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Drama

The dramatic genus of art has three main genres: tragedy, comedy, and drama in the narrow sense of the word.

Tragedy

The tragedy is a dramaturgic genre based on the tragic collision of heroic characters, its tragic outcome and full of pathetic.

The tragedy depicts reality as a cluster of internal contradictions; it reveals the conflicts of reality in an extremely strained form. This is a dramatic work, which is based on an irreconcilable life conflict leading to the suffering and death of the hero. Thus, in the confrontation with the world of crimes, lies, and hypocrisy, the bearer of advanced humanistic ideals, the Danish prince Hamlet tragically perishes. In the struggle that the tragic heroes lead, the heroic traits of the human character are revealed with great completeness. The genre of the tragedy has a long history. It originated from religious cult rites, was a stage play of myth. With the advent of the theater, the tragedy was formed as an independent genre of dramatic art.

Comedy

Comedy is a kind of drama in which characters, situations, and actions are presented in ridiculous forms or imbued with comic overtones. Comedy originated back in ancient Greece. Art theorists have differently decided the question of the social purpose of the comedy. In the Renaissance, its role was limited to the correction of morals.

Tragicomedy

Tragicomedy refuses the moral absolute of comedy and tragedy. The worldview underlying it is related to the sense of the relativity of existing life criteria. Revaluation of moral principles leads to uncertainty and even the rejection of them; the subjective and objective beginnings are blurred; unclear understanding of reality may cause interest in it or complete indifference and even recognition of the illogicality of the world.

The modern tragicomedy does not have clear genre features and is characterized by a “tragicomic effect”, which is created by showing reality in both tragic and comic coverage, a mismatch between the hero and the situation; insolubility of internal conflict, a sense of the absurdity of being.

Drama

Drama as a genre appeared after the tragedy and comedy. Like tragedy, it tends to recreate acute contradictions. As a kind of dramatic genus, it became widespread in Europe during the Enlightenment and at the same time was conceived as a genre.

Drama is a play with an acute conflict, which, unlike the tragic one, is not so sublime; it is earthier, ordinary, and somehow solved. Specifics of the drama consist, firstly, in that it starts with modern, and not antique, material, and secondly, the drama asserts a new hero who rebels against his fate and circumstances.

The difference between drama and tragedy is in the essence of the conflict: the conflicts of the tragic plan are insoluble because their resolution does not depend on the personal will of the hero. The hero finds himself in a tragic situation involuntarily, and not because of a mistake he made. Dramatic conflicts, unlike the tragic ones, are not insurmountable. At the heart of them lies the clash of characters with such forces, principles, traditions that confront them from the outside. If the hero of the drama perishes, then his death is an act of voluntary decision, and not the result of a tragically hopeless situation.

Shakespeare’s dramatization of scenes of persuasion

Initially Macbeth is hesitant and not completely confident that he should commit the murder of King Duncan. Lady Macbeth then makes him feel guilty that he does in fact desire Duncan dead and is reluctant and fearful of working towards achieving that. She uses the proverb "Like the poor cat i' th' adage? " wherein Macbeth is like a cat that wants the fish but is unwilling to wet her paws, i. e. make a compromise in order to achieve what he desires. Lady Macbeth then explains how she has "given suck", that is having given birth a child, and has sacrificed a lot more in her past than Macbeth has. This somewhat persuades Macbeth to murder Duncan, but he is...

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Macbeth, Act 3, Scene 4

In the play MacBeth, Act 3, Scene 4 is a major turning point in the ploy. This scene, a banquet in the palace, is celebrating his coronation as King. The events in this scene form a turning point for MacBeth, Lady MacBeth and the Lords. In addition, this scene sets in motion the subsequent events that will lead to the deaths of the protagonists and restorations of order in Scotland. Once the guests arrive, they take their places and it appears initially that the banquet will run smoothly throughout. However, the murderer arrived and quietly informed MacBeth that Banquo has been murdered, "My Lord, his throat is cut. That I did for him". MacBeth's joy is short lived as next the...

