Back to top


Artscolumbia / Literary arts  / Poetry

Poetry is a special organization of artistic speech, which is distinguished by rhythm and rhyme-the poetic form; it is a lyrical form of reflection of reality. This term is used in the meaning of a work of different genres in verse, which conveys the subjective relation of the individual to the world.

Stages of Poetry Development

·  Primitive poetry as a tool of ritual. Quite often primitive poetry remained aloof from universal recognition. Such an attitude was a consequence of the fact that language as a means of communication was not at a sufficient level of development, the developing element of primitive man could not have a full-fledged generation in the form of poetry. With the amplification of society, there was a complication of social processes, which in turn initiated the development of language.

· The baggage of images. With the development of the language, the human perception of the world became more complicated, as many phenomena and sensory experiences could all be more easily conveyed with the help of words.

· The development of literature in general. Any stage was characterized by features of the social and political system in the state.

The Poetry of the Main Cultural Epochs

·  Renaissance. From this period begins the direct development of poetry, the main genres are the poem and poetic drama. Love and pastoral lyrics acquire universal acceptance and the classical forms of sonnets, canons, sestinas, terza rimas spread throughout Europe.

· Rationalism. The main genres are high (ode, heroic poem) and low (comedy, satire, fable, and idyll). In other words, prose and poetry satire develops.

· Sentimentalism. Sentimentalism comes in the 18th century as a replacement for strict regulation and aristocracy. The goal of the authors was to touch the feelings of readers, showing the unhappy fate of the heroes of their “tearful” comedies, elegies, messages.

· Romanticism. The emergence of romanticism can be associated with the amplification of ideas of sentimentality and the rise of anti-feudal movements. There is a great interest in folklore, the genre forms of the historical novel, the fantastic story, the lyric poem, the ballads are updated and improved, the language is saturated with figurative expressions and other kinds of ornaments.

· Realism. The desire for truthful and objective reflection and reproduction of reality in forms that correspond to reality itself, together with the revolutionary views, has become the basis for the formation and development of critical realism which was also reflected in the poetry of that time.

· Decadence. This direction made a revolution in the poetic worldview. Decadence is characterized by alienation from life, rejection of social struggle, propaganda of the concept of “art for art,” pessimism, mysticism, individualism. The main idea of decadence was to impress the reader not only with the help of the meaning of the work but also with the help of a certain set of sounds in words, inadequate images.

· Modernism. Modern trends in literature are characterized by a mixture of classical currents. The eternal quest for artistic expression leads to the adoption of absolutely different trends in poetics. On one line of the poem there can be glimpses of the author’s meaning, and, at times, the most absurd things.

The Loyalty of Wives in “The Canterbury Tales”

"The Canterbury Tales" is the epitome of ideals of medieval Europe. The lives of most medieval women were the role of the wife such as the lives of the women in "The Canterbury Tales. " These women create a new definition of loyalty and partnership. The three women, The Wife of Bath, Dorigen, and Pertelote, all have different forms of expressing loyalty, but still hold the strong principles of marriage and honor to their husband. The Wife of Bath is one of the three female story tellers. She travels around the world and allows her experiences to freely flow. She has a refined characteristic shown by the way she dresses. The Wife enjoys conversation and uses both commonsense and intellectual truth....

Read More

The Little Girl Eater, by Septimus Dale

Miranda fetched a stone, a huge flat stone, just the right stone. When Mason saw Miranda, wheeling it, he said, "You're a good little girl. " Miranda picked up the stone as high as she could and let it drop on Mason's head. She'd killed the nasty Little Girl Eater. Miranda is clearly a resourceful little girl because she knew there was something 'quaint' going on between her mother and Johnny. She is curious and inquisitive because she is fascinated by what Mason is doing, because she can only view half of his body. She is gullible because she believes what Johnny tells her about the Little Girl Eater and is frightened of adults. We know this because she didn't shout...

Read More

A mysterious character

The Inspector is a mysterious character, who we know very little about. He comes across as a very calm and honest man. When the Inspector first appears in the play he is confronted by Mr. Birling. Mr. Birling is a very successful businessman who has "been around in local politics for years. " Mr. Birling tries to use his social status to intimidate the Inspector, "I was an Alderman for years and Lord Mayor two years ago. " To Mr. Birling's pompous bullying the Inspector remains cool and is determined to find something out. At this point we do not know what. The Inspector then asks, "I'd like some information, if you don't mind. " This leaves the audience and family...

