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Albrecht Durer

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Albrecht Durer biography


Albrecht Durer (1471-1528)

Albrecht Durer was born in Nuremberg on May 21, 1471. His father moved from Hungary and was known as the best jeweler. The family had eighteen children; the future artist was born the third. Being the son of a city dweller who had many children, he had to feed himself from an early age, and care for food did not leave him all his life. In the years of his celebrity, Durer was not a poor man and stories about this arose from a misunderstanding. At the same time, his position was very unenviable compared to the luxury in which the famous Italian artists lived. He was a man of genius; he was very educated and able to observe nature. His imagination was rich, and his drawing was extremely good.


Durer from early childhood helped his father in a jewelry workshop, and he had great hopes in regard to his son. But the dreams did not come true. Albrecht was sent the Nuremberg artist Michael Wolgemut at the age of 15. Wohlgemuth was not only an excellent artist but also skillfully worked on the engraving on wood, copper and perfectly passed his knowledge to the diligent student.

The First Picture

Having finished his studies in 1490, Durer wrote his first painting “Portrait of the Father” and went on a journey in order to learn from other masters and gain new impressions. He visited many cities in Europe raising his level in the visual arts. During this period, the artist was married to a girl from a wealthy family by prior arrangement with him and her fathers. This event allowed him to raise his status and get capital to open his own business. Durer began to draw engravings and soon began to acquire success and popularity. Working tirelessly, he tried to expand the narrow and crafty horizons of the then German artists.

Fame and Popularity

Durer was friends with the most prominent humanists in Europe. Among its customers were rich burghers, German princes, and emperor Maximilian I, for whom he, among other major German artists, performed drawings with a pen to the prayer book (1515). In a series of portraits of the 1520s, Dürer recreated the type of man of the Renaissance era, imbued with a proud consciousness of the self-worth of one’s own self, charged with intense spiritual energy and practical purposefulness.

A self-portrait of Albrecht Durer at 26 years old wearing gloves is particularly interesting. Hands of a model lying on the pedestal are a well-known technique for creating the illusion of proximity between the portrayed and the viewer. Durer could learn this visual trick on the example of such works as Mona Lisa. He saw her while traveling to Italy. The landscape that is seen in the open window is a feature typical of northern artists, such as Jan Van Eyck and Robert Campen.

The glory of Albrecht Durer was growing every year; his works were respected and recognizable. Having met Maximilian I, the artist showed two portraits of his predecessors painted in advance. The Emperor was delighted with the paintings and immediately ordered his portrait, but he could not pay immediately, so he began to pay Durer a decent award every year. When Maximilian died, the premium was no longer paid, and the artist went on a journey to restore justice, but he did not succeed. And at the end of the trip, Albrecht fell ill with an unknown disease, possibly with malaria, and suffered from seizures for the remaining years.

Last Years

His last years of life Durer worked as a painter, one of the important paintings is “The Four Apostles.” Researchers of the works of the famous artist come to disagreements, someone sees four temperaments in this picture, and someone talks about Durer’s respond to controversy in religion. But Albrecht took his thoughts to the grave on this matter. Eight years after the disease, Durer died on April 6, 1528, in the city, where he was born.

Features of Creativity

The content of the formidable raging era, its ideological achievements were deeply reflected in the work of this artist.  Durer generalized the realistic quest of predecessors and contemporaries into an integral system of artistic views and thereby laid the foundation for a new stage in the development of German art. The inquisitiveness of the mind, the multiplicity of interests, the striving for the new, the courage of great undertakings, the intensity and breadth of life’s perception place him next to the great Italians. An attraction to the ideal harmonious beauty of the world, the desire to find a way to the cognition of the rational laws of nature permeates his creativity. Feeling agitated at the turbulent events of his time, Dürer was aware of the discrepancy with its classical ideals and created deeply national typical images of the people of his country, filled with inner strength and doubt, willed energy and meditation. Observing the reality, Durer was convinced that living nature could not be put into classical formulas. His creativity is full of striking contrasts. Rationality and feeling, the desire for monumental and attachment to detail are combined with it.

