Poetry is a special organization of artistic speech, which is distinguished by rhythm and rhyme-the poetic form; it is a lyrical form of reflection of reality. This term is used in the meaning of a work of different genres in verse, which conveys the subjective relation of the individual to the world.
Stages of Poetry Development
· Primitive poetry as a tool of ritual. Quite often primitive poetry remained aloof from universal recognition. Such an attitude was a consequence of the fact that language as a means of communication was not at a sufficient level of development, the developing element of primitive man could not have a full-fledged generation in the form of poetry. With the amplification of society, there was a complication of social processes, which in turn initiated the development of language.
· The baggage of images. With the development of the language, the human perception of the world became more complicated, as many phenomena and sensory experiences could all be more easily conveyed with the help of words.
· The development of literature in general. Any stage was characterized by features of the social and political system in the state.
The Poetry of the Main Cultural Epochs
· Renaissance. From this period begins the direct development of poetry, the main genres are the poem and poetic drama. Love and pastoral lyrics acquire universal acceptance and the classical forms of sonnets, canons, sestinas, terza rimas spread throughout Europe.
· Rationalism. The main genres are high (ode, heroic poem) and low (comedy, satire, fable, and idyll). In other words, prose and poetry satire develops.
· Sentimentalism. Sentimentalism comes in the 18th century as a replacement for strict regulation and aristocracy. The goal of the authors was to touch the feelings of readers, showing the unhappy fate of the heroes of their “tearful” comedies, elegies, messages.
· Romanticism. The emergence of romanticism can be associated with the amplification of ideas of sentimentality and the rise of anti-feudal movements. There is a great interest in folklore, the genre forms of the historical novel, the fantastic story, the lyric poem, the ballads are updated and improved, the language is saturated with figurative expressions and other kinds of ornaments.
· Realism. The desire for truthful and objective reflection and reproduction of reality in forms that correspond to reality itself, together with the revolutionary views, has become the basis for the formation and development of critical realism which was also reflected in the poetry of that time.
· Decadence. This direction made a revolution in the poetic worldview. Decadence is characterized by alienation from life, rejection of social struggle, propaganda of the concept of “art for art,” pessimism, mysticism, individualism. The main idea of decadence was to impress the reader not only with the help of the meaning of the work but also with the help of a certain set of sounds in words, inadequate images.
· Modernism. Modern trends in literature are characterized by a mixture of classical currents. The eternal quest for artistic expression leads to the adoption of absolutely different trends in poetics. On one line of the poem there can be glimpses of the author’s meaning, and, at times, the most absurd things.