Read More

The Function and symbolism of the Inspector in “An Inspector Calls”

In "An Inspector Calls" by J. B. Priestley the Inspector is used as a voice of conscience and morality. The Inspector does this while interrogating a very prosperous and upper-middle class family who believe themselves to be above all. The dramatic impact that Priestley uses shows the importance, validity and presence of the inspector. Priestley uses effects such as changing the lighting "The lighting should be pink and intimate until the inspector arrives, and then it should be brighter and harder" in the stage directions. This is to show the change of tone when the inspector arrives, from joyous and loving to earnest and grave. This lighting change also symbolises truth and 'the harsh light of reality'. His body language is...

Read More

The Prelude

This poem compared to Spring is slower and quieter, solemn and quite lethargic. Autumn uses long extended sentences, long vowels and many enjambments while Spring uses shorter, quicker phrases, short vowels and many alliterations, which means that the Spring poem is a lot more lively to read. The Autumn poem is also considerably longer than Spring so that it gives more detail to every aspect of Autumn. The Skating Poem by William Wordsworth was part of a large book of poetry called 'The Prelude'. This poem is written as though it is meant as a Boys Poem because Wordsworth wrote this as if he was still a child. The poem starts off in a very positive, exciting and noisy way, however...

Read More

Suspenseful poem

The Eve of St. Agnes is built up of a series of deliberate contrasts. By means of a close examination of three distinct passages, explore Keats' use of contrast in the poem. There are three main contrasts used in this poem - Christian/Pagan imagery, cold/warm images, and often the contrast of colour. In a way, temperature and colour are linked; deep reds, yellows and oranges represent heat and life, whereas blues and silvers indicate chill absence of life. Also in The Eve of St.Agnes is a strong question of whether Porphyro's intentions are honest and wholesome, or if he is somehow using Madeline's trance-like state and helplessness to his perverse advantage. It is also full of wonderful Keatsian paradoxes, which will...

Read More

Philip Larkin analysis

This is a melancholy poem, which reflects on the subject of marriage. The poem deal with Larkin’s view on young mothers watching their children playing in a playground and he concludes that marrying young leads to the mothers losing their identity. Larkin’s description of young mothers taking their children to a playground seems like normal but the narrator’s point of view on life is expressed. What seems like an ordinary, everyday occurrence highlights the theme of change and how it cannot be avoided and the passing of time. Larkin’s choice of words, symbolism and imagery clearly portrays this passage of time and the routines of these mothers’ lives. The first line sets the scene at the beginning of autumn, “summer is...

Read More

A novel to a play script

Cottage near Lewes. Early morning. Sound of an larm watch. Frederick already woken up, moving on stage. A door in the middle of the stage to represant the cellar door. He knocks on the door. Frederick:[knocking on the cellar door], [shouting] Please get up! Waits, open the door and goes in the cellar, onto the other part of the stage with Miranda's bag. Light goes on. Miranda sitting on an arm chair, staring at Frederick. Frederick: I hope you slept well. Miranda: [coldly and not violent] Where is this? Who are you? Why have you brought me here? Frederick: I can't tell you. Miranda: I demand to be released at once! This is monstrous! [both keep staring at each other] Get...

Read More

Romantic writings

Perhaps this is because although the urn exists in a real world that is subject to change and the effects of time that the images depict remain unaffected. Not also the phase " sylvan historian" in line 3, whilst not answering any of the poet's questions, does have a message depending on how you interpret the, final stanza. The urn is "sylvan", firstly because it has a border of leaves around the vase and the scene is set in woods. The wording "flowery tale" and "sweetly" do not prepare the reader for the fear and wild sexuality depicted in lines 8-10, a Bacchanalian ritual that involves a sexual chase. Also note that twice during lines 6-8 the poet appears unable to...

Read More

Analyse and comment on the poetic form

Carefully read the poem "Ode on a Grecian Urn" by John Keats (Romantic Writings: An Anthology, pp. 395-6). Write an essay of not more than 1500 words in which you analyse the poem and comment on the poetic form and language used (for example, rhyme, rhythm, metaphor, imagery, tone, word order, alliteration, point of view) and the way they contribute to the meaning and effects of the poem. The purpose of this assignment is to analyse closely and examine the poem "Ode on a Grecian Urn" by John Keats. The poem will be examined in terms of its poetic forms the language used by the writer. This poem has been described as one of the key poems from the Romantic period....

