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Indian Overview Fashion Dress Essay

Harpoon statues, which have been dated to approximately 3000 b. C. E. , depict the garments worn by the most ancient Indians. A Priestley bearded man is shown wearing a toggling robe that leaves the right shoulder and arm bare; on his forearm is an armlet, and on his head is a coronet with a central circular decoration. The robe appears to be printed or, more likely, embroidered or applique©d in a trefoil pattern. The trefoil motifs have holes at the centers of the three circles, suggesting that stone or colored faience may have been embedded there. Harpoon female figures are scantily clad.

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A naked female with heavy bangles on one arm, thought to represent a dancer, could have been a votive figure that would have been dressed (also in a toggling garment, leaving the decorated arm uncovered) for ritual use, a custom observed throughout India in the early twenty-first century. Other excavated female figurines wear miniskirts, necklaces, and elaborate headdresses. The skirts are fastened either by sashes or beaded girdles, which continued to be used in later times. One figure wears a short cloak leaving the breasts bare. A fan-shaped headdress is seen on statues of both sexes.

Male figures appear to wear a neck scarf hat may be an early angstrom, a traditional scarf still used in the early twenty- first century. However, the Harpoon scarves are shown held by a brooch and could be signs of office. The Vivid period has traditionally been associated with the Aryans and their entry into India around 2000 b. C. E. , though this date has been disputed, as it has been learned that Central Asian tribes had been moving into northern India and beyond from very early times. The Vivid hymns refer to the Indus Valleys famous cotton and Gander’s wool and dyed fabrics.

The Kampala, or blanket, appears to have been used by both men and women as a wrapper. The earliest Vivid hymn, the Rig Veda (ca. 2000 b. C. E. ), refers to garments as visas. A number of words are used for cloth, thus indicating a consciousness of clothing styles. Cassavas meant “well- dressed,” and savanna described a person arrayed in splendid garments. The word shrubs meant “well-fitting,” which denotes stitched garments. The god Pupas is called a “weaver of garments,” Vass viva, for it was he who fashioned different forms. A mystical quality is associated with apparel.

An undressed man could not offer sacrifices to the gods?an essential aspect of Vivid life?for he would be complete only when properly dressed. The common mode of dress during the Vivid period was draping. The most important item was the nevi, which was wrapped around the waist according to the wearer’s status and tradition. Worn over this was the visas, which could be a drape, a wrap, or a Jacket (known as drape or attack). The tributary was a draped upper garment. The apartheid, or breast cover, was either wrapped around the breasts, as is still done in Tripper, or tied at the back.

The attack, worn by men, was a long, close-fitting coat often India extends from the high Himalayas in the northeast to the Karakas and Hindu Cush ranges in the northwest. The major rivers?the Indus, Ganges, and Yamaha? spring from the high, snowy mountains, which were, for the area’s ancient inhabitants, the home of the gods and of purity, and where the great sages meditated. Below the Karakas range lies the beautiful valley of Kashmir; to the north of Kashmir is Lady. Although the mountains have always formed forbidding barriers, passes through them permitted the migration of a range of ethnic groups from Central Asia and beyond.

These nomads?the Scythian, the Hunt, and many others?settled in North India and then penetrated further, bringing varied lifestyles, levels, ideas, and skills, as well as ways to express themselves through dress, ornaments, rituals, rites of passage, myths, deities, and spirits. The valley of the verdant Punjab, Harlan?Indian’s granary? attracted large-scale migrations from ancient times. Restaurants and parts of Ketch are in the Tar Desert, while the oldest mountain range, the Arrivals, runs from Gujarat and Restaurants to the open spaces of the Delhi ridge, which conservationists are desperately trying to save.

The desert was inhabited by nomads from Central Asia who created fiefdoms in Gujarat and Restaurants in the seventh century c. . These princes had their own chivalrous traditions and legends, which bards have kept alive in their ballads into the early twenty-first century. Dress and Jewelry were elaborate, and festive celebrations occurred among both the rich and the poor. Sarasota, in Gujarat, had nearly two hundred principalities, and Gujarat, Restaurants, and Madhya Pradesh together had innumerable small and large estates, all of which were laws unto themselves.