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How does Shakespeare create sympathy for Macbeth in act five

Macbeth is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare (in 1606) at the beginning of the 17th century, for King James 1st. At this time the Elizabethan's believed that witches were real and actually did these evil deeds. At the time when the play was written the "Divine right of Kings" was written to protect the Kings of England from being killed. If a King (or Queen) was killed it was thought that it had disturbed the natural order. This effects the play greatly. The play is set in the highlands of Scotland, where a war has just ended. The main character "Macbeth" met with some witches on the moors after battle, who predicted that he would become Thane of Glamis and...

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16th Century England

Tranio easily slips into the role of a traditional master and upper class gentleman. Tranio's speech about how he intends to woo Bianca impresses even the intellectual, Gremio, who remarks: "What, this gentleman will out-talk us all! " Unlike Grumio, Tranio is able to gain his own power and respect. He slips easily into the role and is able to wield the power and status freely. Although Tranio appears to enjoy his position, he always remains loyal to his master. When he plans with Baptista, how to win Bianca, he says: "Tis in my head to do my master good. I see no reason but suppos'd Lucentio Must get a father called suppos'd Vincentio. " Here Tranio assures the audience that...

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The Taming of the Shrew

When 'The Taming of the Shrew' was written around 1593-1594, the working classes and servants made up the vast majority of the British population. This led to common social stereotyping of the servant classes. This can be clearly seen in some of Shakespeare's early plays including 'The Taming of the Shrew'. In this play there are many characters that are bound together by the servant-master relationship. These include: The Lord and his Huntsmen in the induction, Petruchio's domination over Grumio throughout the play and the comradeship between Tranio and Lucentio. Shakespeare explores a number of different types of relationship between the classes in a way that was only possible on the stage. This is the physical enactment of the servant master...

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Lady Macbeth- good or bad

In this essay I am going to talk about Lady Macbeth and whether she was a good or bad person. This is a very contentious argument. There are many obvious reasons as to why we could see Lady Macbeth was a bad person such as she was involved in the murder of King Duncan. However, she repented for what she did and felt very guilty about it which could show that she changed to become a good person. In Act 1 Scene 5 Lady Macbeth reads a letter from her husband detailing the encounter with the witches and how they said that he would be thane of Cawdor and then king and Banquo would be a father of a line...

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To what extent is Macbeth responsible for his own downfall

There are many factors, which can be taken into account when deciding to what extent Macbeth was responsible for his own downfall. Macbeth was affected by three categories of influence, which were: the witches, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. Throughout the tragedy, the three categories evolved in different ways, effecting Macbeth and bringing various consequences to his life. For example, the appearance of witches in Act 1 made Macbeth come back to them in Act 4 in order to find out his future; and King Duncan's murder caused Macbeth guilty conscience immediately after he committed the murder. The audience experience various feelings throughout the play. The witches, who are to have a profound influence over events in the play, meet in foul...

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The Merchant’s Tale – critical review

The wives of the two tales, May and Dorigen, are also two opposite characters. May is an unfaithful wife who does not agree to the marriage contract that she signed with January. After a very short time, May becomes tired of January and she commits adultery with her lover, Damian. "Ah, how she wept, fresh as she was, and bright, who loved her Damian, and with so benign a love that sudden death was her design unless she could enjoy him. "(379) Dorigen, the very moral and faithful woman, was the wife of Averagus in the Franklin's Tale. Dorigen respected her husband and was always honest and faithful with him. Although Dorigen was tempted by another man, Aurelius, she overcame the...

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The Joy of American Sign Language

J. P. Morgan once remarked that "A man has two reasons for what he does- a good one, and a real one. " These words reflect upon the stark difference between appearance and reality. The play, A Doll's House by Henrik Ibsen illustrates this difference greatly. Set in Norway in the nineteenth century, the play revolves around a middle class woman, Nora, and her struggle with identity and independence. Besides Nora, two other characters exemplify the theme of appearance versus reality in A Doll's House. Nora's husband, Torvald, and their family friend, Dr.Rank, both are not all that meets the eye. Chief among these characters, however, is Nora. The wife of Torvald Helmer, Nora has her life made for her. She...