Read More

Express sympathy for Nora

Mrs. Lindes tells Nora that she is 'still a child'. Nora 'tosses her head' and begins to reveal to Kristina (Mrs. Linde) a 'dark secret' this is done in order to prove Kristina wrong. She tells Kristina in a manner that she is to 'just like everybody else,' Here we hear about how Nora has saved 'Torvald's life' with a trip to Italy all paid with Nora's 'allowance. ' Again her lie does not seem to be any bad as she does it in order to save her husbands life. As we move on we discover that Nora really borrowed the money from Krogstad without her husbands permission. In those days this was a disliked act as the man controlled the...

Read More

A Dolls House Use Of Language

A doll's House has alot of qualities about it which most plays often don't have. The sub-text within the play is really intense because characters say one thing yet mean another. This mainly happens with Nora's character as she has alot going on that she doesn't want her husband to know about. Mainly where alot of sub-text is used is at the beginning of act two with Anne-Marie and Nora where they start talking about the fancy dress party and about Nora's dress "I wish I'd torn it to pieces. " What Nora could mean here is not that she'd torn the dress to pieces but that she wishes she could tear her life to pieces to start a whole new...

Read More

Letters Torvald

Nora: - then, Kristina, you must bear witness that it isn't true. I'm perfectly sane, and I know exactly what I'm doing now, and I tell you this: no one else knew anything about it - I did it all by myself. Remember that. Nora again hints of her planned suicide when she claims that she might 'not be here', and Nora believes that when Krogstad exposes her crime, Torvald will "take it all on himself" to protect her. Torvald's previous words, "You'll see that I'm man enough to take it all on myself" had led her to this belief, and Nora, "horror-struck", had asked, "What do you mean? And later determinedly claimed, "You shall never have to do that. "...

Read More

A Doll’s House Externalizing Inner Problems

When writing A Doll's House, Ibsen had planned it to be a realistic play. To do this, he must portray the fluent speech of everyday life, and unnecessary monologues must be prevented. Hence, Ibsen cleverly employs certain symbols in his play to externalize the characters' inner thoughts. Throughout the whole play, the characters' actions and words often carry an implicit meaning, and subtly reflect what they are thinking. This technique is already evident at the start of the play, even with minor or seemingly insignificant situations. Small actions can tell the audience more about each character. For example, when Torvald was lecturing Nora about wasting and borrowing money, she goes over to the stove, stating, "Very well, Torvald, if you say...

Read More

Anti-romantic Petruchio

Courtly love came from the French l'amour courtois when a knight would treat his girlfriend with the same respect as his liege lord, she was in control of the relationship and the knights love for the lady inspires him to do great deeds so he was worthy of his love; in short the man was very chivalrous towards his significant other. This is the polar opposite to the way the anti-romantic Petruchio treats Katherina and defy literary tradition; however there is evidence of courtly love in The Taming of the Shrew between Lucentio and Bianca whose love appears real. Petruchio, the master of manipulation, and Katherina have a long conversation where Petruchio's main objective is to 'woo' Katherina; he has many...

Read More

The poem Ithaca

There are over 6 billion people in this world. They are all different and therefore all choose to live their lives in different ways. There are some individuals who always thrive to achieve more. They always want to do more, hear more, see more, whereas some individuals have a few selective goals and once those are achieved become perfectly content with their lives and where they are. There are many other ways people believe they should live their lives and that's how they live them. The author, Constantine Cavafy develops a certain idea of how individuals should live their life in the poem "Ithaca". He believes that individuals should aim to accomplish the maximum amount of goals in their lives so...

Read More

How does Ted Hughes convey the ruthless power and violence in animals through the poems “Pike” and “Hawk Roosting”

Animals are living things that we see in our everyday lives yet we don't seem to give them any importance. Very few people give them the respect they deserve. The poems I am going to compare are based on animals. The animals are given human qualities, which are done purposely by Ted Hughes to make us realize what we really are. Very few poets have chosen animals to take the lead roles in their poems. Ted Hughes is one of those few poets who have taken animals to play the lead role in his poems. Many of Ted Hughes poems have their subjects on predatory animals and birds. The latent feeling of violence and power in untamed creatures fascinated Hughes. In...

