Contemporary adeptness as a cultural phenomenon has relatively recently become the subject of theoretical research, in which an attempt is made to comprehend and embrace the disjointed tendencies of the adeptness of the last decades with a consistent notion. This phenomenon continues to raise questions for researchers, without consideration of which it is difficult to analyze. The main one is the definition of the term “modern art.”
The term “contemporary art” is blurred, applied both to the adeptness of the last decades and to the phenomena of an adeptness of the second half of the XIX century. The difficulty of its interpretation is mainly due to the fact that the process of the formation of modern adeptness as a direction has not been completed, so we can only talk about forms, methods, details and structural elements of this phenomenon.
Modern adeptness has more than a century and a half history; its beginning is associated with the appearance of impressionism. This artistic direction first openly violated the pictorial canons of realistic adeptness and offered a new approach to artistic creativity, based not on naive copying of nature, but on the transmission of a living subjective impression of it. Approximately at the same time, the invention of photography took place, which influenced the further development of painting in the most radical way.
The chronology of “modern adeptness,” according to researchers, should start from 1945, when the movement of the meditated adeptness scene from Paris to New York occurred. If to consider this issue from the point of view of the evolution of art, the most logical turning point is the emergence of conceptual adeptness in the early 1960s. Nevertheless, the crisis point in the development of modernism was the conflict between abstract and figurative adeptness, which continued to apply traditional methods of painting and sculpture. In addition, almost at the same time, there is a transition from modernism to postmodernism. In the form in which contemporary adeptness exists today, it begins to form in the 1960s and 1970s, when artists were looking for an adequate alternative to modernism in the form of new artistic practices: performance, happening, conceptual adeptness and minimalism.
Modern adeptness of photography transcends through limitations, turning from photography into art. It admits techniques that are outside the classical shooting. It can be both the latest methods, for example, computer graphics, and very old methods of processing, materials or devices such as coarse-grained photo materials, silver bromide photographic paper, monocular lenses, toning, and others.
Modern architecture is a motley, diverse world. The main feature is that the architecture developed in parallel with the development of modern construction. The best architects-builders were also theorists-researchers of architecture. Very often their innovative ideas at first did not find support and were realized in individual buildings, and only then they received universal recognition and dissemination. This meant a new round of the development of art, and the architects were the creators of new styles and trends in art.
The most influential movements of “modern art” are the following.
It is a trend in the adeptness of the last third of the XIX-early XX century, which arose in France. Impressionism claimed the beauty of the real world, emphasizing the freshness of the first impression, the variability of the surrounding. Priority attention to the solution of purely pictorial problems reduced the traditional idea of drawing as the main component of the work of art.
This is an avant-garde trend in the French adeptness of the 20th century. Fauvists were characterized by a tendency to the laconic expressiveness of forms and intensive color solutions, the search for impulses in primitive art, the adeptness of the Middle Ages and the East.
This is the direction in the first sentence of the twentieth century. The placid language of cubism was based on deflation and the spread of ideas on a geomagnetic flaw, the plastic shift of the form.
This is a literally-inspired direction in the design of the 1910-x years. The main idea of futurism was the destroying of cultural stereotypes since this direction considered itself as an adeptness of the future.
This is the direction in art, the emotional focus of which is a person with a wounded, sick soul. In the works of expressionists, the perspective, plans, proportions, color, and light arbitrarily change and are exaggerated for the sake of enhancing expression.
This is an avant-garde nihilistic movement that originated in Switzerland during the First World War. This style arose as a reaction to the horrors of war, the senselessness of destroying human lives. Dadaists considered rationalism and logic the main causes of all armed conflicts, so the fundamental values of their artistic movement were cynicism, lack of aesthetics, denial of standards, irrationality, and disappointment.
Surrealism expressed the idea of existence beyond the limits of the real, the absurd, the unconscious; the dreams become especially important here. One of the characteristic methods of the surrealist artist is the removal from conscious creativity.
(8) Abstract Expressionism
This is the direction of abstract adeptness in which free abstract compositions are created with a large stroke.
(9) Pop Art
It is characterized by the use and processing of symbolic and iconic objects of advertising products and mass culture. Artists, seeking the glossiness and visibility of their creations, use the poetic language of labels and advertisements. Signs of popular culture are played differently in pop art, but always in unexpected and absurd combinations, thus the artist seeks to separate the thing from the myth, to show its true meaning.