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The Inspector – Man or Metaphor

"An Inspector calls" was set in 1917, a time of contentment prior to World War 1. This smugness is reflected in the Birling family but is soon disturbed by the inspector. We realise this character is far more than an ordinary policeman from the very beginning. The audience recognises this because of his abrupt arrival, his name (Goole) and the way his behaviour changes the mood of the party. At the beginning of the play in the stage directions it says "the lighting should be pink and intimate until the Inspector arrives, and then it should be brighter and harder. " This is changing the atmosphere. Priestley says that he has a "disconcerting habit" of looking at people, making it obvious...

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The Importance of Scenography in Miss Julie and A Doll’s House

The work of a playwright is customarily evaluated in terms of the interaction between the elements of literature such as setting, character, theme, plot, and style. Scenography, which deals with the physical materiality of a production, is probably the farthest away from the literal and abstract contents of a drama - elements which have traditionally gained the most attention and appreciation from audiences and critics alike. It is an aspect often undermined upon reading a play, despite its importance in enhancing dramatic effect and capacity to generate and convey ideological ideas to the audience. Both Strindberg and Ibsen wrote carefully visualized, highly charged mise-en-scene into their plays that serves a double role - on one hand, it is a functional construction...

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Reflections on the Novel

"The Gothic is concerned primarily with representing transgression and taboo, there is nothing more to it as a literary genre. " Is this a fair assessment of Gothic writing of the Romantic period? "The invaluable works of our elder writers...

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The Titanic

The first 10 pages (until the inspector) arrives are important in terms of setting the scene & establishing the characters. An Inspector Calls was written in 1945/46; however the play was set in 1912. When the playwright wrote this play it was the end of the World War 2. He uses the play to give his views on the society. He tries to give the audience the message that everyone is responsible for each other, "If we don't accept our responsibility there will be no society. " He also tries to give this message through the inspector. The inspector said this in his final speech before he leaves "We are members of one body, and we are responsible for each other....

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Alice and Vicky

After having read 'Hobson's Choice', by Harold Brighouse, I am to concentrate on the remarkable character of Maggie Hobson. When we first get introduced to Maggie Hobson, we notice into the play that, she is very different from her two younger sisters, Alice and Vicky. The sisters are under the control of their father, but Maggie is independent around events and people in her life. She is the most controllable character in the whole play. The play is set in Salford, around the 1880's. The women were expected to keep quiet, while they did the housework. The readers and the viewers would be shocked to see a woman with such immense power, who is able to control the characters in the...

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A Dolls House – Is Helmer ‘a monster’ or do youfind sympathy for him?

Helmer is one of the central characters of A Doll's House. At the beginning of the play he is seen as the loving husband, a little patronising, but kind and caring nevertheless. However, by the end of the play our views of him have changed, he is not seen as such an admired figure. Throughout the play there are times were Helmer is a bigot and this gives you a sordid view of his character. Helmer is a typical nineteenth century respectable husband. He follows the rules society has set; this is how he has been brought up. A very stereotypical man of this patriarchal time. You cannot condemn him for this, nor can you dismiss it. He has fitted this...

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Dramatic and Nora

"A Doll's House" deals with the position of women in matters of marriage and society in the 19th century. To what extent do you agree that these ideas were ahead of their time? The inspiration for A Doll's House came from the tragic events that happened to Laura Kieler a young woman Ibsen met in1870. Laura asked Ibsen to comment on a play she was writing and they became close friends. Some time later her husband contracted tuberculosis and was advised to visit a warm climate. Unfortunately they lacked the financial means so she acquired a loan. Repayment was demanded and Laura had to forge a cheque. This was soon discovered and her husband treated her like a common criminal, despite...