Read More

Notes on a Winters Journey and a Footnote, by Norman MacCaig

The poem "Notes on a Winters Journey and a Footnote", written by Norman MacCaig is a thought provoking Scottish poem. MacCaig uses stereotypical landscapes and weather to emphasise his feelings throughout the poem. I shall be showing how MacCaig shows these emotions referring to word-choice, theme and structure. The poem "Notes on a Winters Journey and a Footnote" is about MacCaig himself travelling on a journey from Edinburgh to the very north of Scotland to visit a friend who passes away just before he arrives there. Throughout this journey MacCaig emphasises and shows the reader that the poem is Scottish by describing the places where he stopped and set off from, "Edinburgh", "Ullapool" and "Inchnadamph". He also describes other aspects of...

Read More

How were some sonnets used to express different views on love

For hundreds of years poets have used the sonnet to express their feelings, usually placing emphasis on the theme of courtly love. It is estimated that the earliest sonnets date from around 1200 AD, and they were probably sung as expressions of romantic love in Italian courtyards. As the sonnet moved from country to country different poets attempted to ‘make it their own’, causing the variation of sonnets we are now familiar with; namely the Petrarchan, Shakespearean and Spenserian sonnet. One of the most acclaimed sonneteers is Shakespeare, who wrote one hundred and fifty-four sonnets that were published between 1599 and 1609. From these many sonnets the one Shakespeare is most remembered for is Sonnet 18, sometimes referred to as ‘Shall...

Read More

A Critical Analysis of Plot

Keen (2003) states when looking at plot the problems begin with definition. It may be fairer to conclude that definition can vary depending on the author and how he/she wishes to present his/her story through the use of narration and plot devices. In the case of 'Rope' by Katherine Anne Porter plot could be defined as what the narratee understands as the real story, after deciphering the narrators telling by getting at the underlying events through the authors use of plot devices. The plot begins in a state of equilibrium and we are presented with a couple that have recently moved to a new home in the country. A wife comes out to greet her husband after he returns home on...

Read More

A Critical Commentary on October Salmon

The poem, "October Salmon" is a poem about a salmon swimming upstream to its breeding ground to lay its eggs. Hughes has cleverly titled the poem "October Salmon" as the word 'salmon' is singular and plural. This poem seems to be about a single fish, yet it could be referring to many others like it. The first few stanzas contrast the grandeur of the journey with the fertility and ugliness of death. For instance, Hughes says "After his two thousand miles, he rests". This shows that the salmon has travelled a remarkable individual journey; however, it is made all for nothing. Hughes says that the salmon is "Four years old at most". This shows how young the salmon was. The fact...

Read More

Comparing and contrasting two poems Mirror and Blackberrying by the Author Sylvia Plath

In this essay I shall be comparing and contrasting two poems by the author Sylvia Plath. The two poems are 'Blackberrying' and 'Mirror' Sylvia Plath born in Boston, Massachusetts 1932 was the wife of another famous yet complicated poet Ted Hughes. Many of Plath's poems were based on her inner pain yet also other celebratory poems about motherhood aspects of nature etcetera. In addition to writing poems she wrote one autobiographic novel 'The Bell Jar'. Sylvia Plath had a very short and tragic life, after suffering from years of depression and mental illness from living under pressure she took her life in 1963. She is now laid to rest in a little church yard grave in Heptonstall, West Yorkshire. The first...

Read More

How far do you think this comment applies to the work of Sylvia Plath

Sylvia Plath was born in Boston in 1932. She then took her own life in 1963 at the age of thirty-one. Sylvia Plath was an astonishing woman who, in the 31 years she lived established a reputation as the foremost female poet of her age. She married Yorkshire poet Ted Hughes, their relationship was destructive and yet creative as Plath produced great poems displayed her life and depressive years towards her death. The fact that she took her own life already gives us the idea that she did see the world through eyes different from other people. Plath must have had a reason to take her own life. The reason could be that Plath's wild imagination caused her not to recognise...

