Back to top


The ancient Romans, heirs, and successors of Greek culture, began to name rhythmically unorganized speech prose.


The prose is originally all non-fiction works (philosophical, scientific, journalistic, informational, and oratorical), later it began to be called the most diverse genres of literary and artistic texts from a short miniature to an epic. A characteristic feature is the absence of the established system of compositional repetitions inherent in poetry. In terms of style, it is the opposite of poetry and verse. Thus, this is oral or written speech, not divided into commensurable segments – verses. That is if in poetry the text is divided into certain segments; in prose, on the contrary, everything is integral. It is an ordinary, unmeasured speech, it can be either oral or written. Prose has no dimensions and it is not divided into proportional segments, its rhythm is the ratio of sentences or periods between themselves.

It was born long ago, even in ancient times, and by the end of the XIX century, it had the opportunity to become an absolute leader in literature. Famous artistic works, in particular novels and stories, are usually emotionally reserved and saturated with intellectual and philosophical content.

Rhythm in it is semantic; it is determined by the alternation of semantic units. The prose is divided into sentences, phrases, words, that is, into semantic segments of different lengths. Rhythmic pauses between units of rhythm are not the same. At the same time, verse beginnings can appear in such texts. Meters, rhymes and many other phenomena characteristic of the verse can also be used. But in general the rhythm in prose is secondary, external; it is easy to do without it.

Prose Genres

The novel. It includes works of great shape, having a rather complex and very developed plot.

The story is a smaller work, designed to tell the reader about any particular event from the life of the hero.

The epic is a work of a rather large form with huge time and event volumes.

The narrative is a work of small form, containing a description of a particular event at a particular moment in time.

The novella is a small work, but with a clear structure and genesis.

The essay is a small-sized work that expresses the author’s attitude to any event or issue. A clear composition structure is absent.

The biography is a work containing a story about the life and activities of a particular person.

Initially, the business, journalistic, religious, preaching, scientific, memoirs and confession forms of text were developed. Art prose is predominantly epic, intellectual in contrast to lyrical and emotional poetry (but lyrical text and philosophical lyrics are possible); originated in ancient literature; from 18 came to the fore in the composition of verbal art.

In some sense, prose can be understood as a genre free from any framework, rules, and standard structures. It is this lack of classical canons that made it possible for authors with a world-wide name to develop their own unique literary style. For this reason, the main ways to assess the prosaic text is its language, convenience, and ease of reading, plot design and development, in some cases, philosophical or scientific overtones.

Analyse the encomium on marriage showing

Analyse the encomium on marriage showing how Chaucer reveals attitudes to marriage. How might a modern reader respond? An encomium is a formal expression of praise, a tribute. Chaucer makes use of this literary convention in his epic poem, 'The Merchant's Tale. ' Through this encomium, which has been described by some critics to be 'one of the most amazing instances of sustained irony in all literature,' Chaucer reveals various attitudes towards marriage, through his use of language, style and irony. The fact that Chaucer has chosen an encomium in which to reveal to the audience different attitudes towards marriage, in itself conveys the attitude revealed. The sermon style immediately calls into question whether or not the digression is to be...

Read More

The key features of gothic literature

Gothic literature is written to induce fear. To make a story frightening, you have to have the unexplained, an element of the grotesque, strange noises or silence and an ominous series of events. A typical gothic setting could be a castle or an old abandoned house, as long as it is spooky. Gothic atmosphere is created by strange 'goings on' and the weather. For example a storm would set a good atmosphere for a gothic novel. Tension and suspense are also important elements of atmosphere. The characters would be strange in a typical gothic novel, possibly deformed or just very odd. The grotesque custodians in The Red Room are an example of this. These are all techniques used to put a...

