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    Arab – Israeli Wars Essay (690 words)

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    Since the United Nations partitioned Palestine in 1947 and established the modern state of Israel in 1948, there have been four major Arab-Israeli wars (1947-49, 1956, 1967, and 1973) and numerous intermittent battles. Although Egypt and Israel signed a peace treaty in 1979, hostility between Israel and its Arab neighbors, complicated by the demands of Palestinian Arabs, continued into the 1980s.

    The first war began as a civil conflict between Palestinian Jews and Arabs following the United Nations recommendation of November 29, 1947, to partition Palestine, which was still under British mandate, into an Arab state and a Jewish state. Fighting quickly spread as Arab guerrillas attacked Jewish settlements and communication links to prevent implementation of the UN plan. Jewish forces prevented seizure of most settlements, but Arab guerrillas, supported by the Transjordanian Arab Legion under the command of British officers, besieged Jerusalem.

    By April, the Haganah, the principal Jewish military group, had seized the offensive and scored victories against the Arab Liberation Army in northern Palestine, Jaffa, and Jerusalem. British military forces withdrew to Haifa, although some commanders assisted one side or the other despite being officially neutral. After the British had departed and the state of Israel had been established on May 15, 1948, under the premiership of David Ben-Gurion, the Palestine Arab forces and foreign volunteers were joined by regular armies of Transjordan (now the Kingdom of Jordan), Iraq, Lebanon, and Syria, with token support from Saudi Arabia. Efforts by the UN to halt the fighting were unsuccessful until June 11, when a 4-week truce was declared. However, when the Arab states refused to renew the truce, ten more days of fighting erupted.

    In that time, Israel greatly extended the area under its control and broke the siege of Jerusalem. Fighting on a smaller scale continued during the second UN truce, beginning in mid-July, and Israel acquired more territory, especially in Galilee and the Negev. By January 1949, when the last battles ended, Israel had extended its frontiers by about 5,000 sq km (1,930 sq mi) beyond the 15,500 sq km (4,983 sq mi) allocated to the Jewish state in the UN partition resolution. It had also secured its independence. During 1949, armistice agreements were signed under UN auspices between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon. The armistice frontiers were unofficial boundaries until 1967.

    The Suez-Sinai War (1956) was a result of continued border conflicts between Israel and the Arabs, despite provisions in the 1949 armistice agreements for peace negotiations. Hundreds of thousands of Palestinian Arabs who had left Israeli-held territory during the first war concentrated in refugee camps along Israel’s frontiers. They became a major source of friction when they infiltrated back to their homes or attacked Israeli border settlements. The Egyptian-controlled Gaza Strip was a major tension point, used by Arab guerrillas for raids into southern Israel. Egypt’s blockade of Israeli shipping in the Suez Canal and Gulf of Aqaba intensified the hostilities.

    These escalating tensions converged with the Suez Crisis caused by the nationalization of the Suez Canal by Egyptian President Gamal Nasser. Great Britain and France strenuously objected to Nasser’s policies, and a joint military campaign was planned against Egypt with the understanding that Israel would take the initiative by seizing the Sinai Peninsula. The war began on Oct. 29, 1956, after an announcement that the armies of Egypt, Syria, and Jordan were to be integrated under the Egyptian commander in chief.

    Israel’s Operation Kadesh, commanded by Moshe Dayan, lasted less than a week. Its forces reached the eastern bank of the Suez Canal in about 100 hours, seizing the Gaza Strip and nearly all of the Sinai Peninsula. The Sinai operations were supplemented by an Anglo-French invasion of Egypt on November 5, giving the allies control of the northern sector of the Suez Canal. The war was halted by a UN General Assembly resolution calling for an immediate ceasefire and withdrawal of all occupying forces from Egyptian territory. The General Assembly also established a United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) to replace the allied troops on the Egyptian side of the borders in Suez, Sinai, and Gaza. By December 22, the last British and French troops had left Egypt.

    Israel delayed withdrawal, insisting on receiving security guarantees against further Egyptian attacks. After several additional UN resolutions calling for withdrawal and pressure from the United States, Israel’s forces left in March 1957. Relations between Israel and Egypt remained fairly stable in the following decade. The Suez Canal remained closed to Israeli shipping, and the Arab boycott of Israel was maintained. Periodic border clashes occurred between Israel, Syria, and Jordan. However, UNEF prevented direct military encounters between Egypt and Israel.

    By 1967, the Arab confrontation states, including Egypt,

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