Read More

Compare and contrast the two sonnets “Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day” and “Sonnet 130”

This essay is based on two sonnets, "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day" and "Sonnet 130", both of which are written by William Shakespeare. Although the poems are different to each other, they both come across as having the same meaning. "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day" is a traditional, romantic love poem of the seventeenth century. The purpose behind the poem is to flatter women. In the poem, Shakespeare compares his love to a summer's day. The way he does this is by highlighting all the negative points about summer and saying that she is much better. He beguiles her into thinking that in comparison to a day of summer she is much more extravagant. On...

Read More

Compare poems written by Carol Ann Duffy and Sylvia Plath

The poems written by Carol Ann Duffy and Sylvia Plath can be interpreted in many ways, but by looking into both poems in a deeper meaning you can quickly see that they are both alike in many ways. The poems have a subject, which is fairly similar, both project imagery of holy metaphors, both within them have many contrasts, and both have the same mood, and many more. Within the poems they are reflective and portray certain feelings to the reader. Each of the poems were written for a specific reason to give the reader an insight to their own emotions, the War Photographer was written to show the life of a photographer who's job was to capture images from war-scenes,...

Read More

‘The Portuguese Sonnet’, ‘Sonnet 130’ and ‘The Glasgow Sonnet’

'Sonnet 130' by William Shakespeare is all about love, but not in the usual sense. In this Sonnet Shakespeare speaks of his love in a manure not used by most poets. This sonnet isn't all roses and love hearts, his vision of love is more real, he describes his love exactly how she is, flawed. 'If snow be white why then her breasts are dull.' In Shakespearian times women were supposed to have snow-white skin and breasts, but his love doesn't have white skin, her breasts are dull. Most poets wouldn't say this about their love, or even describe somebody in a poem like this, but Shakespeare did. As this is how he saw his love, with all of her physical...

Read More

The Power of Love: Truth, Nature or Society

"Sonnet 67" by Edmund Spencer and "Sonnet 130" by William Shakespeare are two very different poems which converge at a point of portrayal of the woman having the power over the man in a romantic relationship. These poems have different approaches in conveying this message to the reader. At times the power can be expressed subtly as seen in "Sonnet 67" or very boldly as seen in "Sonnet 130". According to Freudian thought there is also a pre-consciousness in "Sonnet 67" and unconsciousness in "Sonnet 130". These beliefs attribute to the fact that the woman has received her power by Nature and by Society. Nature gives them this power because women are the gateway to existence. And although many might disagree...

Read More

Sonnet 19 and 63 by Shakespeare

In this essay I am going to compare and contrast sonnet 19 and 63 focusing on the poets intention and use of language and structure considering the destructive nature of time theme and the effect on the mans beauty. Sonnet 19 is about the destructive power of time and in, which is very explicit in this particular sonnet. The sonnet is based upon the personification of time used by Shakespeare. Sonnet 63's theme is again about time and personifies time and performs beauty as an image. In Sonnet 19 Shakespeare represents Time as wild animals, like Lions and Tigers, because these animals are powerful just like Time. For example "Devouring Time blunt thou the Lion's paws". This quote portrays Time as...

Read More

Looking at Sonnet 12 by William Shakespeare and I Look into my Glass by Thomas Hardy

First of all the most obvious theme in these poems is time. The poem Sonnet 12 is set in the 16th century and was written by Shakespeare. I Look into My Glass was written in 1898 by Thomas Hardy. These two poems are both quite dark and depressing. In I Look into My Glass is about a person who is suffering from the affects of time. We learn this because he tells us by saying that he looks in to his mirror his "glass". In the rest of the poem he attracts the reader's attention by focusing on himself and his looks. In the second line he describes a bit of himself, "And view my wasting skin", suggesting that his skin...

Read More

The play ‘Translations’ by Brian Friel

The play Translations was written by Brian Friel an Irish playwright and a founder of the 'Field Day Theatre Company' who, for their first production, presented 'Translations' in 1980. The popularity of the play was so that productions were the staged regularly within England and Ireland through out the 1980's but what was it that made the play so popular. Within the 1980's troubles had sparked within Northern Ireland, the horrific 'Bloody Sunday', civil rights marches and the formation of the terrorist group calling themselves 'The Provisional IRA' created a deeply divided nation. These political troubles echoed those of Irelands past when the divide between the protestant landlords and the Catholics who worked the land and were heavily taxed, like the occupants...

Read More