Each state would try to outdo the others in the opulence of their dress, courtly life, and celebrations. The Vanity Range divides northern from southern India. The central section consists of the Decca Plateau and its two rivers, the Goodyear and the Krishna, while the Eastern and Western Ghats are the small hills that edge the coastal areas. The Decca Plateau, which rolls down to the sea, is the land of the Dravidian people. The original inhabitants of this area were Stone Age cave dwellers whose traces have been found by archaeologists. Some descendants of these ancient people still cling to their age-old matrilineal social structure.

The country varying climatic conditions have resulted in a range of textiles and manners of dress. Cultural milieu, 2 COUNTRIES OF SOUTH ASIA described as being embroidered with gold thread. Peas was a gold-embroidered or woven cloth used for making pleated skirts. It is interesting that many of these words continue to be used in slightly different forms. Attack may be cancan, a long, close- fitting coat worn by men, while pesewa may be the root of pesewa, the term for a long, flowing dress Joining skirt and upper garment and worn by women at the Ragout courts; it was also adopted by dancers.

Different turban styles are mentioned and appear also to have been worn by women to denote status. There are references in he Veda to mantles embroidered with gold thread, and proof (in a description of borders running the length of a cloth and of two borders across its width) that the dhoti, the lower wrapped garment, had already emerged during this period. The all- around border indicates that such cloth was used as a veil, a shawl, or an Odin for the upper part of the body. T Buddhist and Gain literature, especially the Steak tales, provides details about life between 642 and 320 b. . E. Descriptions of garments and fabrics forbidden to monks and mendicants are indicators of what was worn by laypersons. Cloth of bark, Balkan; fabric made from human hair, keas-Kimball; and owl feathers and deerskin were forbidden to monks, as were patterned and dyed garments. What is interesting is that the cinchona, the stitched Jacket, was also prohibited for monks and mendicants, which suggests that they could not wear stitched cloths; this is still the case among some sects in the early twenty-first century. Nuns, however, were allowed the use of bodices.

The apparel worn by laypersons consisted of the antimacassar, or loincloth; the attractants, a mantle for covering the upper body; and he Sunnis, or turban. Tunics or Jackets were worn by both men and women. All items appear to have been mostly instituted, but the style of draping varied according to status, region, and taste. The dhoti could be pleated to fall in front like an elephant’s trunk or like a fan to form a sort of fish tail, as is still done by some dancers in South India. The sash known as sandbank was also intricately knotted and draped.

Shoes and sandals with linings and of varying shapes, materials, and colors are also mentioned, as are padded shoes with pointed ends like scorpion stings, still made in Punjab. A study of sculptures from the Marry and Sung periods (321-72 b. C. E. ) provides a greater wealth of detail. Alongside a graphic description by the Greek ambassador to the Marry court of flowing garments worn by both men and women, and printed and woven with gold, dyed in multiple colors, and draped in a number of ways, the elaborate stone carvings at Barbet, Ashcan, and Patriarchal in the Decca give a good idea of dress forms.

The Unitarian (lower-body wrap) was tied either in the middle at the waist or below the navel, and was tucked between the legs and taken to the back. Members of the upper class wore it ankle length, while the working class and peasantry wore it knee length. The Unitarian was fastened by a sash, varying from a short one tied at the waist to an elaborate one draped in many different ways. The tributary, or upper garment, was worn in a range of styles, from an elegant drape to a casual wrap. At Barbet, a representation of one of the earliest stitched garments can be seen; it has a round neck tied with tassels and also ties at the waist.

Women wore the Unitarian either tucked in back or as a pleated, instituted skirt, and they also used a sash. The tutorials An embroidered backless blouse from the nomadic people of Ran of Ketch, Gujarat, India, 1994. Photograph by Asleep Domain. Of aristocratic women appear to have been very fine, with embroidered patterns and borders, and seem to have been used to cover the head. Sculpted figures wear elaborate earrings, as well as necklaces, armlets, bracelets, and belts. The Kanata was worn close to the neck, while the larger lambent carried chains, beads, and amulets. Men wore long necklaces adorned with animal heads.