Living on the verge of two eras, Durer reflected in his art the tragedy of social crises that ended in the defeat of the peasant war. His creativity determined the leading direction of the art of the German Renaissance. His influence on contemporary artists was great; it penetrated to Italy and France. The creativity of Durer is imbued with the spirit of rebellion, desperate frenzy or rejoicing, high incandescence and excruciating expression of alternately flashing, dying, flaming color and light. Being a talented artist and engraver, for the whole biography, he created a lot of excellent engravings.

Durer’s drawings are very diverse both in terms of topics and ways of performing. Copper engravings and drawings on wood have spread throughout Europe and contributed to the development of these types of art. He had many good students so that the fame of his school lasted long after him.

Hist117 chapt 11 & 12

the english peasents revolt, like other popular uprisings of the fourteenth century, had its fundamental origins in the economic, social, and political consequences of the black death. as a result of the depopulation in europe caused by the black death europes massively depleted ecological resources recovered. women who migrated to cities after the black death found their opprotunities greatly expanded the social mobility of the fourteenth century was made possible largely due to the black death the black deathand ensuing social unrest resulted in noble families growing wealthier than they had been a "noble" in europe was defined as an individual who lived according to a particular lifestyle just as boccaccio wrote about a group of people telling stories to one another while sitting out the black death, _______ wrote about a...

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gateways to art 3.6

which of tho following terms means rebirth and is used to describe an artistic movement characterized by renewed interest in the classical world of Greece and Rome? renaissance which of the following terms refers to the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries in western europe a period when there was a general increase in motion and emotion in artworks? Baroque Which of the following terms is used to describe the mid- to late-sixteenth-century style of art that elongated human figures and elevated grace as an ideal? Mannerism Giorgio Vasari wrote which of the following texts? The lives of the most excellent painters, sculptors, and architects Giorgio Vasari believed that ________. All of the other answers Filippo Brunelleschi has been widely regarded as the first Renaissance ________. Architect Masaccio used which of the following...

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Art Appreciation 2.3

True True or False?: Intaglio is a printmaking process. Mesopotamia Images were first reproduced by printmaking in this ancient culture. woodcut A relief print created out of a solid wood block is called a _______. create the block and cut the lines into it For his print Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, Albrecht Durer hired expert craftsmen to __________. Ukiyo-e This style of printmaking means "pictures of the floating world" and was practiced by the Japanese artist Kitagawa Utamaro. three If an artist were to create a woodblock print with three different colors, how many separate relief would he or she need? Emil Nolde This twentieth century German artist used the natural grain and splintering of the woodblock to make his work Prophet more expressive. intaglio This term for plate printmaking means "cut into" in...

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art history 22, 23

Who was martin luther and what was his goal when he posted his ninety-five theses in Wittenburg? German theologian. His goal was spiritual issues, but his ideas ultimately led to the splitting of Christendom. What medium was used for Cranach's Allegory of Law and Grace? Wood Why was the wood as a medium approved by Protestants when large altarpieces were not? they viewed it as useful devotional aids. they were vehicles to educate the masses. they were also least expensive. Who painted the Isenheim Altarpiece? matthias Grunewald List 3 characteristics of Matthias Grunewald's style. a. emphacis on suffering b. effective use of color c. meaningful What subject is depicted on the center panel of the Isenheim Altarpiece? Crucifixion What was On the exterior wings of the isenheim altarpiece? Anunnciation, angelic concert, madonna and child, and...

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History Chapter 17.2 Assessment…

Utopia Thomas Moore wrote Utopia an ideal place an imaginary land William Shakespear Famous writer, wrote plays Johann Gutenburg Inventor of the Gutenberg press produced books quickly Which of the events listed do you think was most important? I think the gutenberg press because it could produce books much faster than a person could and it could replicate religious works which many people could afford and buy at low costs. How did Albrecht Durer's work reflect the influence of the Italian Renaissance? Becasue he was the only artist who drew things as they really were and he drew living things. He was one of the only artists who drew animals such as his famous painting "yonug hare" What was one way the Renaissance changed society? Its art becasue artists started to...

