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Drama

The dramatic genus of art has three main genres: tragedy, comedy, and drama in the narrow sense of the word.

Tragedy

The tragedy is a dramaturgic genre based on the tragic collision of heroic characters, its tragic outcome and full of pathetic.

The tragedy depicts reality as a cluster of internal contradictions; it reveals the conflicts of reality in an extremely strained form. This is a dramatic work, which is based on an irreconcilable life conflict leading to the suffering and death of the hero. Thus, in the confrontation with the world of crimes, lies, and hypocrisy, the bearer of advanced humanistic ideals, the Danish prince Hamlet tragically perishes. In the struggle that the tragic heroes lead, the heroic traits of the human character are revealed with great completeness. The genre of the tragedy has a long history. It originated from religious cult rites, was a stage play of myth. With the advent of the theater, the tragedy was formed as an independent genre of dramatic art.

Comedy

Comedy is a kind of drama in which characters, situations, and actions are presented in ridiculous forms or imbued with comic overtones. Comedy originated back in ancient Greece. Art theorists have differently decided the question of the social purpose of the comedy. In the Renaissance, its role was limited to the correction of morals.

Tragicomedy

Tragicomedy refuses the moral absolute of comedy and tragedy. The worldview underlying it is related to the sense of the relativity of existing life criteria. Revaluation of moral principles leads to uncertainty and even the rejection of them; the subjective and objective beginnings are blurred; unclear understanding of reality may cause interest in it or complete indifference and even recognition of the illogicality of the world.

The modern tragicomedy does not have clear genre features and is characterized by a “tragicomic effect”, which is created by showing reality in both tragic and comic coverage, a mismatch between the hero and the situation; insolubility of internal conflict, a sense of the absurdity of being.

Drama

Drama as a genre appeared after the tragedy and comedy. Like tragedy, it tends to recreate acute contradictions. As a kind of dramatic genus, it became widespread in Europe during the Enlightenment and at the same time was conceived as a genre.

Drama is a play with an acute conflict, which, unlike the tragic one, is not so sublime; it is earthier, ordinary, and somehow solved. Specifics of the drama consist, firstly, in that it starts with modern, and not antique, material, and secondly, the drama asserts a new hero who rebels against his fate and circumstances.

The difference between drama and tragedy is in the essence of the conflict: the conflicts of the tragic plan are insoluble because their resolution does not depend on the personal will of the hero. The hero finds himself in a tragic situation involuntarily, and not because of a mistake he made. Dramatic conflicts, unlike the tragic ones, are not insurmountable. At the heart of them lies the clash of characters with such forces, principles, traditions that confront them from the outside. If the hero of the drama perishes, then his death is an act of voluntary decision, and not the result of a tragically hopeless situation.

In describing the history of the English Language

  'stable-isotope analysis, which uses tooth enamel to identify the area in which a person grew up, suggests that there was no mass influx of population from the continent in the post-Roman period' (Pryor, 2004, p. 214). So when looking at the external evidence, how is it as proof of how the English language developed? I think that when viewed alone it gives a limited view of the language, but it does provide a context of what external events such as the Anglo-Saxon and Viking invasions. To understand how the English language evolved we need to look at how the evidence relates to another type of evidence, that of Internal evidence. Internal evidence shows how the language was actually spoken and how...

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Secrets by Tim Winton

"Secrets" by Tim Winton is about a young girl called Kylie who feels inadequate and lonely by her mother's lack of care and love and the missing father figure in her life. Kylie is having trouble dealing with her parents break up, she doesn't know why her dad has left, it was something she wasn't allowed to know so she feels alone, confused and unhappy, she also has to learn to accept the fact that another man has taken her dads place and that person is Philip. "Mum and Philip laughed or shouted and reminded her that Dad didn't live with them anymore", she doesn't really want to think of her dad gone. Kylie is constantly looking at her photo albums;...