Read More

The character in “An Inspector Calls”

Which character in "An Inspector Calls" do you think is the most likeable and why? Give reasons for your answers and briefly discuss why you did not choose the other characters? As I have read the play "An inspector calls" written by J. B Priestly, I believe that Shelia Birling is my most likable character, out of all the characters. Shelia comes across as sweet caring women, but as you read on, you get the feeling she is a jealous girl with a temper. From the beginning of 'Act one' you wouldn't think Shelia would be capable of provoking the suicide of Eva Smith. Sheila's actions towards Eva were wrong, and selfish. Eva gets sacked from her job, where she worked...

Read More

The Hero Diary Entry

Another dreadful day in war has finished. I'm tired of arriving every night here to my dormitory in the front line and having to write letters to tell families that their relatives have died in war and then having to delivery them. My job unfortunately consists of damaging peoples feelings and lives by doing this but is the only useful thing I can do in the war due to my physical incapacity. Having only one leg since the start of the war has been very hard for me but I've learned to control this terrible situation. One week ago another young soldier died and I had to write to an old lady telling her that her only son, Jack, died...

Read More

“The Hand” that Robbed the Cradle

Colette's "The Hand" was written during the 1920's in Paris, a time of personal and sexual liberation for many women. Unlike the more daring and outrageous people of the French art scene, Colette's protagonist is a young woman who dreams of love, marriage, and happiness in a more traditional and fairytale-like sense. The young wife is overjoyed by her new life with Prince Charming, but is too interested in what she will gain from her marriage instead of contemplating what marriage really entails. In one night, the protagonist shifts from happiness to disgust upon learning of her husband's flaws. In doing so, she must question her commitment to her marriage and her true feelings for her husband. The realization of the...

Read More

The General Prologue

The General Prologue: Compare and contrast The Prioress and The Wife of Bath In The General Prologue, Chaucer introduces each of the twenty-nine characters of The Canterbury Tales. The Prioress, being the head of a convent, is a religious woman and, apart from her accompanying nun, the wife of bath is the only other female pilgrim. By going on pilgrimage at all, the Prioress is committing a transgression as the bishops forbade the pilgrimage. Therefore, the simple fact that she figures in the prologue suggests she is not wholly committed to her cause. The Wife of Bath, by contrast, as a free woman of business had every right to attend. Chaucer introduces the Prioress as the fourth pilgrim illustrating her social...

Read More

The form and structure of A Dolls House

The form and structure of A Dolls House is much different to anything else that has been written more recently, as it has a whole different structure to anything else around, both a the time it was written and now. The People of the time condemned this play, as it reversed the typical roles of men and women at the time, portraying Nora as very strong, and able to use money and more to the point, deceitful to her husband. In light of this, the opinion of 'A Doll's House' is that it is nearly a well made play, but it doesn't have a happy ending, and this doesn't always go down well with an audience, especially an audience in the...

Read More

The Diary of Eva Smith

The story follows the tragic tale of a young woman in the beginning of the century left to fend for herself after being hurt and taken away from the things and people she most loved in her short life. Just before the World War started in Britain, inside she is slowly losing her own battles. August 1910- It's been a long and endless summer. Aunt Beth was nearly killed because of that sickly disease goin around and I couldn't refuse what little money I had left for her medicines. It's the same story or something similar, with the other girls at work. Going for a whole summer with any money coming in. It's hard. The girls and I have set up...

Read More

The darkness out there

Kerry is a young boy who goes to the Good neighbours club. Kerry joined the Good Neighbours club because he wanted to help the old people who lived alone. Sandra doesn't like Kerry at all; she thinks he is dirty and very good looking. We only get this impression through Sandra's eyes: the writer reveals Sandra's thoughts as she meets him on the way to Mrs Rutter's 'Kerry Stevens that none of her lot reckoned much on, with his blacked licked-down hair and slitty eyes! ' Kerry and Sandra meet in the forest. Kerry greets Sandra by frightening her: 'Christ! ' she said', 'Kerry Stevens, you stupid so-and-so what d'you want to go and do that for, you give me the...