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Art 1301 – Quiz 4

The medium of the artwork which decorates the Sistine Chapel ceiling is ________. A. tempera on panel B. marble C. fresco D. stone relief E. oil on canvas C. fresco What concepts of beauty are conveyed in the sculpture of a head, believed to represent a king of Ife? A. all of the other answers B. graceful and refined facial features C. elegant lines, delicate features, and a composed demeanor D. the community's core values of composure, wisdom, and power E. both internal attributes as well as external appearance A. all of the other answers This intaglio printing process involves carefully and cleanly scoring a metal plate. A. engraving B. mezzotint C. etching D. aquatint E. drypoint A. engraving This red chalk was used by Renaissance artists, including Michelangelo for his Studies for the Libyan Sibyl. A. arriccio B. sgraffito C. intonaco D. cinnabar E. sanguine E....

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Review part 1 (10 a day)

Albrecht Durer (Renaissance) Master of woodcut and first Northern European artist to master techniques of the Italian Renaissance such as proportion, perspective, and modeling. Some of his famous works include St. Jerome; Knight, Death, and Devil; and Four Apostles. He was well versed in classicism and humanism and was the first to create printed illustrations in books. Johann Tetzel (Reformation) Pope Leo X commissioned this monk to raise money for the Catholic Church. He went throughout northern Germany selling indulgences, which were official ablutions for sins. Such actions infuriated Martin Luther and other critics of the Church and helped to spark the Reformation. Edict of Nantes (Protestant Reformation) King Henry IV of France granted Huguenots, French Protestants, limited political freedoms and freedom of worship in...

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World Cultures 1.2

Complete the Bible with the printing press in 1455 Johann Gutenberg It transformed Europe Print Press The Northern Renaissance began in the city of Flanders From Flanders ideas spread to...

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Art Appreciation ART 160

A representational work of art ________. depicts objects or people so that we can recognize them Examples of graphic art include: a. posters b. advertising c. signage d. social media e. Each answer shown is correct e. Each answer shown is correct Katsushika Hokusai is said to have used a live chicken's footprints in a painting that communicated ________. the sensations of a fall day by the river Allan Houser's work Reverie is representational because: it includes two shapes that we recognize as faces Art is sometimes censored by the authorities because: a. it offends people's religious beliefs b. its sexual content seems pornographic c. it carries a political message that worries the authorities d. its moral values seem improper e.Each answer shown is correct Each answer shown is correct Which of the following statements is untrue? a. the...

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Art History (CH 7)

John the Baptist The figure that stands to the right of Christ in the Crucifixion by Grunewald is identified as Gospel of Matthew The painting of the Blind Leading the Blind is taken from the Martin Luther Albrecht Durer and Grunewald both became followers of Albrecht Durer The greatest printmaker of the Northern Renaissance was Venice Albrecht Durer made two trips to the Italian city of Crucifixion The Isenheim Altarpiece includes an enormous graphic account of the Henry VIII One of the important portraits painted during the Northern Renaissance was of the English king Isenheim Altarpiece The most important painting attributed to Grunewald is the woodcut The medium perfected by Albrecht Durer to illustrate the Apocalypse was watercolors Durer exhibited his masterful skill of rendering and his clarity of vision through preparatory colored light In the Resurrection panel Grunewald shows his...

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ART 115: Test 1 , Part 2

Francesco Mazzola, otherwise known as __________, painted in a manner calculated to intrigue viewers. Parmigianino The use of tempera gave way to __________ painting technique in the High Italian Renaissance. Oil A full-scale drawing called a __________ is a model for a major painting, tapestry or other two-dimensional work of art. Cartoon Recent scholarship suggests that Titian's "Venus" of Urbino (21-28) was meant to represent_____________. a newly married woman Michelangelo's Pietà (Fig. 21-9) was installed as a tomb monument in __________. Old St. Peter's _________________ is one of the few women who became a sculptor. Properzia de' Rossi Which artist was NOT commissioned by Pope Julius II to help him realize his vision of a revitalized Rome as the center of a new Christian architecture? Leonardo da Vinci Popular among Venetian painters in the...

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Humanities Chapters 7&8

"The Black Death" describes the pandemic caused by Bubonic Plague Of the Black Death, it is correct to say that it took the lives of at least one third of Europe's population The Magna Carta was significant in the rise of constitutional monarchy in England The Hundred Years' War was instigated by English claims to French lands and the French crown The English withdrew from France, ending the Hundred Years' War, after facing a revitalized French army under the leadership of Joan of Arc Ars nova is the name given to the expressive new musical style of the 14th century "The Great Schism" refers to the rivalry between 2 contesting popes The new realism in the arts if the 14th century is found in the All these answers are correct Which of the following writers provided...