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Several modern dramas

Several modern dramas have had a strong social impact shortly after production and/or publication. Discuss the reasons for this in TWO cases. In this essay I am going to study what social impact both Look Back in Anger by John Osborne and Waiting for Godot by Samuel Beckett had shortly after their production and publication. I will consider what theatrical conventions are or are not in each play, which could explain why people were drawn to the plays; as well as considering why the plays may be seen as controversial by some. Look Back in Anger and Waiting for Godot are unarguably placed at the beginning of a revolution in the British theatre. Both plays introduced new ideas and concepts into...

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Pulp fiction

  The credits of the film show that it is directed by Quentin Tarantino, who is famous for directing films such as Reservoir Dogs, Natural Born Killers and Jackie Brown. These films are well known for their brutally violent scenes, their portrayal of gangsters, their twisted humour and their originality. We can therefore expect something similar from Pulp Fiction, as Quentin Tarantino is known for this certain style of film. John Travolta (Swordfish), Samuel L. Jackson (Shaft) and Bruce Willis (Die Hard) are all shown to be stars of the film in the credits. They are all well-known actors and are famous for being in other violent gangster films, meaning we can expect them to play similar roles in Pulp Fiction. The...

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The Dalai Lama and Tibetan Questioner

  Gunn uses a metaphor on the first line of Stanza 2 comparing the cats to the film Ben Hur. This is very simple but effective, as it draws the link between the cats and the intense chariot race in the film. The enjambment used in the poem effectively helps the lines flow and continue momentum. The rhyme occurs on the first and last line, 'Fur/Hur', 'Withdraws/Paws', this helps unify the poem and repeat the sound that links one concept to the other and helps determine the structure of the poem. 'An Appeal to Cats in the Business of Love' seems to portray a mocking and hateful tone towards prostitution but is conveyed through cats. The language of this poem is much...

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Dramatic texts are written to be performed

Jack Davis' No Sugar is a prime example of a play that does not rely solely on dialogue to produce meaning. Through dramatic conventions, Davis is able to provide an insight of the suffering, oppression and marginalisation endured by the Aboriginal people in the post-colonial Australian society. The play focuses on the political dislocation of the Millimurra family, to a reserve in Moore River, as a government attempt of 'protection'. Without relying on dialogue, an effective amalgamation of dramatic devices, including staging, lighting, costume and sound, expose the disastrous effects of colonisation which resulted in the segregation and oppression of the Aboriginal population and the attempted annihilation of their culture. The staging of No Sugar is an effective technique to produce...

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Novel Heart of Darkness

The relationship between the living Conrad and his fictional character Marlow has been analysed repeatedly since the novel was published to try to establish how far the author actually identified with his creation. While it has often been suggested that the narrative "can be explained by reference to Conrad's own life"11, giving the novel an autobiographical emphasis, it could be argued that as a work of fiction the alignment of the author's own opinions with his principle character is irrelevant to the reading of the text itself. However, Marlow's role as a narrator reinforces exactly why the presence of Conrad in his writing is both necessary and historically relevant to the novel. Just as Conrad's own experiences on the Congo allowed...

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Do not go Gentle into that good nigh

The poem, "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night", is a poem about dying. Death takes on a new and intensely personal meaning for Thomas . Do you agree ? The poem, "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night", is a poem about dying. Death takes on a new and intensely personal meaning for Thomas: "The poem was his own valedictory; it spoke of his own refusal to give away to his deteriorating health and abuse of his peace of mind"(Sinclair 175). "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night" was composed in 1945 while his father, D. J. Thomas, was battling cancer. However, it was not published until after his father's death on December 16, 1952. Four of...

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The Holocaust was a time when countless Jews

The Holocaust was a time when countless Jews, and others deemed "undesirables" by Hitler and the Nazis, underwent the most cruel and inhumane persecution while trapped in concentration camps under the power of the Third Reich. Elie Wiesel's Night is an account of his unimaginably shocking experiences in and traveling to such concentration camps as only a young boy. While Wiesel does not specify in the book why he chose the title Night, it can be assumed that it is in reference to a number of Wiesel's most disturbing memories of events that occur at night. However, there also seems to be an underlying denotative meaning, as the Holocaust for Wiesel and his fellow prisoners is one long night of both...