Read More

A Kestrel For A Knave

Billy doesn't exactly live in the land of luxury. He wakes to a grim bedroom and an unpleasant brother on the other side of the single bed, Billy and Jud share: "There were no curtains up. The window was a hard-edged block the colour of the night sky...

Read More

The Construction of Femininity

Hawks are adapted to their environment to enable them to survive. In a way Kate, is converting herself to be able to fit into the environment but she doesn't fit in to the construction that has been set up for her. She has not been adapted to the surroundings like a hawk and with training she may become socially acceptable towards the structure of femininity that has been created. She maybe more acceptable on the outside but she is still the same female that will not be changed through constructions of the normality. At the wedding scene, when Petruchio and Katherina are to be wed, Petruchio's message to Kate is that the whole wedding is superficial, nothing to do with them...

Read More

How does the writer arouse the reader’s sympathy for Billy

The story 'A Kestrel for a Hawk 'is based around a boy called Billy Casper. The book shows us all how life was in the olden times. Billy is a strong, independent character who is continuously being treated considered unjustly. Billy is sure of one thing - he will never work down in the mines. He lives with his brother Jud, who works down in the mines and his mother. Apparently, his dad is not on the scene so we are presuming that his father is either divorced or just left home for a while. One of the ways that the author makes the readers feel sorry for Billy is by describing his home life. Billy's family is very poor and...

Read More

The Millers Tale Essay

The Miller's Tale is arguably Chaucer's best work of humour and it strikes the right balance between bawdiness and vulgarity. The setting of the Miller's Tale is very ordinary and therefore we relate to it and is not humorous. The details give verisimilitude to the tale. But the main aspects of humour in The Miller's Tale are the four characters and how they react with each other. First John, the carpenter. He is a very stereotypical carpenter in those times who marries a young woman for her beauty so she can share his riches. He is rich but stupid and his stupidity and gullibility provides the chance for the main practical joke of the tale to take place. John can be...

Read More

‘The Children of Dynmouth’ by William Trevor

'The Children of Dynmouth' by William Trevor, written in 1970 about a small seaside town, is based upon his own childhood home. The opening introduces a story of murder and intrigue. The novel, which I am comparing it with, is 'Hard Times' be Charles Dickens written in 1854. This introduces us to Coketown, a newly industrialised town based upon a visit to Preston. Both novels although distinctive in style and purpose, are very similar in the portrayal of unfulfilled lives. Coketown is both a fictional and functional town, a newly industrialised place with one sole purpose, to make money through production of luxury threads for the country's wealthiest. The lack of imagination and creativity is due to the political system, which...

Read More

The character of Nora in A Doll’s House

As a famous early 20th century philosopher once put it, "There are two people, so to say, in each of us- one derived by heredity from our parents and the other composed of all the influences we have received from the society in which we happen to have been born. By heredity we may be one sort of person; by training and education we may be quite another. " This, what one might call, 'principle', in my opinion greatly applies to Ibsen's "A Doll's House". It is interesting to find if Nora's decision to leave was something that was imposed on her by her environment, or a 'bad' trait that was passed on to her by her father. Or is her...

Read More

The Change in Prospero’s Character

Prospero is the principal character of Shakespeare's 'The Tempest'. Without question, he vaguely bestows a sense of a 'prevailing authoritarian', using his powers to control the capabilities of others, solely for the purposes of self indulgence and expediency. We see this domineering and overwhelming trait throughout the play. An instance of this can be perfectly supported by the dreaded incident of the king of Naples' ship, as Prospero uses his powers to manipulate the winds, causing the ship to capsize. This is just one example of his officious personality. However, there is a staggering change in this behaviour toward the end of Shakespeare's prodigious play. He suddenly transforms into a penitent and modest individual, willing to give up all magic and...