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albrecht durer

Where was he from? Germany He lived from what years? 1471-1528 The Renaissance lasted roughly what years? 1400-1600 Italian Renaissance artists painted a lot of large frescos. Durer created a lot of what? Small prints He was the 3rd of how many children? 18 he worked with his father as a goldsmith and later became an apprentice to whom? a printmaker and book illustrator by what age was he a skilled artist? 13 when he went to a local painter's workshop at age 15, a few years later how was he compared to his teacher? better what did Durer become the greatest whats? wood block artist and engraver how is wood block made? by carving lines carefully from a block of wood and then printing the raised surface that remains.. What did he do to the art of wood blocking? he...

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CHAPTER 10 1-15 What in the Sutton Hoo burial ceremony did Christianity forbid? Cremation What advantages did feudalism offer the nobles Military support and goods or produce What advantages did feudalism offer the fiefs? Use of land and protection Why did Europe's Christians embark on pilgrimages? To atone for their sins What pilgrimage destination was most difficult to reach? Jerusalem Why was the wergeld (life-price) of a thane higher than that of a thrall? Thralls were slaves What literary work describes a scene similar to the Sutton Hoo discovery? Beowulf Why is Beowulf considered an English poem even through its events take place in Scandinavia? It is written in Old English Why does Beowulf travel from Denmark to Sweden? To kill the monster Grendel What was the main task of Christian missionaries in England? To transfer the people's allegiance from their...

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Chapter 17.2

the northern renaissance begins - population in northern eurppe began to recover - end of the hundered years war - rulers became patrons, not ony merchants - war in italy caused artists to leave northern writers - Thomas More: Utopia- an imaginary land, an ideal land William Shakespear - masterful command of the English language and deep understanding of human beings Johan Gutenberg - printing press 1440 AD - Gutenberg bible was his first Copy - made books cheap - he was from Germany the legacy of the Renaissance Changes in Art - Techniques and styles of Greece/Rome - Individuals and nature portrayed in more realistic ways - secular as well as religious works created - writers used vernacular to express ideas - arts praised individual achievement Changes in Society - printing...

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West Civ – Final Chapter Test

Martin Luther's family background was the German peasantry, his father leased mines Martin Luther first entered the University of Erfurt to study law Martin Luther joined the __________ monastic order. Augustinian As a young monk, Luther was fearful that he could never do enough good deeds to deserve salvation Luther believed that works of piety and charity were the natural outgrowth of justification and Christian devotion Luther's Ninety-five Theses objected primarily to the idea that people could skip confessing their sins if they bought an indulgence Luther's religious reforms did not include denying that Christ was truly present at the Lord's Supper One reason why Luther was able to win great public support for his position was the introduction of printed pamphlets to disseminate his views Following his own advice to other former priests and monks,...

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HUM2210 Final Exam Study Guide – UCF Dr. Viau

Rinascita "Rebirth" in Italian Filippo Brunelleschi -Competition for Duomo of Florence's baptistery doors -Used multiple pieces of bronze -Focus on Isaac -Lost; gave up sculpting forever Dante Aligheri -Medieval Italian writer/poet -Most famous for his "Divine Comedy" - 3 books: paradiso, inferno, purgatorio -Vernacular -Records the travels of the Christian soul from Hell to Purgatory and finally to Salvation -Inferno: 9 descending rings of sinners undergoing punishment, each more gruesome than the one before (1st one is limbo) Boccaccio's The Decameron -Giovanni Boccaccio -Italian writer that lived through the plague -"Work of Ten Days": collection of 100 framed prose tales about Florence during the plague -Vernacular -Brand of literary realism -Satire of the church -Stores express realities of life in a way classical tales of medieval chivalry could only imitate Duomo of Florence -Competition to see who would create...

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Chapter 17 Question cards

how did the merchant class in northern Italy influence the renaissance They patroned the arts how did art change during the renaissance Inspiration from Greek/Romans, Perspective, Humanism, Realism, Individualism, how did northern european rulers encourage the spread of renaissance idea Through the funding of public works, especially art, by which the public could appreciate new ideas. how does Albrecht durer's work reflect renaissance idea Albrecht Durer produced woodcuts and engravings that became influential. He also painted using realism and showing his subjects as their natural selves. what did christian humanist set out to do and what method did they use They set out to learn by the power of reason (figuring stuff out using your brain instead of blindly following the church) and they used the "Scientific Method" what act...

