fore in the composition of verbal art.

In some sense, prose can be understood as a genre free from any framework, rules, and standard structures. It is this lack of classical canons that made it possible for authors with a world-wide name to develop their own unique literary style. For this reason, the main ways to assess the prosaic text is its language, convenience, and ease of reading, plot design and development, in some cases, philosophical or scientific overtones.

The Composition of “Und spur’ ich”

Beethoven's only opera, "Fidelio," took on many forms from the original version which premiered in 1805 to the complete version, regarded as one of the best operas of the times, which premiered in 1815. For the final version, Beethoven brought in famed librettist Georg Friedrich Treitschke. The article "The Composition of "Und spur' ich" in Beethoven's Fidelio" discusses the legitimacy of the claims Georg made, after Beethoven's death that the aria, Und spur' ich, was written predominantly in one evening at his own house. The article first outlines Georg's claim in depth. After the claim is stated the author, Barry Cooper, discusses at length the likelihood of the claim being true based on facts known of the aria and Beethoven's tendencies....

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Alexander Pope poem

In Rape of the Lock by Alexander Pope, this poem was written in an attempt to make peace between real - life lovers. The incident with the lock of fair actually occurred. The name of the poem describes the main literary technique exactly, hyperbole of the cutting off a lock of hair is described a 'rape,' which is taking advantage of someone sexually without their consent. By levelling these two actions, Alexander Pope is satirising his society for inflating little offences when they do not need to be so amplified. Exaggeration is the main satirical literary technique in this poem and can be seen in nearly every line. Exaggeration can be seen in the first, 'Th' inferior Priestess, at her Altar's...

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The novel progresses

There is no question that there is pain and intense suffering in this world. Some of it is explained by selfish, hateful actions on the part of others while other people are left to suffer whether it is physical, mental, or emotional pains. It is something that we do not deserve. The meaning to suffer is a sign of consequences but also can serve as a beneficial sign as in strengthen our inner faith and a reminder of our wrongdoings. One of these cases comes from the novel, Rush Home Road, by Lori Lansens where the main character, Addy Shadd faces some of these requirements and learns to overcome them the hard way. Throughout her past, Addy's three stages of struggle...

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Clark Kent

Moulmein High and Smallville both have a target audience that consist predominantly of teenagers. Both the programmes cover issues regarding friendship and love - two issues that teenagers often grapple with. Moulmein High is a show about a group of secondary students and their constant struggle with teenage woes. The show tries to reflect the way society perceives today's teenagers to be. Singaporean teenagers are viewed as being very open-minded with a strong preference for Western culture instead of their traditional Asian culture. The characters in the show reflect that very well by trying to speak with a slight American lilt, using American colloquial and dressing (in clothing other than their school uniform) like a typical American teenager. Smallville on the...

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Women’s picture?

  The alternative view of the family life is offered, for example with the Vale family. Women in the workplace is shown with Charlotte as a business woman who is single (doesn't need a man to support her) and the independence theme also a factor. The theme shown throughout most of the film is the love/relationship issue. The audience see in the film different types of relationship develop. The main relationship is between Mrs. Vale and Charlotte because the audience can compare to their relationship to Charlotte's sister in law and her daughter's relationship. Other relationships include Isabelle and Tina, Jerry and Tina, Charlotte and Tina, Elliot and his children, Charlotte and Dr. Jacquith and June and Lisa. The advertising around 'Now,...

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Anthony Burgess’s novel

Anthony Burgess's novel, A Clockwork Orange, later adapted to the screen in a movie directed by Stanley Kubrick, has been noted by many to be one of the most talked about and controversial book/movie duos of the past 50 years (Davies, 2000; Parsons, 1993). Based on the story of Alex, a 15-year-old hoodlum who delights in rape, violence, thievery, and classical music, the text tells a story of betrayal, morality and reformation. The film and novel were acclaimed by some, such as John Trevelyan (Chairman of The British Board of Film Classification from 1956 to1971) who passed the film with an "X" rating and said it was "...

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Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings

    Not only did he note their relationship, he also said that Madison Hemings was their son 'as any other fact, which I believe from circumstances but do not positively know. 'xi As a resident at Monticello where Hemings and Jefferson resided, shows that he could have picked up on this information. Historian Winthrop Jordan researched the timings of Sally Hemings pregnancies. Thomas Jefferson had been with Sally nine months before the birth of each of her children. For example, on April 17, 1804, Maria, the daughter of Jefferson, died and both Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings attended her funeral at Monticello. On January 19, 1805, nine months and two days later, Madison Hemings was born. xii The Will of Thomas Jefferson...

