The dramatic genus of art has three main genres: tragedy, comedy, and drama in the narrow sense of the word.
The tragedy is a dramaturgic genre based on the tragic collision of heroic characters, its tragic outcome and full of pathetic.
The tragedy depicts reality as a cluster of internal contradictions; it reveals the conflicts of reality in an extremely strained form. This is a dramatic work, which is based on an irreconcilable life conflict leading to the suffering and death of the hero. Thus, in the confrontation with the world of crimes, lies, and hypocrisy, the bearer of advanced humanistic ideals, the Danish prince Hamlet tragically perishes. In the struggle that the tragic heroes lead, the heroic traits of the human character are revealed with great completeness. The genre of the tragedy has a long history. It originated from religious cult rites, was a stage play of myth. With the advent of the theater, the tragedy was formed as an independent genre of dramatic art.
Comedy is a kind of drama in which characters, situations, and actions are presented in ridiculous forms or imbued with comic overtones. Comedy originated back in ancient Greece. Art theorists have differently decided the question of the social purpose of the comedy. In the Renaissance, its role was limited to the correction of morals.
Tragicomedy refuses the moral absolute of comedy and tragedy. The worldview underlying it is related to the sense of the relativity of existing life criteria. Revaluation of moral principles leads to uncertainty and even the rejection of them; the subjective and objective beginnings are blurred; unclear understanding of reality may cause interest in it or complete indifference and even recognition of the illogicality of the world.
The modern tragicomedy does not have clear genre features and is characterized by a “tragicomic effect”, which is created by showing reality in both tragic and comic coverage, a mismatch between the hero and the situation; insolubility of internal conflict, a sense of the absurdity of being.
Drama as a genre appeared after the tragedy and comedy. Like tragedy, it tends to recreate acute contradictions. As a kind of dramatic genus, it became widespread in Europe during the Enlightenment and at the same time was conceived as a genre.
Drama is a play with an acute conflict, which, unlike the tragic one, is not so sublime; it is earthier, ordinary, and somehow solved. Specifics of the drama consist, firstly, in that it starts with modern, and not antique, material, and secondly, the drama asserts a new hero who rebels against his fate and circumstances.
The difference between drama and tragedy is in the essence of the conflict: the conflicts of the tragic plan are insoluble because their resolution does not depend on the personal will of the hero. The hero finds himself in a tragic situation involuntarily, and not because of a mistake he made. Dramatic conflicts, unlike the tragic ones, are not insurmountable. At the heart of them lies the clash of characters with such forces, principles, traditions that confront them from the outside. If the hero of the drama perishes, then his death is an act of voluntary decision, and not the result of a tragically hopeless situation.