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Albrecht Durer

What year was Durer born in? 1471 Where was he born? Nuremberg, Germany Who was he the son of? A Hungarian imigrant What was his fathers occupation? A goldsmith At what age did he become an apprentice? 15 What country did he move to? Italy What two artists did he study? Leonardo de Vinci and Michael Angelo Who were his three patrons? Emperor Maximilian, Charles V and Freddrick of Saxony What did he paint for his patrons? Their portraits What did he also paint? Self portraits What was his most famous self portrait? Painted when he was 26, one of the first self portraits by a renaissance artists What does he wear in the paintings? Nice renaissance clothes What other paintings did he do? Landscape and Nature e.g "Young Hare" What did he put on all of his paintings? His initials What other things did he make? Engravings e.g...

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Art Appreciation Midterm

Stolen art loses much of its value because: lacking good title and proper provenance prevents its resale What can we NOT conclude from a formal analysis of David Hockney's Portrait of an Artist (Pool with Two Figures)? . the man in the red jacket is the artist's ex-lover Over the years, public opinion of the Watts Towers has varied, but people have never thought that: it is a perfect example of the Neoclassical style Katsushika Hokusai is said to have used a live chicken's footprints in a painting that communicated ________. the sensations of a fall day by the river Marc Quinn's Self, a self-portrait made from frozen blood, is created in ________ scale. life-sized Allan Houser's work Reverie is representational because: it includes two shapes that we recognize as faces Art...

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The Renaissance in The North

Unlike in Renaissance Italy, patronage of artists in the northern cities came from what source? The city's prosperous merchant class Why did Antwerp overtake Bruges in importance by the middle of the fifteenth century? Because slit had built up Bruge's canal systems How could the message of Hieronymus Bosch's Garden of Earthly Delights be best interpreted? A world without sins, Matthias Grünewald's Isenheim Altarpiece underscores what northern European preoccupation? Death What trend in German culture did artist Albrecht Dürer represent? Humanism; Self-Portrait What is a particularly distinctive feature of Robert Campin's Mérode Altarpiece? It is easily portable; Skillfully blended colors created palpable textures Heinrich Krämer's Malleus Maleficarum (The Hammer of Witches) set forth what attitude about women? Women are secondhand; subjects Women to a secondary status In the Ghent Altarpiece, Jan van Eyck's depiction of Adam...

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Ch 17-2, The Northern Renaissance

What factors lead to the beginning of the renaissance in Northern Europe? 1. Population began to grow after bubonic plague declined. 2. Hundred year war between France & England ended. 3. Urban merchants became wealthy enough to give patronages to artists. 4. England & France had strong monarchs, sponsored artist by supporting and purchasing their works. 5. Humanist ideas spread to north after scholars, students, and merchants visited Italy. What happened after the end of the plague in 1450 and the Hundred Years' War in 1453? Populations began to grow, Cities grew rapidly By the late 1400's where did the Renaissance spread? Northern Europe - especially England, France, Germany and Flanders (part of France & Netherlands). What did the works of DaVinci, Michelangelo and Raphael and Renaissance writers accomplish? 1. Demonstrated...

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AA Printmaking 2.3

Printmaking Known as the democratic medium, revolutionized the dissemination of information through the mass production of images and text. Relief Printing Prints that are made by carving away material from the matrix, often made of wood or linoleum, to create negative space around an image. Image is on higher plane that the negative space, making it possible to roll ink onto the surface using a hand-roller, or brayer. Three If an artist were to create a woodblock print with three different colors, how many separate relief blocks would he or she need? An Edition A group of prints that are identical and produced in a limited number is called_____. China Silkscreen printing uses a stencil process, and was first developed in ________ during the Sung Dynasty. Emil Nolde This twentieth-century German artist...

