Artificial life (commonly called a-life) is the term applied collectively to attempts being made to develop mathematical models and computer simulations of the ways in which living organisms develop, grow, and evolve. Researchers in this burgeoning field hope to gain deeper insights into the nature of organic life as well as into the further possibilities of COMPUTER science and robotics (see ROBOT). A-life techniques are also being used to explore the origins and chemical processes of metabolism. Some investigators have even proposed that some digital “life” in computers might already be considered a real life form.BackgroundThe term artificial life was coined in the 1980s by Christopher Langdon, a computer scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Santa Fe Institute. Langdon organized the first experimental workshop on the subject at Santa Fe in 1987. Since then other a-life conferences have taken place, drawing increasingly wider attention and a growing number of participants.Theoretical studies of a-life, however, had been in progress long before the 1980s. Most notably, the Hungarian-born U.S. mathematician John VON NEUMANN, one of the pioneers of computer science, had begun to explore the nature of very basic a-life formats called cellular automata (see AUTOMATA, THEORY OF) in the 1950s. Cellular automata are imaginary mathematical “cells”-analogous to checkerboard squares-that can be made to simulate physical processes by subjecting them to certain simple rules called algorithms (see ALGORITHM). Before his death, von Neumann had developed a set of algorithms by which a cellular automaton-a box shape with a very long tail-could “reproduce” itself.Another important predecessor of a-life research was Dutch biologist Aristid Lindenmeyer. Interested in the mathematics of plant growth, Lindenmeyer found in the 1960s that through the use of a few basic algorithms-now called Lindenmeyer systems, or L-systems-he could model biochemical processes as well as tracing the development of complex biological forms such as flowers. Computer-graphics programs now make use of L-systems to yield realistic three-dimensional images of plants.The significance of Lindenmeyer’s contribution is evident in the fact that so-called “genetic algorithms” are now basic to research into a-life as well as many other areas of interest. Genetic algorithms, first described by computer scientist John Holland of the University of Michigan in the 1970s, are comparable to L-systems. A computer worker trying to answer some question about a-life sets up a system-an algorithm-by which the computer itself rapidly grades the multiple possible answers that it has produced to the question. The most successful of the solutions are then used to develop new software that yields further solutions, and the cycle is repeated through several “generations” of answers.Evolutionary ModelingLangdon himself picked up on the work of von Neumann by attempting to design an “a-life” form on a computer screen. In 1979 he finally succeeded in developing loop-shaped objects that actually reproduced themselves, over and over again. As new generations spread outward from the initial “organisms” they left “dead” generations inside the expanding parameter. Langdon noted that the “behavior” of these a-life forms genuinely mimicked real-life processes of mutation and evolution. He eventually proposed that a-life studies could provide keys to understanding the logical form of any living systems, known or unknown.One of the most striking a-life simulations of evolutionary processes has been the work of Thomas Ray of the University of Delaware, who in 1990 set in motion a “world” of computer programs that he called Tierra. The world started out with a single ancestor, a program containing 80 instructions. A-life evolution proceeded as mutations rapidly appeared. The new forms included “parasites” that interacted with the original host forms, producing further mutations of hosts and parasites that “learned” to deal with one another anew in each succeeding generation.Bibliography:Braitenberg, Valentino, ;a href=”http://click.linksynergy.com/fs-bin/stat?id=pcZ8g7DjAzA&offerid=6424&type=2&subid=0&url=http%253A//search.borders.com/fcgi-bin/db2www/search/search.d2w/Details%253F%2526mediaType%253DBook%2526prodID%253D2464171″ ;Vehicles: Experiments in Synthetic Psychology;IMG border=0 alt=icon width=1 height=1 src=”http://ad.linksynergy.com/fs-bin/show?id=pcZ8g7DjAzA&bids=6424&type=2&subid=0″ ; (1984)Langdon, Christopher, ed., Artificial Life (1988)Levy, Steven, ;a href=”http://click.linksynergy.com/fs-bin/stat?id=pcZ8g7DjAzA&offerid=6424&type=2&subid=0&url=http%253A//search.borders.com/fcgi-bin/db2www/search/search.d2w/Details%253F%2526mediaType%253DBook%2526prodID%253D3045895″ ;Artificial Life;IMG border=0 alt=icon width=1 height=1 src=”http://ad.linksynergy.com/fs-bin/show?id=pcZ8g7DjAzA&bids=6424&type=2&subid=0″ ; (1992)Pagels, H. R., The Dreams of Reason (1988)Prata, Stephen, ;a href=”http://click.linksynergy.com/fs-bin/stat?id=pcZ8g7DjAzA&offerid=6424&type=2&subid=0&url=http%253A//search.borders.com/fcgi-bin/db2www/search/search.d2w/Details%253F%2526mediaType%253DBook%2526prodID%253D4440873″ ;Artificial Life;IMG border=0 alt=icon width=1 height=1 src=”http://ad.linksynergy.com/fs-bin/show?id=pcZ8g7DjAzA&bids=6424&type=2&subid=0″ ; (1993)Order now
Artificial Life Essay
Creating own signature for use in web Essay 414 Words | 2 Pages
In this tutorial I will show you how to make a custom user bar. I will be making a Photshop CS user bar. 1) Make a new document with sizes widht: 350 height: 19 with a transparent background. 2) Make a suitable gradient and apply it.3) Now get a logo, when I usually search for images i use Google Images, find your logo and open it up in Photoshop. 4) Now it's time to remove your logo from the background, get the polygonal lasso tool and carefully cut it out. 5) Now go to Edit ; Copy, then open the...