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This essay is mainly focused on Elizabeth Bishops

  She changes from second person to first person speaker. Her emotions are being revealed through the usage of adjectives to denote the importance those properties meant to her. Adjectives such as: Loved and lovely, reveal the poet's emotions which are gradually disclosed all the way through the poem, although Bishop goes on denying the pain such loss represents by implying "but it wasn't a disaster"(line 15). In the final stanza, the tone of the poem has shifted radically; it has become a sad one which exposes the truth behind the poem. The poet is unable to put forward her intentions, it seem as if she is trying to surrender upon her denial of pain caused by the loss. She addresses a...

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The emergence of different varieties of English worldwide

    To cite the examples, consider wet (to water flowers), globe (electric bulb), buk (from 'book', meaning 'anything written'), savi buk (from 'know book', meaning educated), environment (neighborhood) and bluff (to give an air of importance). A number of lexical items retain the old meaning but are no longer prevailing in Native English. One example is Dress (move at the end of a row for the sake of creating room for extra people) is the reserved meaning recorded by the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary 'to form in proper alignment'. 3) Replacement: Last but not lease, the final type of English colonial activity - replacement - will be identified in the forthcoming part. As mentioned, replacement is characterized by the phenomenon that a...

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The elderly lady walks uneasily on her weak foot

The elderly lady walks uneasily on her weak foot, her walking stick buckling under the weight of her senile frame. She moves with leaden steps to the furthest and most discrete corner of the quiet, relatively empty tearoom. The walls are painted with dull red and orange pigments, and the oak doorframe and sideboard stained almost black. About the large dimly lit room there are some scattered groups, other old couples creating a hubbub of idle senile chatter. But Mrs Mounter, with her grim pale face, is alone, at a table set for two. She reaches out with her weak trembling hands toward the inky black teapot and pours the steaming, semitransparent liquid into two odd matching cups upon the circular...

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Big Brother and The Weakest Link

Zygmunt Bauman was born in 1925, Poland. Bauman is one of the best known in the world sociologists and philosophers. His name is often mentioned as a principal creator of the concept of "post-modernism". Bauman is primarily author of works on contemporary culture, its characteristics and in its place. Zygmunt Bauman is Emeritus Professor of Sociology at the University of Leeds and the University of Warsaw. His books are very popular in every country - 'Europe - an Unfinished Adventure', 'Liquid life', 'Liquid Modernity', 'Liquid Love: On the Frailty of Human Bonds', 'Liquid Fear', which I am going to summarise, to be accurate - 'Dread of Death' - the first chapter in the book. Bauman, in his book, highlights the most impossible...

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The Assassin

The sky was scorched crimson as the obscurity of night overpowered the light of day. In the distance the picturesque profile of London was perceptible under the blanket of radiant silver stars. Beneath this unique declaration of splendour a solitary silhouette was projected against the wall of a dimly lit back alley. He had an unnaturally intense glare, his vision passionately focused on an excruciatingly striking cerise TVR Tuscan. It was almost time. Despite the evident risk he was undertaking his eyes portrayed obsession, infatuation and desire to realize his acutely elusive vocation. The moon shone through the bare branches of an old oak tree casting ghostly shadows on the transparent sheet of astonishingly delicate ice. As the unique complicity of...

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To kill a mocking bird

There is plenty of tension in this chapter and Harper Lee expresses this very well through the setting, the discomforting and yet calm dialogue between the characters and how scout reminds us of her concern for the safety of her father. Chapter XV is split into two parts really and both of these parts are set both in the evening and very late at night. This is very effective in any novel or film as darkness shows suspense. It also gives the reader an eerie sense of the environment surrounding and how characters' moods differ from their usual daily attitudes. "The south side of the square was deserted. Giant monkey-puzzle bushes bristled on each corner...

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Finding the function in dysfunction

  Conflicts stir the heart, and it is this aspect of the play that powers the desires of both Josie and Phil. There is certainly more than meets the eye to this trouble plagued relationship between father and daughter. A drunken, unrefined, lonely Irishman, Phil wishes nothing more than for his daughter to find happiness in marriage, although it would pain him to see her go. A rare glimpse of this loving sensitivity is seen when Phil says "Maybe he'd like a fine strong handsome figure of a woman for a change, with beautiful eyes and hair and teeth and a smile (O'Neill 300). " Though appreciative of her father's unusually gracious compliments, Josie can't stand to succumb to manners and return...

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Discuss the ways Thomas presents country life and progress in his poetry

Discuss the ways Thomas presents country life and progress in his poetry. Refer to at least 4 poems in your answer. Thomas presents country life as warm and gleeful in his poetry. In 'The Evacuee' he describes how a young girl grows up in the countryside and underlines the fact that she has been able to grow up in the loving atmosphere of the countryside rather than in the harshness of the city. He highlights this point when he says: 'Home now after so long away In the flowerless streets of the drab town. ' The evacuee is positively warm in its description of the rural surroundings and highlights the goodness it can bring out of people, as it describes the...