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Symbolism of the poems

Several motifs used by Keats and Shelley enhance the symbolism of the poems. The poets use several motifs to their command and therefore succeed in revealing their innermost thoughts to the readers. For instance, in 'Ode On A Grecian Urn," the urn is symbolic to the time which forever stays stagnant. Keats wants to compare the stillness in the world of art to his life. Since he is living on borrowed time, Keats is aware that every moment of his life counts. However since he knows that has a "fast-fading" life he pictures the vase not only as a piece of art but also as his idol. In a way Keats wants to imitate the stillness in the vase because the...

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Dramatic methods

Analyse the dramatic qualities of Mr. Birling's speech on pages 9/10 of Act1 of 'An Inspector Calls' and the Inspector Goole's speech on page 56 of Act 3. Your analysis must me related to the dramatic methods Priestly uses and their impact on the audience then and now. You must also show an understanding of the historical and social context of the play and demonstrate how this might help shape the audience responses to the key scenes and to the play as a whole. 'An Inspector Calls' is a heart-rending, tragic play written by the author JB Priestly in 1944 but set in 1912. Priestly deliberately set this play in 1912, because in this period, society was very different from the...

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Analyse the dramatic techniques

Hobson's choice was written in 1914-15 by Harold Brighouse, as a method to raise the morale of troops during the First World War. Many aspects of Brighouses' unconventional childhood shows through in a lot of characters - Maggie in particular - as he explores many issues that would have occurred in the heart of nineteenth century Salford. He examines many real life crisis' in this comedy play and he spectacularly shows how bigger deal image and reputation was to people at the time when the play was set. Henry Horatio Hobson was an immensely patriotic, middle class working man, who lived in Salford, Manchester, during the early 1800's. He had an extremely definite idea on he believed the perfect family should...

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How R C Sheriff evokes a sense of pathos in the final scene of Journeys End

I think that Sherriff wrote journeys End in 1928 so that he wouldn't bring back too much bad memories from the war. If he had written it and released it just after the war, it would have caused too much controversy therefore not as much people would have read it. Journeys End was set in one place, the little dug out, this allows the audience to concentrate on what's going on at that place and not be distracted by other things in other places. In Journeys End, the characters use old English, Trotter, Maison, Hibbert and Raleigh use slang throughout the play. Osborne and Stanhope are quite posh and do not use slang. In the previous scenes Raleigh comes to Stanhope's company by...

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Journey’s End, what do you think makes a good officer

Journeys End is a play set in the trenches of World War One. It portrays the hardship and the suffering that the several officers in it had to endure, during the 3-4 days that are depicted in it. We get to know in quite a lot of depth the personalities and relationships that the men have with one another. Each officer is very different and individual in their up bringing and values concerning war and in life. The first officer we are acquainted with is Hardy, a company commander. Hardy is a very easy going officer who looks on the bright side of life, " One and two its with Maud and Lou;" he passes his time in the trenches singing...

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Journey’s End

Choose one character, imagine you are going to direct an actor playing this part. Write detailed advice about how you would want the part to be played, including specific references to lines and scenes and how you would expect an audience to react. In this essay I will be looking at the character Stanhope and how I think he should be played in 3 key scenes. When he try's to get the letter off Raleigh. These are when Stanhope confronts Hibbert about his plan to go down sick. Also the end scene where Raleigh dies. Stanhope is the main character in this play he in commanding an infantry company in the 1st world war. Stanhope makes his first appears in act1,...

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Love in Romeo and Juliet and Sonnets 18, 29 and 130

Shakespeare is reputed to be one of the most eloquent and influential writer, poet, actor and playwright in English Literature. Born in 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon to John and Mary Shakespeare, Shakespeare was part of a successful middle class family. He grew up in a time where poetry and acting was at an all-time high which helped towards him leading a very successful profession. Throughout his career, he wrote 36 plays and 154 sonnets, four of which will be delved into in this essay. These four are his play “Romeo and Juliet” and sonnets “18, 29 and 130”. These works of art are a few examples of how Shakespeare uses his clever wit, brilliant mind and his deep understanding of human emotions...