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Elizebethan/Jacobean drama assignment one

For the purposes of this assignment I aim through exploring characterisation and language, themes and imagery to consider the significance of the selected extract to the overall action of the play. The lines included in the chosen extract are taken from Act III sc ii. and form part of the play within a play. The main protagonists are assembled to watch the play; it is Hamlet's plan that the performance will provoke Claudius into revealing his guilt. 'The play's the thing/ wherein I'll catch the conscience of the King' (II, ii lines 557-8) The character of the player queen can be compared and contrasted with that of Gertrude. Within the extract we see the player queen swearing that she will not...

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Creating dramatic tension

This type of short sentence structure is known as staccato rhythm. It's a means of creating dramatic tension. The reason behind this tension could be the connotation of "interruption that speeds up the conversation. " West and Zimmerman (1974:81) When someone doesn't finish a sentence because they're interrupted, this then hastens the next sentence, because they want to finish what they were saying. When people are speaking fast, especially Americans, they tend to substitute words in the dialogue. Aitchison and Lewis (2003) devised some theories about word substitution. "It's very characteristic of spontaneous discourse to avoid tedious repetition. " For example, words like "so" and "gonna" are common words in American slang that are difficult to detect because they are used...

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Heroes in the climatic scenes

Mulan is Disney's' thirty-sixth animated film and one of the first created after the death of Walt Disney meaning roles of women in the films could become stronger and more individual rather than the stereotypical weak and seductive woman. This is the synopsis of Mulan from the climax. During the climax the battle takes place, no one believes Mulan that the Hun are coming to attack the emperor because she has been found out as being a woman "hey, you're a girl again remember?" She forms a plan and releases the emperor whilst successfully killing Shan-Yu. The resolution occurs when Mulan receives the crest from the emperor and sword of Shang. Closure happens when she goes home to be honoured by her father and Shang comes for tea, there is also a...

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Tess of the D’Urbervilles

Setting is used powerfully in both 'Tess of the D'Urbervilles' and 'The Shipping News', and is, in my opinion, pivotal in rendering these two novels so resonant and beautiful. It is employed to expand and reinforce the moods of each phase of the narrative, as well as marking these different phases. The setting generates the atmosphere in which the characters exist, but more profoundly, it is used to symbolise and intensify the feelings and experiences of the protagonists. Although written at different times by authors with very different literary styles, and set in places of extreme contrast- tranquil, lush Wessex set against grimy, degenerate New York, then bleak Newfoundland - the novels share a remarkable degree of similarity. Both novels feature people...

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Sanskrit drama

On a basic level of meaning the song just implies the movement of bees around the crest of the sirisa flower which are worn by women. Nati gives an erotic note to this where the bee represents a passionate lover kissing his beloved. Structure of Sanskrit drama is identified in five stages, called Avasthas or states of mind in plot movement. The five Avasthas are “Aarambh or the beginning, Yatna or the effort (to bring out the rasa), Prapthyasha or the prospect, Niyatapti or the removal of obstacles, Phalagam which refers to obtaining the desired result” (Sanskrit drama – introduction). In Sakuntalam the linearity of this structure can be traced. Aarambh or the beginning is the Nandi or the invocation and the...

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An analysis of the dramatic structure

The Abhinjanasakunthalam is regarded as the very first Indian play to be translated into a western language. After the translation by Sir William Jones, there were about forty six translations in twelve European languages. Some English translations are “The Fatal Ring: an Indian drama” by Sir William Jones, “The Lost Ring: an Indian drama “by Sir Monier Monier Williams and “Sakuntala and other works” by Arthur W. Ryder. In the thesis by Tripti Mund , it is mentioned that the Abhinjanasakunthalam contains over two hundred verses. These verses are mostly uttered by the major characters. The language spoken by them is Sanskrit. The division of language spoken by the character is according to the social status. Vidushaka speaks Prakrit, Maharastri is...