Girdles, armlets, and bangles were sported by women, along with rings and anklets in different forms. Some fine Marry Jewelry made with the granulation technique was discovered in Ataxia. Dating from the time of the powerful Stagehand Empire (200 b. C. E. -250 c. E. ) in southern India, the Martial caves, some of the caves at Junta, and remains at Nonjudgmental contribute to an understanding of the dress and ornamentation of this period. The Astrakhan’s came to power as the Marry Empire was on the wane; the Margins had spread from the north to the Decca, as well as to the east, influencing culture and traditions as they went.

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In addition, a mix of ethnic groups including Parthian, Scythian, and Greeks intermingled with the local Dravidian. Trade with Rome brought new ideas and materials and increased the level of prosperity. Stitched garments were worn by men in the form of tunics, while lower garments consisted of a range of dhotis worn in INDIA numerous ways, tucked between the legs, knee length, and tied with decorative sashes, or in a more elaborate ankle-length fashion. Stitched tunics with round or V-necks were unembellished except for a folded sash, which appears to have been worn in a range of ways and added a sense of style to these ensembles.

Women do not appear to have worn stitched clothes. Their Unitarians were knotted either in the center or at the side and tightly wrapped; they appear to have been practically transparent, clearly outlining the limbs. Women did not wear turbans but dressed their hair in several styles: braided, in a chignon above the forehead (as in Kraal in the early twenty-first century), or in a bun at the nape of the neck. Jewelry, in the form of numerous bangles, long necklaces, Jeweled belts, and anklets, was elaborate.

Women wore a range of Jewels on their heads such as the chiding, a tots form still worn in southern India by brides and traditional dancers. Elaborate earrings were also common. Royalty had emblems to distinguish them from commoners, including umbrellas, which were large; richly decorated with silk, gold embroidery, and applique©; and open rather than folding as in Europe. The cheerio, or flashily, was used only for royalty or the gods. Royal standards and swords were also symbols of power, and thinned sandals appear to have been the kings prerogative.

According to tradition, in the absence of the king, his sword and sandals represented him. The Khans (50-185 c. E. Ruled from the Genetic Plain to Bacteria in Central Asia. Part of the Wheezy tribe that originally had come from China, they united five tribes under their chief Kulak Shadiness. The most powerful Khans ruler was Kinshasa (78-144 c. E. ), a stone figure of whom, wearing elaborate stitched garments, can be seen at Mature. His tunic extends below his knees with a girdle at the waist. Beneath the tunic he wears a pair of pants; over it is a heavy coat with out- turned lapels.

His pants are tucked into heavy boots, and he appears to be wearing spurs. Dress of this period exhibits certain stylistic transformations. The indigenous working people wore a simple, short longboat, a knee-length wrapper tucked between the legs, with a short shoulder cloth, similar to the Gambia, which had multiple functions: as a turban to protect from the sun, as a towel, and as a sack for carrying goods. Foreign attendants at court, entertainers, and soldiers wore stitched clothes, as did traders.

Nomadic influence can be seen in the adoption of the long-sleeved, knee-length tunic and of a knee-length coat, chough, worn over the tunic and tied with a girdle or a buckled belt. Pants were tucked into boots, and a pointed cap was worn, apparently made of felt and of a type still used by the Shirking people of Central Asia. Women are shown in sculptures from Kandahar wearing a serialize garment that appears to have derived from the Greece-Roman tradition of drapery. Worn tucked at the back and draped over the left shoulder, this style is seen in the sculptures at Mature and resembles sari draping in the early twenty-first century.

Some Ghanaian figures also have an tributary, draped over their shoulder like the shall, worn in the early twenty-first century over the sari outside the home or for some ceremonies. In some cases the sculptured figures wear blouses underneath their draped Unitarian. THE GUPPY PERIOD The Guppy Empire was a golden period of creative expression. This empire stretched across most of the north, extending to Balk in the northeast, from 400 to the mid-eighth century c. E. Stitched garments were common, and regional differences began to emerge.