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Brutus always acts in an honourable manner and is right to kill Caesar

Literature has brought to surface some of the world’s greatest geniuses, most notably the renowned playwright, William Shakespeare. Shakespeare was born in 1594 in Stratford-upon-Avon. He produced numerous masterpieces throughout his lifetime, such as Julius Caesar. Julius Caesar was one of Shakespeare’s shortest plays and was first performed in 1601 in Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre. The plot revolves around Julius Caesar, an incredibly ambitious and triumphant leader who returns victoriously from war. Upon his return, it is suggested that his greatest ambition may come true and he will be announced as the ruler of Rome. However, it is obvious that the other characters in the play are not in favour of this decision and this ultimately leads to his death by the...

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How does Shakespeare portray human nature in ‘Julius Caesar’

In 'Julius Caesar', William Shakespeare instantly identifies the differences of status and class between the characters. He manages this by using different techniques such as 'prose' and 'blank verse'. The devices help differentiates the character's class by the way they speak. The low class - commoners - who are called "idle creatures" by the tribunes (higher class people), ignites rivalry between the two statuses - low and high. The result of this makes the tribunes appear as arrogant and disrespectful characters. As the scene continues, the plebeians (low class people) mocks the intelligence of the upper-class. The cobbler describes himself by using the pun of being a "mender of soles". This implies the mocking tone of the cobbler towards Murellus (a...

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Additional scene for Henrik Ibsen’s

Topic: Additional scene for Henrik Ibsen's "A Doll's House" occurring shortly after Nora has left. Torvald receives a visit from Krogstad. (Scene: Torvald is standing, staring at the door that Nora just walked out of. Behind him, the fireplace is slowly going out. The door knocks then opens, and Krogstad walks in and stands next to him.) Krogstad: Hello Torvald. How are you? Torvald: Fine...

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Julius Caesar is one of William Shakespeare’s plays

In this essay I will be examining the two funeral speeches; additionally I will be analysing the content of each; and I will be describing why Anthony was more successful than Brutus in swaying the crowd. The funeral speeches are made by Brutus and Anthony, both for the Caesar's funeral, I will quickly summarise the events that have happened leading up to Caesar's death; Caesar had recently killed Pompey; Cassius becomes worried that when Caesar does become leader of Rome, he will bring it to its knees; Cassius decides to make a conspiracy against Caesar, and begins to persuade people to join it. He manages to recruit Casca, Cinna, Metellus Cimber, Decius Brutus, Trebonius and Caius Ligarus; they then stab him...

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The ways in which leadership is presented in the play ‘Julius Caesar’

Leadership is one of the main themes presented in the play and is presented though the four characters: Cassius, Brutus, Mark Antony, and Caesar. Shakespeare calls the play Julius Caesar but I feel all the four characters have an equivalent part in the play. It is unusual for Shakespeare to kill the person who the play is named after so early on in the play, so it is very unexpected when 'Julius Caesar' is killed in Act Three Scene One. All these main characters share similar leadership traits. The four leaders that Shakespeare presents all have flaws but I think what Shakespeare is trying to illustrate to the audience is that if we mixed up all the good points of all...

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Consider the Two night scenes Julius Caesar (1.3, 2.1)

In the introductory scenes of Julius Caesar, Rome remains a democratic country. However, as the play progresses, rumour has it that Caesar is scheming to take a King's crown and rule the empire. Through manipulation and skill, his popularity increases. He falsely impresses upon the masses that he is modest and has no such desires for power and domination of the people of Rome. Cassius is immensely passionate to conserve Rome's democracy and he fears Caesar will rule over their freedom of speech. The Romans had expelled their monarchy centuries earlier. They enjoyed a democratic, republican system of politics. Due to his fear, he writes to Brutus, a leading figure, for support in a conspiracy against Caesar. Cassius is fully aware...

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