The ability to make images is uniquely human. No society that we know of has lived without some form of art. The impulse to make and respond to art appears to be as deeply ingrained as our ability to
our ability to learn language.
According to the author, creating order and structure, exploring aesthetic possibilities, and constructing images and from that carry meaning deal with our basic human ______________to create art.
More than three hundred old images of drawings and paintings were discovered in a cave. When and where were these images found?
In 1994 in Europe. I would have been amazed the imagines would have serviced so many thousands of years.
Archeologists have formed some tentative conclusions about how the cave paintings were done. Describe these methods from the book.
They were ground to a powder with stone mortars, then mixed with blood, animal fat, and calcium rich cave water to bond them into paint and applied with fingers and animal hair brush or sprayed from mouth or a hollow reed.
Which British artist from your book said “all art is basically Paleolithic or Neolithic? Define the terms Paleolithic and Neolithic.
Anthony Caro said “all art is basically Paleolithic or Neolithic”. Paleolithic is smear soot and grease on a cave walls. Neolithic is to pile stone on stone.
Many theories have formed about why the Stonehenge was built and for what purpose. Recently archeological research has confirmed one theory. What is the theory and how did archeologists form this conclusion? In what era was the Stonehenge erected?
Recent archaeological research has confirmed that the monument marks a graveyard, perhaps that of a ruling dynasty. The cremated remains of up to 240 people appear to have been buried over a span of some five hundred years, from the earliest development of the site until the time when the great stones were erected. Stonehenge was erected in the Neolithic era, or New Stone Age.
megaliths. Which work in this chapter is best associated with the term megaliths
A very large stone and Stonehenge is associated with megaliths.
Who is Maya Lin and what is the famous work created by this artist shown in this chapter
Maya Lin created the Vietnam Veterans Memorial as a place for contemplation and remembrance.
Mike Kelley did a work titled Kandors Full Set. What is Kandor?
Kardor is the place where Superman, the comic-book hero, was born.
The subjective nature of perception explains why a work of art may mean different things to different people. Define the term perception.
Perception is the recongnition and interpretation of sensory data–in other words, how information comes into our eyes(ears, nose, taste buds, fingertips) and what we make of it.
Vantais paintings meditate on the fleeting nature of earthly life and happiness. Audrey Flack, a modern day painter, did a vantais painting she titled
Audrey Flack, a modern day painter, did a vantais painting she titled Wheel of of Fortune..
During this time in history the term “art” was used roughly in the same sense a “craft.” Name this historical period.
When judging the success of a work of art we must consider the intent of the artist. The portrait of the Mona Lisa painter by Leonardo da Vinci looks miraculously lifelike. Andy Warhol, who is associated with pop art, also did a work of the Mono Lisa in which he portrays her as an endless celebrity. What did Warhol call his famous work of the Mona Lisa?
Thirty Are Better then One.
Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa, according to the author, looks almost miraculously lifelike. Go on line and see if you can find out present value of this famous work. What was it?
It is impossible to estimate the value of a work of art, until it is up for sale. And the ‘Mona Lisa’ will never be for sell. But the estimated vale was worth about 700 million in 2009.
The term outsider has come into common use only recently. What other terms have been used over the past century to cauterize work by nonprofessionals?
The terms folk, naive, intuitive, primitive, and art brut also have came into use.
Who painted Fisherman’s Cottage on the Cliffs at Varengeville? What media did he use?
Painted by Claude Monet with oil on canvas.
Media (medium) refers to the material from which a work of art is made.
For example-watercolor, oils, acrylic, stone, metal, etc.
During the 18th century, beauty and art were discussed together because both were felt to provide pleasure. But is pleasure what we always feel in looking at art? Sadness might be more appropriate for Giovanni Bellini’s painting Pietà. What does the term Pietà mean?
Italian for “pity” is pieta.
Descriptive of a work of art that depicts forms in the natural world. So if the artist is painting a apple it looks like an apple Realism Figurative Naturalism
reference to the natural world of images Nonfigurative
Abstract paintings feature shapes, line, and colors, like more realistic paintings, but sometimes don’t represent objects in the real world at all.Stylized
Duane Hanson did a work which uses extreme optical fidelity. What is the French word for “fool the eye”?