Read More

Role in society

'A Doll's House,' written by Henrik Ibsen allows every individual in the play to find out the kind of person he or she is and to strive to attain their true identity. Ibsen portrays this behaviour in a Doll's House through one of the main characters, Nora Helmer by setting the scene in Norway during 1872. In the late 1800's women did not play an important role in society. Their job was to cook, clean, sew and take care of the children. Women were treated as material possesions rather than human beings that were capable of thinking and acting for themselves. On the other hand males had always dominated over the women appearing more superior, however this was not viewed as...

Read More

Stereotypical kind

The next character we meet is Torvald Nora's husband and puppet master. Torvald is a very strong character and believes that Nora should obey his requests. This is because of an old tradition that a woman should honour her husband. Torvald is a very rich, helpful, ignorant, stereotypical kind of character because even though he thinks he loves Nora he knows love isn't what he feels. We can tell that by the way he treats her. "I wouldn't have you any different. Dear little bird, little darling. But what is it? There's something, isn't there? There is. " There is alot of Irony between the couple due to the nature that Henrik Ibsen makes Torvald use throughout the play. For instance...

Read More

The Canterbury Tales

Throughout The General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales, Chaucer portrays religious characters overall in a very negative light. Two such characters are the Friar and the Monk who both use their positions in the church for their own personal gain, neglecting their orders and taking advantage of the laity. Chaucer clearly realises the corruption of the church at this time and his portrayals of the Monk and the Friar demonstrate this. I see the Monk as a hearty man who, though he goes against his religious order, does not commit great sins beyond seeking pleasure and wishing to explore the world outside the monastery. The Friar on the other hand neglects his parishioners, even conning the poor and he is a...

Read More

A Doll’s House Context

Ibsen's A Doll's House was written in a time when theatre was changing, and Ibsen was one of the creators of this new style of writing. Henrik Ibsen was born in Norway in 1828. During Ibsen's childhood his father encountered many financial difficulties and in 1835 the family was forced to move because their property was seized for payment of debts. Ibsen had an unhappy childhood due to rumours that Knud Ibsen was not his father, and despite the physical resemblance Ibsen believed these rumours to be true. Ibsen moved away from his parents in 1844 and during his early adult years Ibsen befriended members of the socialist movement and a left wing politician. This then led him to write for...

Read More

A Doll’s house

Furthermore, his sister notices all of the marks on the walls and ceiling from his sticky feet and figures moving his furniture out of the room will help prevent most of this. This is an attempt to lessen her responsibilities for Gregor. If she has less to clean up, she wont have to work as hard. Thus, Gregor has become less important to her. Once the furniture is removed Gregor climbs up the wall and clings to a picture he always loved. When his mother catches a glimpse of this, she passes out. Out of anger and frustration, Grete comes in and threatens Gregor before caring for her mother. Then his father comes in the room and throws apples at him....

Read More

A Doll House

Nora's personal life describes the whole A Doll's House. Raised in a society where the expectations make her a housewife, her inner turmoil helps to break apart her family. Nora has two separate parts of her character, the persona, which she shows to the world, and the shadow, which she hides. Ibsen conveys this by dialogue to show the double lives that everyone has. Nora's persona is a guise to deceive a world that believes in male rule. Demonstrating this, Nora says "I wouldn't think of going against your wishes" (4). She says this to try to conceal her macaroons. By lying Nora tries to cover up her failures to listen to her husband. As she practices the dance, "Helmer has...

Read More

Analyse the different attitudes the poets

Analyse the different attitudes the poets John Keats and P. B. Shelley have towards nature in the poems "Ode To A Nightingale," "Ode On A Grecian Urn," "Ode To Autumn," "Ode To The West Wind" and "To A Skylark. " A: "Nature is not only all that is visible to the eye -- it also includes the inner pictures of the soul," (Edvard Munch. ) The five poems "Ode To A Nightingale," "Ode On A Grecian Urn," "Ode To Autumn," "Ode To The West Wind" and "To A Skylark," reveal the perspectives of John Keats and P. B. Shelley towards life, nature and human identity. The poets fluently convey their innermost feelings to the readers by using effective means of expression...