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Description of a city Shower

    Literary critic Claudia Thomas Kairoff (2005) explains that this interest, was for Pope, a way of exploring how to develop good human virtues - that in the later years he came to believe that retreat was the only way to nurture such virtue. Kairoff argues that major critics of Pope's work such as Kelsall and Landry `overlook the degree to which Pope's poems frequently break with conventional assumptions of the rural superiority they apparently celebrate. ' Instead, argues Kairoff, Pope's poetry promoted a `new, professional, non-landed perspective on the country-city ethic,' whereby he focussed on the identity of the self amidst a changing world (Kairoff, 2005: p. 15). Further to this, Pope experiments in how history can inform an imaginative understanding...

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A revelation of love

  This is something typical of Medieval beliefs: we are reminded of Gawain's pentangle with its five interlocking virtues, but Julian seems to take this further in that one image does not only exist alongside another, but one follows on from another in a chain of images and associations that traces the path from the physical to the spiritual, from bodily to 'gostly' sight. The vision of the bleeding head prompts a response based in language from Julian: 'And as long as I saw this sight of the plentious bleding of the hede I might never stinte of these words: 'Benedicite domine! ' But it is the connection of the visual images that is so fascinating. She understands 'vi things' 'from the...

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The yellow wallpaper

  "He is very careful and loving, and hardly lets me stir without special direction. " He will not allow her to take a downstairs room with ".. pretty old fashioned chintz hanging. " He has forbidden her to work or enjoy the company of stimulating friends even though she feels ".. that congenial work, with excitement would do me good"(p129). Her disagreement with her husband's rest cure is apparent. The narrator describes the old nursery as a "big airy room". However, the description of the room conjures the image of a nineteenth century lunatic asylum. "for the windows are barred" and there "are rings and things in the walls". (P130) Later in the text we learn that there are scratches on...

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Discuss satire in Jonathan Swift’s novel Gulliver’s Travels

  " (Knowles 128). These are qualities Yahoos-and Englishmen-cannot grasp. They will do anything and everything to destroy others if they believe it will benefit themselves. They are unable to live with trust and equality. But Knowles points out that while the Houyhnhnms "response to Gulliver's recount of England" reinforces Swift's satire, Houyhnhnms utopian ideal itself is questionable. Their inability to understand other points of view, their naiveti?? , ignorance, and even their lack of passion, make the Houyhnhnms themselves "an additional object of satire" (Knowles 131). Like Knowles, I believe that the Houyhnhnms were the dominant satirical device in this section of Gulliver's Travels. They are the ones who were humanlike creatures in an animal's body. They had the characteristics of...

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Discuss how satire uses aspects of other genres

  This affords him the effective satirical devices of rhyming, exaggeration and parody, all of which lend themselves perfectly to the genre of epic or mock epic works. Parallels with Gulliver's Travels may not be immediately apparent, but it does become clear that the satire is often directed at similar targets, namely those of misplaced importance and the often exaggerated significance attached to trivial events. By applying disproportionate importance to matters we would not naturally consider worthy of such attention, both Pope and Swift satirise society's tendency to, given the opportunity, do that very thing. Once this thematic technique of exaggeration has been established as an effective way to satirise society, Pope is able to make matters more entertainingly critical by including...

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Describe and discuss the geographical, social and contextual factors

  Language does not only depend on 'where you are from' (Trugill 1994,p2) but also your social class. Trudgill states that 'People speak different kinds of English depending on what kind of social background they come from. ' (1994,p2) If we look at Stockwell's summary of Bernstein's Theory of Codes in Sociolinguistics: A resource book for students 2002, it tells us that working class children only have access to a restricted code but middle class children have access to both restricted code and elaborate code. Bernstein suggests that having access to elaborated code allows children to thrive in the educational environment as education is 'predicated upon elaborate code'(Stockwell,2002 p57). Looking at my own class background I would consider myself to be working...

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A ciascuno il suo

Indeed the last words epitomise Laurana's incompetence: "Era un cretino" (P151). The novel does not fit within its assigned mould in other aspects: primarily, the reader is aware from an early stage who the murderer is, and more importantly, 'A ciascuno il suo' is not a celebration of intelligence; on the contrary: it presents the idea that mysteries are solved by chance not reason: "Gli elementi che portano a risolvere I delitti che si presentano con carattere di mistero o di gratuiti?? sono la confidenza diciamo professionale, la delazione anonima, il caso. E un po', soltanto un po', l'acutezza degli inquirenti" (P60). Therefore, Sciascia's novel is not a celebration of power of reason but rather a denunciation of the limits of...

