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Autism Stuff… Essay

Autism or PPD (pervasive developmental disorder) is
defined by the Columbia encyclopedia as a rare
neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the inability to
relate to and perceive the environment in a realistic manner. The
onset of the disorder is in infancy or early childhood, generally
before the age of thirty months, and males are affected four
times as often as females. Symptoms include impairment in
social interaction, fixation on inanimate objects, inability to
communicate normally, and resistance to changes in daily
routine.

Diagnosing Autism is based on four characteristics:
difficulty with language, abnormal responses to sensory stimuli,
resistance to change and difficulty with social interaction. “Other
characteristics of autism may include: making the same
repetitive motion for hours, repeating a sound or phrase, inability
to hold a conversation, practicing unusual play patterns, and
extreme sensitivity to sound and touch.

” Autistics can exhibit
any combination of these characteristics in any degree. That is
why autism is referred to as a “spectrum” disorder, because at
one end of the disorder a child may be inflicted with some
symptoms, while at the opposite end a child may be inflicted with
multiple symptoms with many areas in between. Children who
display few symptoms may be characterized as “mildly autistic”.

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The cause for autism remains unclear, although most
neurological studies seem to indicate a dysfunction in the brain
as a possible reason. Autism has been found in children with
brain abnormalities such as congenital rubella syndrome,
neurofibromatosis, and tuberous sclerosis. Autism can also be
present in genetic syndromes such as fragile X syndrome and
phenylketonuria.

Some research has shown that there may be an
autism gene, or two genes working together. These genes are
thought to be on the seventh and thirteenth chromosome. The
disorder may be hereditary as shown by twin studies that cite
there is a “substantially higher rate in identical twins-so much so
that heritablity is over 90%”, says Joseph Piven. In a Harvard
Mental Health letter statistics found that the rate of autism and
mild retardation in brothers, sisters and fraternal twins of
autistics is 50-100 times higher than average and in identical
twins the rate is 65% to 90%. In 1980 it was found that among 11
families with a father diagnosed with autism more than half of
their children were autistic. The apparently normal parents of
autistic children had undiagnosed mild symptoms of autism when
tested.

Early signs of Autism may appear in the first months of life.
Autistic infants tend to stray away from other people, avoiding
touch and become limp or stiff when picked up or help. Autistic
children dont reach maturation as fast as normal children. A
normal child will point to objects or smile when seeing their
mother before the end of their first year, but children with autism
develop this behavior much later. These symptoms may go on
unnoticed by parents or doctors in infancy, but by the age of two
to three it is clear that something is wrong.

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention states that
one in 500 children in America suffer from autism.

Autistic
children are unable to recognize themselves or remember things
that they have just done. For example, if an autistic child were to
show someone a toy of theirs, they would forget they have just
showed it and show the toy repeatedly as if they have never
presented it before. They may examine a simple little toy or
electronic device for hours without losing interest, or rock back
and forth in a particular spot for an entire afternoon. The
repetition of little things seem to be a grand achievement for
these children.

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In diagnosing, or assessing autism the child’s history is
taken into consideration. For instance whether or not the family
has autism in any other branches of its tree can help to
determine whether a child may or may not have autism.

The
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
Psychiatry states: Aspects of the assessment will vary depending
on the child’s age, history, and previous evaluations. The history
would include the history of the pregnancy and development of
the child, marking such milestones as communication and motor
skills (ex. child’s first words or steps), and when thought to be
unusual. Doctors will often discuss their medical history, such as
possibility of seizures, hearing and visual impairments along with
other conditions or syndromes such as fragile X syndrome.
Doctors will do this because there is not a specific laboratory
test for autism at this point in time. These studies and
discussions help in the search for a diagnosis.

A test for fragile X
syndrome may be given because .

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Autism Stuff... Essay
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Autism or PPD (pervasive developmental disorder) is defined by the Columbia encyclopedia as a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the inability to relate to and perceive the environment in a realistic manner. The onset of the disorder is in infancy or early childhood, generally before the age of thirty months, and males are affected four times as often as females. Symptoms include impairment in social interaction, fixation on inanimate objects, inability to communicate norm
2020-05-15 07:17:09
Autism Stuff... Essay
$ 13.900 2018-12-31
artscolumbia.org
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