The styles of expression- representational, abstract, and nonrepresentational- categorize art by how it relates to the appearance of the visible world. A term that helps us categorize art by its own appearance is style. Define the term style.
refers to a characteristic or group of characteristics that we recognize as constant, recurring, or coherent
What style of expression are Swinging by Vasily Kandinsky and Chin Up by Rebecca Purdum?
Vasily Kandinsky style of expression was nonobjective. Rebecca Purdum style of expression was nonrepresentational.
Iconography is often referred to as the story within a work of art. Define the term iconography (icons)
Iconography, literally “describing images” involves identifying, describing and interpreting subject matter in art.
To understand the icon within a work of art we must know the story. Experts still debate the icons in the double portrait by Jan van Eyck. Your book discusses more than one theory about Jan van Eyck’s work. What are the two theories from the book?
One theory claims that the painting records a private marriage ceremony and served as a sort of marriage certificate. Another theory claims that the painting does not depict marriage but a ceremony of bethrothal, an engagement.
Iconoclasm means the destruction of images based on religious beliefs. It was coined to describe one side of a debate. How long did this debate last?
the debate raged for over a century in the Christian empire of Byzantine.
The Egyptians imagined he afterlife as resembling earthy life in every detail. Who were the pyramids built for? Which is the largest of the three pyramids in your book?
For the Pharaoh. Khufu was the largest pyramid
Eugene Delacroix painting Liberty Leading the People glorifies violence in the service of democracy but Pablo Picasso’s painting Guernica was done for other reasons. What were those two reasons discusses in your book?
He was commissioned by his government to paint a mural for the Spanish Pavilion of the Paris Worlds Fair. After procrastinating, he finished the painting after the bombing reached Paris.
Where was Robert Rauschenberg born? How did he support himself when he moved to New York in 1950?
Robert Rauschenberg was born in Port Arthur, Tx. He supported himself in part by doing window displays for fashionable 5th avenue stores.
The art movement Surrealism grew out of Dada and fantasy art. Hieronymus Bosch did a “fantasy” triptych. Define the term triptych. Robert Smithson’s Spiral Jetty is an example of land art also known as a ________________.
A triptych is a painting in three pieces.
This work, by Jeff Wall, is a photograph that refers to a print.
A Sudden Gust of Wind
He is one of the most delightfully eccentric figures in the history of art. Name this Japanese painter and woodcut designer.
A line is a path traced by a moving point.
An outline defines a two-dimensional shape. What is the difference between contours and contour lines?
Contours are boundaries we perceive of three-dimensional forms and contour lines are the lines we draw to record those boundaries.
vertical, horizontal, and diagonal. Each of these line directions has the ability to suggest emotions to the viewer. For example: Vertical lines seem assertive, or denote growth and strength. Horizontal lines appear more calming. What are the characteristics of the diagonal line? You can see each of these characteristics of line in The Biglin Brothers Racing by Thomas Eakins.
You can see each of these characteristics of line in The Biglin Brothers Racing by Thomas Eakins. Diagonal lines almost always imply action, the lines seem unstable; we half expect them to topple over.
shape and mass (form).
A shape is a two-dimensional form, it occupies an area with identifiable boundaries, may be created by line in a pencil, a shift in texture or a shift in color.
James Turrell, often use light to create an optical effect. He refers to these as “skyspaces”. In his work Live Oak Friends Meeting he carefully calculated apertures that frame an unobstructed view of the sky. Artificial lighting along the base of the ceiling causes the ceiling to appear to float. Other artists use light to model forms in a work of art
A pattern, plan, representation, or description designed to show the structure or workings of an object, system, or concept.
Darkness or lightness of a color
A monochrome picture made by using several different shades of the same color
Close parallel lines used in drawings and prints to create the effect of shading on three dimensional forms
The use of overlapping parallel lines to convey darkness or lightness
Dots spaced close or far apart to suggest darker or lighter areas
Red, Yellow, Blue
Green, Orange, Violet
Tertiary or intermediate colors
mixing a primary and a secondary color together
What is a palette? What is the difference between a restricted palette and an open palette?
A palette refers to a wooden board on which artist traditionally set out their pigments. A palette also refers to the pigments that an artist may lay out. A restricted palette is a only a few pigments which limits the artists to those pigments and their mixtures. An open palette allows for more pigments, and more mixtures.
Hue, value, and intensity are the three color properties
a black- and-white photograph captures the values of the neutral colors.
refers to relative purity of a color
There are four color harmonies (schemes) discussed in your book.