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The dichotomy of life is made use of again by Ezekiel

However in the second line the poet refers to the Zodiac which has predicted a creative phase of seven years for Sagittarians. The dichotomy of life is made use of again by Ezekiel. He further makes use of it when he says anyone can be a healer or sick. He makes use of the myth of Fisher-king as T. S. Eliot makes use of the same myth, where the sterility is reversed. Ezekiel in the second paragraph questions his identity. This identity crisis or questioning of identity is found in most Indian poets. “This is the place where I was born. I know it well. It is home, which I recognize at last as a kind of hell to be made...

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Consider the uses – symbolic or otherwise

This line shows the darkness but with glimmers of light shining through, the overpowering but incomplete dark over light in the night in which Christabel finds Geraldine possibly showing the overpowering but incomplete evil over good in Geraldine. Lots of imagery is used with reference to the tree beneath which Christabel prays and where she discovers Geraldine, the description is usually referring to age and size 'old' and 'huge' save for two lines; 'And nought was green upon the oak But moss and rarest mistletoe;' This tells the reader that there are no leaves on the old oak tree, no greenery apart from moss and mistletoe. Coleridge makes sure that reader has a clear picture of the scene; 'The night is...

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Comprehensive overview of the literature

If there is to be one "father" of the efficient market hypothesis, this man is Eugene Fama, who remains an outspoken proponent of the hypothesis to this day. In Fama (1970, 1991, 1998), he gave comprehensive overviews of the literature on the topic. But before Fama, there are also a lot of works done to approach this theory. Back in the 16th century the prominent Italian mathematician, Girolamo Cardano, in The Book of Games of Chance (Cardano, c. 1564) wrote: 'The most fundamental principle of all in gambling is simply equal conditions, e.g. of opponents, of bystanders, of money, of situation, of the dice box, and of the die itself. To the extent to which you depart from that equality, if...

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Literature review on efficient markets

This article is mainly does a thorough review of the efficient market from 1960' to now. This article tries to discuss efficient market historically and theoretically. In the historical part, mainly introduce the theory development by timeline. And in the theoretical part, review the model of efficient market, and discuss some empirical research on the CAPM. The third part is maily about different ideas on efficient market, some criticism show up when the economy developing and the market becoming more and more mutual while there are also more and more problems revealed. And then comes to the conclusion. The efficient market hypothesis (EMH) is one of the corner stone of modern financial economics. An efficient market is one in which securities...

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A Room with a View

The novel 'A Room with a View' was one of three adaptations of E. M. Forster's novels to emerge from the creative team of Director James Ivory, producer Ismail Merchant and screen writer Ruth Prawar Jhabuala. The film crosses the boundaries of comedy, drama and romance. The screenwriter creates a film that is a romance with comic elements, rather than a romantic comedy. Whilst still capturing the wit of E. M. Forster she manages to poke gentle fun at the English abroad and their preoccupation with class, social etiquette and Edwardian convection. Merchant and Ivory's films are not only visually stunning, but they evoke an emotional response in the viewer. 'A Room with a View' is one of very few films...

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My last duchess

In these ten very elemental lines of the poem, Browning successfully exposes the true motives of his speaker, the duke, through his voice of reason at play during conversation with a potential "father-in-law. " At this point in the text, his audience discovers the reasons for his "failed marriage" with his former wife, and also learns of her "faults. " The speaker is obviously bothered by his wife's "wanton ways" as she was "too soon made glad,/ too easily impressed; she liked whate'er/ She looked on, and her looks went everywhere"(lines 22-25). He had much to offer her, not excluding his prestigious "nine-hundred-years-old name" (l. 33). As an appreciator of the finer things and high society, he was disturbed by how...

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Much Madness is Divinest Sense

This Poem is a paradox, a statement that seems strange, contradictory or absurd, because contains two opposite ideas, but at the end both statements are valid, the writer shows this paradox on the first and the third line of the poem: "Much Madness is divinest Sense / Much Sense- the starkest Madness" (madness is sense, sense is madness). In this poem, madness does not necessarily represent something bad or crazy, but something that's terrible wrong, 'Much', represents the majority or society, and the 'discerning eye' represents the speaker itself, or what the minority thinks, and she is looking at what the majority or society is doing or saying, and think that something is very wrong, and she knows that if she...

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Show how Angela Carter presents masculine

    The illusion of Ma Nelson's brothel is soon revealed to us by Carter. Just as the prostitutes leave Ma Nelson's brothel they decide to open the curtains for the first time, 'The luxury of that place had been nothing but illusion, created by the candles of midnight, and, in the dawn, all was sere, worn-out decay' (49). This illusion is what only the clients should see (some might say that Carter is even trying to fool the reader with its disguise) and the prostitutes themselves should have avoided believing in the illusion that Ma Nelson had made. Similarly, Madame Schreck's museum was simply an illusion. Even though it is situated in a smart area of London, it was far from smart;...

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