Architecture Essay Why is it Justifiable to describe Tad’s Exam Hall as ‘classical? Michele Fox-Bell Submission Date: 7th December, 2012 “Classicism’ a revival of or return to the principles of Greek or Roman art and architecture. Although most phases of medieval and later European art have to some extent been influenced by antiquity, the term ‘classicism’ is generally reserved for the styles more consciously indebted to Greece and Rome. “l In this essay I will discuss why the Examination Hall in Trinity College Dublin can be considered a classical building.
In the first century BC, the Roman architect Marcus Vitreous wrote his ten books of architecture. In these books, De Architecture, he detailed the Greek and Tuscan orders as a reference point for future architects. In 1563, Giaconda dad Avignon wrote his treatise, The Five Orders of Architecture, which was considered to be a guide for architects and builders throughout Europe. During the Renaissance, Andrea Palladian (1508-1580), wrote the The Four Books of Architecture, these books encompassed the classical architecture of Greece and Rome. It is from these roots that the Neo-
Classical architects developed their approach to design, considering its form and function for both private and civic buildings throughout the 17th century. The Examination Hall in Trinity College, Dublin, stands in Parliament Square. Designed by the architect Sir William Chambers, but realized by Christopher Myers, and completed in 1785. Entering the college through the classical portico of the West Front of Trinity College, one emerges into a beautiful, elegant and enormous space consisting of two squares, Parliament Square, a cobblestones quadrangle, and Library square, which is set with lawns and trees.
With the Campanile at the axis teen the two, to the left of this is the Chapel (1787-98), Dining Hall (1760-5), and the Graduates memorial building (1892), at the back of the square stands the Rubrics (1690), the square is completed by the Library (1712-33) on the right, and the Examination Hall (1777-86). 1. Flemings Honor,H and Vesper, N. (1999) Architecture and Landscape Architecture The stylistic composition of the Exam Hall is Neo classical after the Roman style. In contrast to the West Front, with its festoons and garlands, it could be considered austere.
Facing across the main quadrangle towards the Chapel, these two buildings error each other. Both are large single vaulted chambers with an apse, and a temple front portico in the tetra style, the columns being of the Corinthian order, supporting a pediment with unadorned tympanum, this mirroring was a device used in classical architecture to try to achieve balance, majesty, space and calm. The roof of the portico is of groin vaults springing from the imposts of Corinthian pilasters on the inside and the front columns.
There are three principle registers, the ground floor, the piano mobile and the upper or attic level. There are five bays on the front elevation. The fenestration is typical, neoclassical, symmetrical distribution; the windows on the ground floor are round headed in keeping with the three arches in the portico, and the three arched windows above the entrance. On the piano mobile the windows are large, rectangular, with a pediment above, and console brackets and festoons below, the sills united with continuous including.
The attic windows are smaller, and square with a lintel above them. The walls of the building are made from ashlars granite, with channeled rustication on the ground floor, giving the building a fortified and secure effect. The portico and three central bays are made from Portland stone, a sign of the illustrious economic climate during the last half of the 18th century (Portland stone was expensive and had to be imported from Dorset at some considerable cost). The longitude elevation of the exam hall consists of seven bays; the central window on the piano Mobile has a pediment.
Again the fenestration is symmetrical, with square windows on the attic floor, above each window is a lintel, on the ground floor the ashlars granite is channel rusticated, and the rectangular windows again have lintels above them. An undecorated transfigures spans the building between the ground floor and the piano mobile. Central to the ground floor is a door with block rustication surrounding the entrance. A balustrade runs along the parapet on the roof. Behind the balustrade on the roof, semi-circular windows run the length of the building including the three semi-circular windows on the south facing elevation, which is where the apse is.
The apse has three bays, the attic level contains the aforementioned semi-circular windows, the piano mobile contains three large rectangular, round headed windows which are framed with a keystone surrounded y five vigorous either side of it. Inside is an ‘aphasia hall with a three-bay arcaded vestibule and gallery above’2, the hall is lit naturally by the semi-circular windows on the clerestory, the round headed windows in the gallery and by the large round headed windows in the hemispherical semi-dome apse. The interior is stunning with decorative Damascus style stockroom, by Michael Stapleton.
The epicenter elegance of the incommoding which adorn the frieze and wrap around the interior, carrying garlands and scrolls, are delicately rendered and utterly beautiful. This ornament covers the panels of the elliptical groin-vaulted ceiling, along with roundels and husk-garland ovals. The hall also contains the Baldwin Monument of 1781 by Christopher Whetstones, a gilded Organ case by Lancelot Pease, 1684, and a gilt wooden chandelier. 3 The examination Hall follows the rule of three, or tripartite organization of classical architecture.
The Temple front elevation combines the astrolabe/base, the portico/middle, and untreatable/roof. Within this combination, the column has a base, a shaft and a capital. The untreatable has an architrave, frieze and cornice. Considering the villas n northern Italy which were following the architecture of antiquity, the classical style, Villa Memo in Fanfold, Villa Escherichia, at Financially in Veneto, or the Villa Copra “La Rotunda” in Vaccine, which inspired thousands of buildings in Europe and further, all these examples have in common their inspiration, The Pantheon, in Rome.
Andrea Palladian, who published his treatise “l Equator Libra Deliberateness’s” in 1570, was the architect responsible for all these inspirational buildings. “In his early thirties, Paladin’s talent was recognized by classical humanist scholar, Count Ignoring Transition, who introduced him to the study of architecture in Rome, focusing on the study of classics, and Vitreous principles of architecture strengthening his fluency in the classical architectural language, demonstrated by his sensible use of symmetry and classical orders in his work”4 2. Casey, C. (2005) The Buildings of Ireland, Dublin (pig. 97) 3. Ibid. (pig. 397) Chaw,R and Alt,R (2012) Sir William Chambers, ( Treatise on Civic Architecture 1759), designed the 4. Examination Hall in 1785. Influenced by continental neoclassicism and the works of Vitreous, and Palladian, Chambers had already designed the Casino at Marino, built or the Earl of Charleston. The Examination Hall was built by Christopher Myers, (1777-1786). William Chambers influenced a small group of architects including James Agenda, who went on to finish the Four Courts, amongst many other civic buildings around Dublin, which was preceded by the Examination Hall. In conclusion, it is Justifiable to describe the Examination Hall in Trinity College as classical, since the architectural language used in the design and building of it comply with the classical principles set down in the works of Vitreous, Albert’, Avignon and Palladian. The temple front elevation and fenestration treatment on the says are of the same style as many of the Palladian villas built in the sass’s, which in turn took the Pantheon and many other temples in Rome as their inspiration.
The economic climate in Dublin in the 18th century mirrored the prolific wealth of Italy in the 16th century providing a fertile atmosphere for civic architecture. The reputation of the patron, architect and builder for supplying such civic magnificence was enhanced and profitable. The need for wealthy patrons and thriving governments to illustrate their success and status through the creation of majestic buildings lead directly to a reintroduction of the classical era.
The Examination Hall was used as a public building, as a theatre and a forum for the many guilds in the city, its function was to facilitate these gatherings whilst communicating through the design and creation of majestic structures the affluent society that was Georgian Dublin. The Examination Hall has a restrained noble simplicity, free from ornamentation. It is defined and solid, it occupies its space in a dignified grandiose manner, it appears level-headed, principled and steadfast. The roots of the Examination Hall belong firmly in the classicism which began with Vitreous and spanned Brucellosis, Albert’, ND Donated.