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Analysis of Holiday Memory by Dylan Thomas

Some of Dylan Thomas' best-loved works are those pieces which evoke memories of his childhood. This is probably because every adult shares the common bond of experiencing childhood and owning personal memories which, although infinitely variable between us in their intensity and nature, help to form who we are as mature people. We all have our own sanitised nostalgia, wistful perhaps, sentimental certainly, so that when Thomas chronicles his own rose-coloured background, his work instantly strikes a chord within us all. Dylan Thomas mines this rich seam of his schoolboy and adolescent memories in many of his short stories and poetic works. Some of the most evocative of these recall his childhood holidays with relatives in Carmarthenshire. This is the case...

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A love story – composed as a play

Mum: li is a good girl but she is not suitable for you! She is so stubborn! She would quarry about tiny things with you. And she always could not be satisfied with what you have done for her. You have been with her for about one year, in the recent half-year you always fight! And there is no peace between you two! Ming: mum, although there are some problems between us, we love each other! We will solve all the trouble! Mum: can you? I think that when you have solved the old problems, the new one will come. Think about what have been happened in the recent half year? She even doesn't want you to play basketball in your free...

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Poem The Highwayman

Alfred Noyes creates tension in his poem, The Highwayman, as does Thomas Hardy in A Trampwoman's Tragedy. The immediate reaction to both poems is dancer which brings tension and suspense to the texts. This immediate reaction is created from the titles. The Higwayman brings a sense of criminal association, which raises questions over what is going to happen in the poem. Here suspense is created which quickly engages the reader. Thomas Hardy's poem has the same effect, A Trampwoman's Tragedy. 'Tragedy' creates expectations of possibly the downfall of the protagonist through death. This creates dancer, which brings tension and suspense. The progression of both poems is important in creating suspense and tension as it also creates expectations making the poem exciting using...

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Courses in Drama

On the other hand Nora after understanding that her husband is not who she thought he was acts very reasonably and very calmly. She decides to leave her husband that immediate moment and is not willing to spend one more night under the same roof as him. The fact that she takes her time to change to suitable clothes and is able to explain for her husband the reason behind leaving him, proves that unlike Miss Julie who decides (actually obeys what Jean orders her) in a moment of panic, she is completely conscious and aware of what she is doing. While Strindberg pessimistically suggests that once you made a mistake there is no way back and you are doomed...

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A Dolls House

Miss Julie which was published nine years after Ibsen’ realist play A Doll’s House, is an example of naturalist movement which tried to show that heredity, environment and social conditions rather than hard work shape an individual’s fate. Strindberg considering himself a naturalist and being an opponent of Ibsen’s ideas in A Doll’s House, wrote Miss Julie with a naturalist pessimism and rejected the idea of women being independent and liberating themselves from the unfortunate situations they were in. The physical worlds of the two plays are somehow the same. In both cases the space is an interior one and the scene is a single room fully described by the author. However Ibsen has used more props on the stage in...

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The poem works

The poem works as what can be said to be an allegorical level and arguably, it can be linked to Keats's own feelings about women and love who was known to desire women but was also terrified of the dependence and commitment they brought. Keats opens 'Isabella' with great exclamations as he introduces his two protagonists, "fair...

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Believable dramatic

Both John Thomas and Tony Kytes are daring characters who try to manipulate women around them. Compare and contrast the two men with particular reference to their attitude towards women. Tony Kytes is the main character of 'Tony Kytes, The Arch-Deceiver', which is a story written by Thomas Hardy in the 1890s - contained in his book titled 'Life's Little Ironies.' (1894) (The story is set in the Midlands during the First World War.) Thomas Hardy was an influence to 20th Century writers, and as recognition of his work his ashes were buried in Poet's corner in Westminster Abbey, and his heart buried in his wife's grave - Emma. DH Lawrence was obsessed with honesty, particularly with regard to sexual matters. By writing...

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The Authors Create Tension and Suspense

In short stories, they often make you assume things that are going to happen, as the writer has a limited space to make it a short story. Short stories tend to have a very clear structure- beginning, middle and end. Children are keen on reading short stories, as they are not complex and small number of characters, which make it easier for them to read. Adults also like reading them because they are compact and engaging.  'A Terribly Strange Bed' and 'The Whole Town's Sleeping' are both classified as horror that the writers ensure the readers will have a horrific moment during the story. Both stories have a similar theme of expressing tension but are subtly different.  'A Terribly Strange Bed' is a...