Read More

The Portrayal of Womenin ‘The Withered Arm’ by Thomas Hardy and ‘The Fly Paper’ by E Taylor

The main characters in both 'The Fly Paper' by Elizabeth Taylor and 'The Withered Arm' by Thomas Hardy are women. These women come from everyday life and are set in the social settings of the writers' own times. Thus, the characters in 'The Withered Arm' come from Victorian rural England. Rhoda Brook is a poor milkmaid living with her son whose father is the farmer on whose farm she works. Whereas, the characters in 'The Fly Paper' come from Post War England, living a small town or village life. Sylvia is a dowdy, eleven year old on her way, by bus, to the suburbs of a nearby town for her piano lesson. In both of these stories, women are represented as...

Read More

A Discussion of the way Hardy’s own life is reflected In his short stories

Thomas Hardy was one of the great writers of his time, producing novels such as 'Tess of the D'Urbervilles' and 'Far from the Madding Crowd'. He is also renown for his short stories and poetry, which seem to all focus on women. In this essay I intend to analyse certain aspects of Hardy's life, and see how they are reflected in his writing. Thomas Hardy was born on the 2nd June, 1840 in Higher Bockhampton, and although this was only 160 years ago, the period in which he lived in was very different to the one we live in today. The social classes were extremely important; those from the upper classes did not socialise with those of lower classes. If they...

Read More

How the opening three paragraphs of “Tickets Please” create an appropriate atmosphere for the rest of the story

The first sentence of the story sets the scene for the reader. The author describes how the journey on the tramcar is continuous and boring. It is monotonous and describes how the route is set and it does not change from set route. Negative words are used to describe the village, to give the reader the impression there is a sense of darkness and decline, "...

Read More

A Continuation Of Dry September

McLendon could not take his eyes from the sky, it was as if they were locked to their position. The world appeared different something inside McLendon had changed. He stood for a while gazing far into the arid landscape when a sudden bang caused McLendon to jump straight from his trance like status, he turned around promptly to investigate the noise. His footsteps hit every creek in the floorboards, realisation flooded to him that creeping about the house would make no difference, he began to circulate the area searching for the something that made the noise. Frantically he stormed about the house but to no avail. The search ended disappointingly with McLendon retiring to his bedroom. The next day the sunshine...

Read More

Job Krogstad

Torvald: I can't remember the last time I loved Nora. All I can remember is how beautiful she looked when I first saw her, and how she reminded me...

Read More

Comparison of Hughes and Plath – Wuthering Hieghts

Wuthering heights is the title of both Ted Hughes' and Sylvia Plath's poem. Although their poems are about the same subject matter, it is necessary to compare these two because they are individuals who have very different opinions and interpretations to each other. Hughes writes about Wuthering Heights and its surroundings but mainly focuses on Sylvia, whereas she only describes her surroundings and appears to be by herself. The length of Hughes' poem is unusually long, rejecting the traditional structures of poetry. It consists of 4 paragraphs of all different lengths that lack basic structure and consistency. The 1st paragraph describes the surroundings and Sylvia's great enthusiasm for it. The sentences are reasonably short except when used the word 'then' the...

Read More

Strong emotions and ideas

A comparison of To Autumn and La Belle Dame Sans Merci on how they present strong emotions and ideas To Autumn and La Belle Dame Sans Merci are poems both written by John Keats. Both are classic examples of the genre. Both poems share emotive and passionate feelings. In to Autumn Keats describes his strong feelings about autumn. In La Belle Dame Sans Merci we see Keats express strong emotions about life and death. In this essay I plan to focus on the different emotions and ideas that Keats writes about in To Autumn and La Belle Dame Sans Merci. In To Autumn the first stanza describes the bounty, in the last the dreaminess, Keats expresses words that are so transparent and...

Read More