Autism Essay is a disorder that impairs the development of a person’s capacity tointeract with, communicate with, and also maintain regular ;normal;bonds with the outside world. This disorder was described in 1943 by Leo Kanner,an American psychologist. Autism is considered one of the more commondevelopmental disabilities, and appears before the age of three. It is known tobe four or five times more common in males than in females.
It most citedstatistic is that autism occurs in 4. 5 out of 10,000 live births. The estimateof children having autistic qualities is reported to be 15 to 20 out of 10,000. The gender statement noted before is not uncommon, since many developmentaldisabilities have a greater male to female ratio. Autistic characteristics aredifferent from birth.
Two more common characteristics that may be exhibited arethe arching of the back while being held, to avoid contact, and also failing toanticipate being picked up (limpness in the body). Infants with autism aredescribed as being either very passive, or very agitated. Sometimes duringinfancy there will be cases of head rocking, and or banging, against the crib,but this is not always the case. Approximately one-third of children developnormally until the ages of 1 1/2 to 3, and then the symptoms emerge, referred toas ;regressive autism. ; During childhood, there is a commonality ofthe affected child insisting routine. The reasoning is that the child is notable to cope with ;novel; situations.Order now
Wearing the same clothes, oreating the same foods during meals, are examples. Tantrums can occur when theseperseverative behaviors occur. Twenty years ago, most autistic individuals wereinstitutionalized. Now only the most severe cases live in institutions.
Duringadulthood, autistic individuals are known to live with their parents, inresidential institutions, and some do live independently. Because there are somany forms of this disorder, it has been said that there is no true adjective todescribe every type of person with autistic symptoms, or autism. My researchshows that there are no physiological tests that can be performed to determinewhether a person has autism. The diagnosis is given when a person exhibits thecharacteristics of the disorder. Note: In the last five years, researchers haveagreed that those who display autistic characteristics are commonly sufferingfrom other related but distinct disorders, such as Asperger Syndrome, Fragile Xsyndrome, Landau Kleffner syndrome, Rett syndrome, and Williams syndrome.
Physiological researchers have discovered abnormalities within the brain, butthe reason for the abnormalities is not known, and it is not known where therelation to autism lies. These abnormalities range from underdeveloped areas inthe limbic system, to Vernal lobules VI and VII, being smaller than average. Biochemical research has found elevated beta-endorphins, relating to paintolerance in autistic action. In the cognitive realm, there is much talk of the;theory of mind;, or the inability to realize that other people havetheir own unique view of the world. Some Cognitive theorists think that theautistic person isn’t able to understand that other people have differentthoughts, plans, and perspectives than their own.
Cognitive theorists alsoexamine the 10% statistic of savant skills, an ability that is consideredremarkable by most standards. These savant skills are usually spatial in nature. Interventions and therapies are difficult. Family theorists try to work with thefamily of the patient, to try to develop appropriate behaviors. There is noreported drug that can be considered primary for the patient, although Ritalinis dispensed in many cases.
Behaviorists look at the changing of behaviorthrough positive reinforcement, behavior recess, and in turn examine theself-stimulatory and self-injurious behaviors. Physiological work such as visualtraining, and auditory integration training, is used to reduce sensitivities tosounds above normal range, or to sounds the patient can consider painful. Whenit comes to autism, the most important thing to remember is that parents anddoctors in the medical field are now realizing that there can be treatments, andinterventions, that can be effective. In addition, note that Federal Law nowrequires the states to provide early intervention services for autistic childrenbetween the ages of one to three.
The services exist to provide tools to developthe children academically, and socially.Psychology .