Design a suitable logo for the business or organisation of your choice Essay 958 Words | 4 Pages
I have been asked by a Turkish football company called Galatasaray to design and produce a logo for their website www. galatasaray. co. uk. I must produce the company logo graphic to meet 'Galatasaray' design brief: image must use Colour image must incorporate text and graphics image must be no larger than 3 inches square. The company is interested in seeing my skills so I should make sure I demonstrate that I can use: drawing tools (e. g. line, shape, text, brush, Colour, spray) attribute tools (e. g. fill, line thickness) manipulation tools (e. g. move, size, copy, paste, flip...
Logo research Essay 870 Words | 4 Pages
Logo research This logo has not got a border around it, but it still looks Neatly presented. There is a bright colour used for the Font, which catches your attention. Aswell as a name Used there is also an image included in the logo. I Personally do not like the colour used for the font, as it Is too bright. This logo has a very dark background. The font used in this logo is curved and really thin. It is a really basic colour, which contrasts well with the background. It is neatly presented. I like the idea of the...
How Many Pages is 3500 Words? 1011 Words | 3 Pages
The question “how many pages is 3500 words” might sound odd to everyone else. However, to a writer, every word counts. Literally. Depending on the purpose of the write-up, the length of the text, and how many pages it covers, helps one to easily determine how they will articulate the intended purpose. It acts as a guide on how to highlight issues and the level of explanation. A 3500 words essay, for example, cannot be compared to one with less or more words. How do you use words to determine the number of pages? Ideally, there is a basic standard...
Start to design Essay 837 Words | 4 Pages
Having completed my identify and analysis I now need to start to design what the presentation will actually look like. I have decided to do three initial design ideas, all different from each other and then ask the English rep which one he prefers and if there are any other things he would like included. Below are my three initial design ideas: Idea 1 Idea 2 Idea 3 After designing these three initila ideas I e-mialed them to the enhlish rep and asked for his feedback on the designs, and which one he would prefer me to develop. He said:...
Artificial Intelligence Essay 715 Words | 3 Pages
Perhaps one of the most complex pieces to the human puzzle is our sense ofhumor. A sense of humor not only involves intelligence and comprehension butalso an array of emotions. It is not enough to just understand somethinghumorous, but it is also necessary that an emotional and physiological responsebe able to occur for a person to have a sense of humor. However, though there ismuch involved in getting a joke, there are even more factorsinvolved in telling a joke (Ziv 27). This is, unfortunately, an oversimplifiedexplanation of what a sense of humor entails, as many people have their ownopinion about...
How Many Pages is 1500 Words? 830 Words | 2 Pages
The educational system in the U.S. is concentrated on the various types of assignments. They all involve certain kinds of topics, word count, style and so on. 1500 words essay I easy to write, as long as, you can clear objective ahead of you. On the other hand, many students are concerned about page number and how many pages is 1500 words? Also, they are interested to know how to write a 1500 words paper? Even though such a length is quite terrifying, we are going to show you a couple of tips and tricks on how you can write...
How Many Pages is 6000 Words? 979 Words | 2 Pages
6000 words essay is a time-consuming task and requires a lot of time. However, many students don’t take this assignment seriously, and they try to write it in 24 hours. But, is it possible and how many pages is 6000 words? Well, to answer you, it’s possible, but you need to have a determination and strong will, to finish everything on time and we shouldn’t mention excellent typing skills, because 6000 words demand a lot of speed. It doesn’t matter if you use pages single-spaced, or pages double-spaced, the result is the same, and you still have to meet your...
How many pages is 1000 words? 1522 Words | 4 Pages
Nowadays there are a lot of different situations when a person is supposed to write something. It may be a resume, letter, assignment, report, application and so on. There are special requirements which you need to follow while writing. To add to their difficulties, there might be some limits concerning words count. So how you can find out how many pages you need to write to reach 1000 words? It is influenced by different factors including the purpose of writing. What else may influence the correlation between pages and words in some text editors? It depends on such significant factors...
Artificial Intelligence Essay 716 Words | 3 Pages
As we get closer to the twenty-first century, we find that soon a computer will be another common household appliance. As the television was introduced in the 1950's, it soon became an essential part of everyday life. It is now found in every home and an importance source for entertainment and for gaining information. In the next couple of years, the same will be said for computer. It is fast becoming as essential part of our everyday life. With the Internet becoming an important resource for gaining information with the touch of a button. Yet, this is just the beginning...
We have essays on the following topics that may be of interest to you
Sorry, but downloading
is forbidden on this website
Make It Original?
How about make it original at only $13.9/page?Let us edit for you at only $13.9 to make it 100% original Proceed