Monochromatic – Composed of variations on the same hue, often with different values and intensities. Complementary involves colors directly opposite each other on the color wheel. – Analogous – combine colors adjacent to one another on the color wheel. Triadic – coposed of any three colors equidistant from each other on the color wheel
Note: there is a great example of a triadic color scheme in chapter 22, page 496: Trafalgar Square by Piet Mondrian.
Textures can be described as a perception of smooth or rough, fine or coarse. There are two types of texture discussed in your book. Artists can create illusions actual texture through ranges of value, line and often pattern, which requires repetition
Visual or implied texture
Visual or implied texture
Actual texture Is literally tactile.Visual or implied texture is formed in an idea of its texture by observing the way it reflects light, and associating what we see with a sense of memory of touch. Pattern-any decorative, repetition motif or design
Sculpture, architecture, and all forms with mass exist in three-dimensional space. It has height, width and depth as well as positive and negative space. Two-dimensional space has only height and width and the illusion of positive and negative space which exists within the picture plane. Therefore, space can be 2D or 3D, implied or actual, positive or negative
-the literal surface that allows other qualities and dimensions of space can be implied
Foreshortening refers to the visual effect or optical illusion that an object or distance appears shorter than it actually is because it is angled toward the viewer.
Kinetic comes from the Greek word “kinetos” which means moving. Which work by Calder deals with actual movement?
Unity is a sense of oneness
When artists focus on the unity of ideas and meaning in their work rather than the visual and compositional elements, they are pursuing ____.
A thing which differs in some way from others of the same general class.
Visual weight refers to the apparent “heaviness” or “lightness” of the forms arranged in a composition. When visual weight is equally distributed to either side of a felt or implied center of gravity, we feel that the composition is balanced
Symmetrical balance formal balance
is descriptive of a design in which the two halves of a compsvenition on either side of an imarginary central vertical axis correspond to each other in size, shape, and placement.
Relieved or approximate symmetry
Slight differences between axial areas of work.
Asymmetrical balance/informal balance
By using balance to lead our eyes around work, artist structure our experience of it and also helps communicate a mood or meaning.
the use of scale to indicate relative importance is called
What media did Manabu Ikeda use in his work History Of Rise and Fall?
Pen and acrylic ink on paper, mounted on board.
What culture is credited with the invention of paper around 105 C.E.?
Silk, cave walls, fired clay, and papyrus are all materials that have provided support for drawings
is Latin work for paper.
A paperlike writting material made from the skins of sheep or goats
A colored chemical compound that absorbs light, producing color and a coloring material made from various organic or chemical substances when mixed with binder, it creates a drawing or painting medium.
is a substance in paints that causes particles of pigments to adhere to one another and to a support
Prince among Thieves with Flowers Chris Ofili used pencil as his medium. Although the outline of the prince looks like tiny dots, what are they in reality?
Tiny heads, each sporting an afro
The predecessor of the graphite pencil, popular during the Renaissance, is metalpoint. Historically, what is used to create the lines in metalpoint?
Mixture of bone ash,glue and white pigments in water
The main difference in the color consistency of different types of crayons and pastels is due to the use of different
He was one of the greatest draftsmen of the 17th century. Name the artist and the media he used in Cottage among Trees.
Rembrandt. Pen and brown ink brush and brown wash on paper wased with brown
Raymond Pettibon’s drawings are traditional in scale but he rarely exhibits them alone; the effect is more of an installation.
installation is a work of art that can entered, explored, experienced, and reflected upon.
An art form in which an entire room or similar space is treated as a work of art to be entered and experienced. More broadly, the placing of a work of art in a specific location, usually for a limited time. can involve walls, ceiling, floors…
What media did Pettibon use in No Title(Not a single armour…)?
Brush and ink on paper.
Medium or vehicle
a liquid that holds the pigments together without
dissolving them, which can also include a
a surface on which the artist works, with Ground or primer
Ground or primer:
a preliminary coating
After building a canvas and before painting it, a painter generally applies a coat of primer
Your book discusses two ancient painting techniques which are still used today. Name those two techniques
Encaustic and Fresco.
Clear, transparent fluid that fills the anterior chamber media can be diluted with water. Watercolors are an example of an aqueous media
most common vehicle used in otic preparations; ex: mineral oil, glycerin, vegetable oil media require some other diluted. Oil paints are an example of Nonaqueous media.