The fact that the Khans leaders, as well as the Asks and the Scythian, who ruled in Gujarat in western India for two hundred years, sometimes wore stitched garments indicates that such clothing was associated with royalty and high officials. Thus, it became highly prestigious. The late murals from the Junta caves provide details of colors, patterns, and drapery. Rulers depicted in court scenes appear to be wearing transparent, floating wraps and scarves, fine Jewelry, and elaborate crowns and headdresses. Stitched garments are also seen.

Gold coins, some of the most exquisite artifacts from this period, show men in full Khans royal dress: coat, pants, and boots. Women in the Guppy period wore the Unitarian in many different ways. The cache style of tucking it between the legs was not very common, and a different style of wrapped Lott, very short to ankle length, was worn. The wrap gave way to a stitched skirt with an izard, or tape, tied at the waist or below it with a sash. In some cases this skirt was worn like a sarong from armpit to midnight. Ruling-class women wore longer skirts or ankle-length Unitarians, while the working class wore shorter ones.

Perhaps due to Gain and Buddhist influences (nuns had been instructed to cover their breasts and wear loose garments to hide the curves of their bodies), different blouse shapes began to appear. A number of breast covers are mentioned in the literature, from ands, which raised the breasts, to schools worn with the opening at the back and an apron to cover the stomach, or blouses tied in the front, which are still worn in the early twenty’s century. Jewelry appears to have been finely worked in gold. Earrings were sandals, hoops worn together with smaller pearl earrings at the top of the ear.

The karakul, or lotus flower, was another type, while the canals-sandals, tremulous earrings, swayed and twinkled with every movement. Women appear to have worn a quantity of pearls, including mutilate, a type of pearl necklace, or another magnificent necklace known as visitant, which combined pearls, rubies, emeralds, diamonds, and sapphires. The knish’s, coin necklace, was also popular and is still worn in the early twenty-first century. Armlets were used by men and women alike, sometimes in the form of a snake. Jeweled girdles suspended over the hips were provocatively draped and hung below the navel.

Flowers, possibly fragrant, were used to decorate the hair and as garlands. In the Decca, the Vassals ruled in the fifth century b. C. E. , to be succeeded by the powerful Chalky kings at Bedlam in Andorra. Further south were the Plasmas of Champions and the Pandas of Madeira. The upper caste had absorbed Guppy influence, but in the interior people continued to follow traditional lifestyles. Royal men wore stitched tunics; sculptures from this time attest to the use of sleeved blouses among women. However, traditional draped and wrapped clothing for both men and women continued to be the norm.

Turbans were worn by men, especially royalty, but never by women, nor are there depictions of women covering their heads. Even in the early twenty-first century, head covering by women in South India is associated with widowhood. According to Motif Chancre, the lexical of the seventh century c. E. Provide a range of information about dress of this period. In fact, the very existence of such sources is a sign that the terminology COUNTRIES OF SOUTH ASIA and Turks, as well as from the Arabs, led to the introduction of Islam. Along with these groups came Suffix mystics with their emphasis on egalitarianism.

Because they reached out to the people, their influence spread widely. The urban centers of the Islamic world were closely interlinked, and the tradition of having ateliers attached to Islamic courts from Spain to Syria was intended in India, resulting in a major change in lifestyles and fashion. With the founding of the Mammal dynasty by Quit-du-din Bake at Delhi in 1206, the Sultanate period began. In the early fourteenth century, Muhammad bin Thought established the dare al-tiara, court ateliers as described by the famous traveler Bin Batista.

The historian Bin Fade Allah al-‘Mari (1301-1348) mentions that a tiara factory employed four thousand silk weavers and four thousand brocade weavers, whose production was made into robes of honor, kilts, and robes, saw, for the sultan, his family, and his favorite courtiers. Emir Kruse Delilah, the great savant and poet, wrote that the clothing worn by kings and noblemen followed contemporary Persian fashion. AAA-‘Mari further observed that linen garments imported from Alexandria and “the land of Russians” were very fine and that only persons permitted by the ruler to do so could wear them.

He also mentioned garments made in the style of Baghdad and described gold-embroidered robes. Sleeves were embroidered with tiara. Thus there appears to have been a fair amount of mobility of fashion at this time. A great deal of money seems to have been spent on special clothing. Frizz Shah Thought is supposed to have worn an extremely valuable Gullah cap over which a turban of fine material was tied. Four-cornered caps decorated with Jewels were also worn. Men arranged their hair into locks or ringlets and added tassels. Learned men and Judges wore long, striped gowns from Yemen.

