Articles Of ConfederationARTICLES OF CONFEDERATIONAdopted in congress in 1777 and ratified and in force in (1784?)Adopted for: a) unify in defense and warb) Foreign policybasic principle of articles for states to maintain control under centralgovernment assigned specific powersOrganization of government: 1) one legislative house – unicameral legislature- passes laws2) 2-7 delegates per state3) 9 votes required to pass law4) 13/ unanimous votes needed to amend ArticlesPowers: defense – army, navy, and treaties with IndiansForeign affairs – warMoney – borrowing, spending, printing, determining value, coiningInternal affairs – Judge disputes in special court hearings between statesEnforcement laws determined by state therefore enforcement was selective tostate desires and rarely doneState restrictions – states could not: make war, treaties, internationaltariffs and coin moneyDuties of state – states must provide money/army? When requested by congressStates must pay taxes based on landWeaknesses of Articles -I. trade regulation – congress had no power to regulate trade – done bystates – caused:a) tariffs on imports and exports established by statesb) states competed over control of waterwaysc) Foreign trade was diminishing; interstate trade was also stopping becauseof tariffs on each other making trade difficult????II.Order now
Enforcementa) Central government included no enforcement/ executive branchb) Rules mostly ignored1) taxes decided by congress based on land ( to be paid by states – didn’tpay – congress had no income and had to borrow- land basis bad for south -few people and lot of land2) no income for army – regulated number soldiers per state not given – keptfor own defenseresult – SHAY’S REBELLION – Begun by Daniel Shay – farmer in Massachusettswanted to begin own government and revolted – Mass. didn’t have enough armyto quell rebellion – soldiers also farmers and on other side – asked congressfor help but appeal to no avail – states didn’t list4en to congress cuzdidn’t care – continued for 6 months3) Treaty of Paris not enforced – states refused to compensate loyalist forproperty lost and collect debts owed to British merchants – money all usedfor war effortTherefore England also violate and move troops to Northwest Territory (furtrade)Spain and England restrict trade on Mississippi and right of deposit in NewOrleansIII. Money – each state illegally made their own currency- congress could notprevent it – 14 forms of currency causing it to be worthless and inflation -made congress and states suffer – foreign countries unwilling to trade andlend moneyIV. Passing laws – difficult to get 9 states to agreeGeneral ProblemsEconomic – chaotic – severe post war depression, which usually lasts onlyshort while, normal after war – England cut off trade with states – statepower under Articles to regulate foreign trade? – Causes trade to lessen cuzdifficult from expenses and tariffs and regulations – merchants and farmerswho sell outside their state suffer from tariffs between states – smallfarmers fine southerners fine cuz Tabacco needed and special treatment andless regulation – first to pull pout of depression cuz of this and PlanterAristocracy had laws beneficial to them and their trade – differentcurrencies in US discourages tradeInflation – prices and wages rise – helps debtors (pay back less),bad for bankers (receive back less, give more) – when inflation (like amongfarmers who are constantly in debt) = cheap currencyDear currency = stable currency = less inflation and prices stable -tradersPolitical – increased power/ democracy in state government often causeschaosHow many people have sayConstitution – rules by which government operate – contains fundamental law(received idea from charters)States write new constitution with stronger democracy including Bill ofRights (things government cannot do) – executive branch (governor elected bypeople), legislative (bicameral elected by people) and judicial (courtsappointed by governor – sometimes elected by people)Property qualifications – all lowered (lowest – highest = NE-M-S) – mostremove religious qualificationsLegislature given more power than governorsAchievements under articles1. US wins revolution2.
Northwest Ordinance – 1785a) history – conflicting state claims – attempts made at resolution in 1784and 1785 – speculators interested in selling land lobbied congressb) principle – territories ceded would be admitted as equal statesc) terms – disputed territories__?? To US government – territories divided into 5 futire states: Ohio, Indiana, Illinios, Michigan, Wisconsind) conditions for admission: 5,000 male adults – congress appoint governor -proplr elect legislature with power to make laws60,000 adult males – write constitution including Bill of Rightsno slavery in any part of the territoryBibliographythank you shiffy for typing up these lovely notes.American History