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ap art quiz

intaglio Which of the following is a printmaking process? an impression When a printmaker rolls ink onto a raised surface and presses a piece of paper onto it, the resulting image on the paper is known as ________. Mesopotamia Images were first reproduced by printmaking in this ancient culture. China The earliest existing printed artworks on paper were created in this culture. relief This type of printmaking is done by carving away part of a block in order to leave a raised surface that can be inked and printed. woodcut A relief print created out of a solid wood block is called ________. True If you were to carve away the surface of a woodblock, removing the shape of a star, then ink the block and make a print, you would be left...

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world history chapter 10 multiple choice

The artists of the Renaissance focused on? Humanistic concerns why is Albrecht Durer often compared to Leonardo da Vinci? he had wide ranging interests the development of printing in Europe led to? increase literacy Luther criticized the Roman Catholic for? sealing indulgences what were some of the results of the Catholic reformation? witch hunts Copernicus proposed what revolutionary idea? that the earth travels around the sun what helped contribute to the birth of the Renaissance in Italy? a wealthy and powerful merchant class why did the Renaissance occur later in northern Europe than it did in Italy? the black death delade economic growth in northern Europe What were some effects of the printing revolution in the 1500s? the spread of new ideas Luther believed what about faith? that salvation could be achieved through faith alone How did Henry VIII react...

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Art 2.3

Which of the following is a printmaking process? intaglio When a printmaker rolls ink onto a raised surface and presses a piece of paper onto it, the resulting image on the paper is known as ________. an impression The earliest existing printed artworks on paper were created in this culture. relief A relief print created out of a solid wood block is called ________. a woodcut For his print Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, Albrecht Dürer hired expert craftsmen to ________. create the block and cut the lines into it During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries there were many masters of woodblock printing in this country, whose work reflected the lifestyle of an urban cultural class. Japan If an artist were to create a woodblock print with three different colors, how many...

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Form and Idea 3

vanishing point masaccio was one of the first artists to use one-point perspective. in his large fresco, trinity, the ___________ is centered in the middle of the horizon line, directly ahead of the viewer ideal human proportions in The School of Athens Raphael created figures using the _________ ______________ ___________ developed by the ancient greeks birds wing in leonardo divans design for a flying machine he used a ________ as inspiration a cartoon when raphael was preparing to paint his fresco The School of Athens he did a large drawing called ________ to help place the design on the wall perforated to transfer the design of The School of Athens to the wall, Raphael ___________ a large drawing, then used powdered charcoal dust to leave an impression of the...

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Albrecht Dürer, Saint Michael Fighting the Dragon, from the Apocalypse series

what medium is this work? Breifly explain how pictures like this are made. Why is this significant at this point in history? Woodcut. Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface while the non-printing parts are removed, typically with gouges. The areas to show 'white' are cut away with a knife or chisel, leaving the characters or image to show in 'black' at the original surface level. The block is cut along the grain of the wood (unlike wood engraving where the block is cut in the end-grain). In Europe beechwood was most commonly used; in Japan,...

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Humanities 1301 Quiz 8

When the papacy returned to Rome in 1420, popes restored the city in an effort to move visitors with its extraordinary sights. In his Pietà, Michelangelo presents Mary as young and beautiful instead of middle-aged to make her a timeless image of purity and chastity. According to the ancient Roman Vitruvius, the ideal human body should be eight times the size of the human head. Donato Bramante applied the Vitruvian circle inscribed with a square to his church designs to symbolize the perfection of God. The people were eager to buy the indulgences that Julius II sold to finance the St. Peter's project, because they wanted to shorten their stay in purgatory. Michelangelo was commissioned to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Pope ( Sixtus IV.) Michelangelo placed The Drunkenness of Noah...

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World History (Renaissance)

Europe's economy grew after the Black Death—since the plague didn't damage farmland, buildings, ships, machines, or gold, people could use these things to grow and make new products. TRUE After Marco Polo's soldiers made the Silk Road safe again, trade between China and Europe increased. FALSE Much of the trade between Asia and Europe at the time was organized by Italian merchants. TRUE The four Italian cities of Rome, Florence, Milan, and Pisa became huge trading centers and played important roles in world trade. FALSE Italian trade cities were important because they either had ports on the Mediterranean Sea or were manufacturing centers. TRUE Italy was a unified country with an oligarchic government made up of the heads of rich merchant families from each city. FALSE The Medici family in Florence used...

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