In buon fresco, or true fresco, the pigment is mixed with water and applied to
the pigment is mixed with water and applied to Wet lime plaster
A full-scale preparatory drawing for a fresco or mural.
What technique did Diego Rivera use in his work Mixtec Culture?
He is considered one of the leading figures in 20th century American art. He studied at the Harlem Art Workshop and was one of many prominent artists to work for the W.P.A. during the Great Depression. Name this African-American artist.
Jacob Lawrence The above artist was commissioned to do two frescoes in the United stated. The one in Detroit survived but the other one was destroyed.
thin, translucent layers of color
Italian for “all in one go.” Alla prima refers to completing a work of art in one single session, without preliminary templates or sketches.
A painting technique in which pigments are applied in thick layers or strokes to create a rough three-dimensional paint surface on the two-dimensional surface.the Italian for “paste.
a classic procedure is to complete the entire painting first in black and white, it’s from the French for “gray. a painting technique executed in gray-scale values before
What is the characteristic of watercolor that sets it apart from other painting media?
Their transparency and they are not applied thickly, like oil paints, but thinly in translucent washes.
What is gouache?
John Singer Sargent Gouache is watercolor with inert white pigment added..
Graphic design as we know it today has its roots in two developments. They are:
The invent of the printing press and the Industrial Revolution.
Symbols are given a meaning by the couture or society; they have no meaning within themselves and may change racially with time. Define symbol
An image or sign that represents something else because of convention, association or resemblance.
Name the ancient symbol from Chinese philosophy that embodies a worldview of mutual independence.
Which graphic design team developed the familiar set of symbols used today to communicate information across language barriers to international travelers
was Cook and Shanosky.
a visual representation (a picture or diagram) that is used make some subject more pleasing or easier to understand
Symbols that represent the company or its product gain meaning through effective advertising. They play a major part in the identity of a corporation.
The basic design of a character. a style of type font
A blueprint for work in print to hold the viewer’s attention
He created posters for the Moulin Rouge. Name this artist.
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec.
What development in the 19th century introduced the widespread use of color in posters?
The memorable logos for IBM, UPS, and ABC were designed by:
The work, Black Bean, signaled the arrival of a new kind of subject matter and is a portrait of graphic design. Who designed this work?
List three factors associated with low relief and give an example from your book.
Low Relief figures project only slightly from the background.Sarcophagus lid. High Relief forms dramatically project from the background by generally at least half their depth.
List two factors associated with high relief and give an example from your book.
Durga Fighting the Buffalo Demon
List the four basic methods for making a sculpture.
The four basic methods are modeling, assembling, carving, and casting.
Which of the above methods is considered a substitution, replacement, or an indirect method of sculpture (involves a mold)?
Which method brings together individual pieces, segments, or objects to form a sculpture?
Assemblage Note: Carving is more aggressive than modeling and more direct than casting.
Carving is more aggressive than modeling and more direct than casting.
The lost-wax process of casting dates back to the
3rd millennium BCE.
Contrapposto was developed by the ancient Greeks as a pose for sculptures of the human figure
is counterpoise or counterbalance; sets the body in a gentle S-shaped curve that implies the potential for human motion.
Andy Goldsworthy uses natural materials to create sculptures that are ephemeral
lasting a very short time; short-lived; transitory
What is the Italian name for clay that has been fired to make it hard?
forging; what profession would use this art?
When metal is shaped by hammer blows. Metalworker
Define stained glass and give the example from your book.
Made by cutting sheets of colored glass in various colors and fitting them together in a pattern; often the segments are joined by strips of lead.Chartres Cathedral,
Tree of Jesse
Warp become or cause to become bent or twisted out of shape, typically as a result of the effects of heat or dampness.
Weft (in weaving) the crosswise threads on a loom over and under which other threads (the warp) are passed to make cloth
A porcelain vase, a glass beaker, or a wool tunic might have been made for the social elite, but the materials were common. However, jade, ivory, and lacquer, are rarer materials. Jade was prized for its translucence. Where does lacquer come from?
Is made from the sap of a tree originally only found in China. It creates a glasslike coating over wood and takes up to 30 coats to create a substantial layer.
What pottery technique did Betty Woodman use in Aztec Vase Number 5?
clay it was combined cut shapes with thrown vessels