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Breast Cancer Essay

Breast Cancer Essay:
In the United States in 1999 alone, an estimated 43,700 people will die from
breast cancer.
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Category:
Miscellaneous
Paper Title:
Breast Cancer
Text:
_Breast Cancer _

In the United States in 1999 alone, an estimated 43,700 people will die from
breast cancer. It is the number two cancer killer among females ages 15 to
54.
On average if a woman gets this disease, their life expectancy drops
drastically. This cancer is within the top three cancers of all women above
the age of 15, and comprises a great amount of all health care costs in the
U.

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S. totaling an astounding 37 billion dollars a year in direct medical
costs.
An average woman is said to have a one in nine chance of getting the cancer,
but if that person had family history of the disease, his or her chances have
been measured up to a one in six chance. Sixty-nine percent of
African-American women survive from it, and there are predicted to be nearly
two million new cases reported this year in the U.S. (Breast Cancer Key
Statistics)
Breast cancer is a group of rapidly reproducing,
undifferentiated cells in the area of the breast in men and women.

The
earliest changes occur in the epithelial cells of the terminal end buds (TEB)
of the breast milk ductal system. While the progressive steps of breast
cancer
are unknown, the cells in the breast trigger a reaction of cell reproduction.
These new cancer cells form tumors. If cancer cells are active or are
considered malign, the tumor grows at tremendous speeds, and may end up in
metastasis. Metastasis is a complex process in which cells break away from
their primary tumors, and via the blood supply or through the lymph system
relocate into other organs, thus spreading cancer throughout the body.
Generally, if a lump is smaller than one centimeter, it is considered benign,
although every woman should consult her doctor about any unusual bumps or
feeling in the chest.

One sign of breast cancer results from ductal cancer in
the breast. A once hollow open tube could be completely clogged up with
cancerous cells leaving an awkward feeling in the chest area. Other
complications that result from this cancer and others are the clogging and
cramming of the system (American Cancer Society, 1999: 10)
Recently genes
have been named as a great cause of cancer. It now is thought in the medical
community that while there are definite environmental contributors to cancer,
even those people who are exposed to few carcinogens may suffer from disease
that runs in their families. Among the genes that are being heavily
researched
is the gene BRCA1 (Case Studies). In one of the preliminary studies of this
particular gene, over 250 Jewish women were discovered to have mutations in
this germ-line allele, which is a version of the trait that is passed to the
offspring through the germ line cell (or gamete).

This accounts for
approximately 13% of all breast cancer patients observed. Jewish women in
specific were used, as early on there was a definite pattern of breast cancer
through the Jewish community especially that which lived in the United
States.
The specific mutation, 185delAG, was, “strongly associated with the
onset of
breast cancer in Jewish women before the age of 30.” Scientists advanced
upon
this new information of genealogical interplay, so the “New England
Journal of
Medicine” (NEJM) set out determined to study the overall effects of
these
genes. In an article printed on January 18, 1996, germ-line alterations in
BRCA1 were discovered in six of the 80 women surveyed who had breast cancer
but had no apparent familial history of it. Thus the scientists concluded
that
mutation was not limited to women with a history of cancer.

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Genes are thought
to cause five to twenty percent of all breast cancers. A gene known as p53
supposedly stalls reproduction of cells, and can even cause a cell to
“commit
suicide”. Other genes that seem to accelerate growth to overtake and
stick to
proteins include HER2, neu, and erB2 (Fitzgerald et al, 1996). The relation
between serum estrogen levels at a single time is linked to breast cancer,
but
no evidence links estrogen levels over an extended time to the risk of breast
cancer. This what was thought until researchers at the “New England
Journal of
Medicine” proposed a study. Bone mass is a cumulative effect of estrogen
on
bones scientists say, and so the study focused on the more easily observed
density and mass of bone tissue in women.

Four levels were studied, and the
research was tallied. The risk for getting cancer in the lowest stage of bone
mass was about 2%, and .

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Breast Cancer Essay: In the United States in 1999 alone, an estimated 43,700 people will die from breast cancer. -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=- Category: Miscellaneous Paper Title: Breast Cancer Text: _Breast Cancer _ In the United States in 1999 alone, an estimated 43,700 people will die from breast cancer. It is the number two cancer killer among females ages 15 to 54. On average if a woman gets this disease, their life expectancy d
2020-05-14 07:31:01
Breast Cancer Essay
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