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Oranges an autobiographical novel

Veronicas' life is described in the eyes of a friend Okeke. He felt sorry for veronica when they were both children and talks of the difficulties in her life, her family was particularly poor and talks of her suspicious and brutal father, he would lie awake listening to her beatings. Okeke won a scholarship to university; he felt a large amount of guilt leaving veronica trapped in the village, which offered no opportunity and a long life of drudgery. Veronica seemed to have a strong sense of family and was totally accepting her fate. Many years past and Okeke had been successful in his studies and returned with work to his home village, he was shocked by he squalor and disease. He...

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Ritual into a drama

Might we find answer to the question from rituals that are still present? Might there be a piece of theatre that has turned into a ritual as time passed by? Perhaps marriage, ritual that is still performed widely and in various ways in all different religions. It may have been just a piece of performance of two people joining and making a family, but by the time it has become more important and it has been developed into a ritual and simultaneously gained its religious context? The slaughter of twelve bigs and a bull during carnival, in Venice became ritualized into an elaborate allegory of justice and domination. In this case performance gained more contexts and became a ritual just like...

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Realistic drama

On a simple level, realism is the best way to show the fundamental aspects of reality. We meet, we love, we eat, we talk, we have pictures on our walls, and sometimes our shoelaces are untied. Do we really need drama to show us these things? Would not a mirror turned on the world produce the same effect? Hundreds of writers have argued over the years that modern drama must be realistic drama. August Strindberg, considered one of the greatest of the realistic school, wrote both a renowned play in this style, Miss Julie, as well as a manifesto on realism in its preface. At the same time, however, other authors discovered the problems with that method of drama and have...

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Language Loss – Language Revival

I must confess that this is actually the first time I followed a professor's advice to write the text's introduction at the very end of the work on the paper. Now I know that this is definitely the right way to do it, because this approach gives me the opportunity to give the recipient a guideline how to read the term paper, so to speak. The text starts with a section which could be seen as a rather bold experiment, especially for a student. Although there is a vast amount of secondary literature on the issue of language loss/revival available, I was unable to find a simple explanation for the correlations between language, culture and ethnicity. So I decided to "bite...

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Actors acting in a drama

"Media Imperalism" occurs when one society's media dominate another country's culture.1 The medium of television is a prime example to illustrate the effect of media imperialism. Since television production depends largely on advertising revenue, its content is determined by profits and does not necessarily promote Canadian culture or national identity. Even the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) channel relies on advertising for approximately 25% of its revenue. While the United States is the world's biggest exporter of television, it only imports 2 percent in foreign programming. The dominance of the U.S. television industry is a global phenomenon, and Canada represents an extreme example of subjection to media imperialism.1 As the average Canadian in 1993 spent 22.8 hours a week watching television, one...

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Continue to remind society

According to Linden Lewis, the work on masculinity in the Caribbean is underdeveloped but what emerges from the literature is a characterization of men and masculinity which views the Caribbean male as powerful, exceedingly promiscuous, derelict in his parental responsibilities, absent from the household and when present fails to take any responsibility for domestic chores. The Caribbean male also comes across in this literature as possessing a propensity for female battering and a demonstrated valorization of alcohol and drug consumption. While this might be true for some Caribbean men, it is obviously not true for all. The Caribbean male is also defined in terms of the distinction between hegemonic masculinity and other subordinated forms of masculinity. Hegemonic masculinity refers to the...

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Maggie Greene

Ultimately, they make Andrea downright irritable and hostile. It is important to note that, as they did with Lori, the writers of “The Walking Dead” illustrated Andrea’s weaknesses through a male contrast. Specifically, the immature Andrea is paired with Dale, a stable man. In many ways, Dale is a father-like figure who is consistently kind to Andrea. But notwithstanding Dale’s kindness, the writers cause Andrea to treat Dale cruelly. She repeatedly manipulates Dale’s feelings, knowing that he views her as a daughter and taunts him for being a weak person and trying to take care of her. Contrastingly, the writers consistently portray Dale as a victim, a caring father figure who provides for Andrea, even though she consistently rejects his noble...

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