Indian Muslim society was divided into four main groups: the secular and religious nobility, the traders, the artisans, and those who worked the land. The secular nobility was divided into all-I USAF, men of the sword, or warriors, and all-I slam, men of the pen; these groups were comprised of Turks, Afghans, Arabs, and Persians who tried to remain separate from the local population, whether Hindus or earlier Muslim converts. Turks and Afghans chose their wives from households that could trace their lineages back to their ancient tribes, thus maintaining their distinctive mode of dress and lifestyle.

Dress divided the people. Muslims wore tailored clothes, while Hindus wore mostly instituted garments, though Hindu men did wear Jackets, which were tied at the side opposite of that worn by Muslim men. Hindu women wore a voluminous skirt or a sari, while Muslim women wore the churchyard pajama, a tunic, and a pesewa with a veil. A man wearing the traditional dress of the nomadic people of Ketch, featuring the type of printed cloth that was exported from the area from early times. Gujarat, India, 1982. Photograph by Asleep Domain. Had become highly evolved.

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Variable, ornate, and Unitarian were all terms used to describe the tributary. The head cover, Dunham in Sanskrit, continued to be used in a modified form, called Odin or Danna, as did the gharry, which in the early twenty-first century is called gharry or chagrin. The Jacket, tunic, or blouse was called could, chinchilla, surpasses, Angola, and cinchona, words that are still used in efferent parts of North India. Gain sources are full of information on Indian garments used by both the clergy and the laity. The Ached Sutras, which describe rules of conduct, are rich in material.

Mention is made of Jackets and quilted or draped tunics, as well as floor-length robes such as principal. The shoemaker, Pawtucket or Carmella, is mentioned as making a range of shoes. There are rules as to how often clothes are to be changed. The washing of garments is meticulously described, including hand-washing, dual; calendaring, grants (that is, stretching cloth); starching, marts; and pleating and perfuming. There are also terms for sewing implements: needle, such or sevens; and scissors, Ukrainian, karri, and kali.

THE MCHUGH EMPIRE The next great change in lifestyle, thought, and administration came with the Mussels. Sahara-du-din Muhammad Baber had made five forays into India, but it was not until 1526 that he was able to defeat Sultan Abraham and reach Delhi and Agar. In the four years that followed, he laid the foundation for an empire that lasted until the coming of the colonial powers from Europe. Baber, a poet, aesthete, and adventurous warrior, never really took to India; his first act was to establish a garden, since he engaged for his homeland, the lush green valley of Ferryman.

It was his grandson, Kafka the Great, who tried to understand the rich culture THE ARRIVAL OF ISLAM It was only with the incursions of Muhammad of Ghana in 997 c. E. That Indian’s isolation ended. New influences from the Afghans INDIA of the country over which he ruled and who realized the need to assimilate Hindu and Muslim culture. The Burnham, Burr’s autobiography, gives a graphic description of the emperor’s daily activities, also describing festivals and celebrations. It mentions the bestowing of robes of honor, but these are sable robes tit buttons, more suitable for the cold of Central Asia.

It also mentions the presentation to Burr’s son Human of a char, possibly an elaborate Central Asian collar influenced by those worn by the Chinese. There is a further reference to the expensive hat worn by Human, known as culpa; he was also given a costly plume, which he probably wore on a cap or turban. Baber describes a toothaches, a tent or storeroom where textiles and royal clothes were kept, including while on military campaigns, thus emphasizing the importance of dress even in camp. Gunner was the dismissive term applied to clothing worn by non-Muslims.

Saba’s chronicler Babul Faze recorded many of the changes introduced by the emperor in the area of court dress, including his interest in local traditions and his attempt to upgrade local skills by importing master craftsmen from many countries. These individuals were offered special grants of land, pensions, and so forth, and given Saba’s personal encouragement. He also introduced fine cotton and printed clothing as being suitable to the climate. The cheddar Jam with pointed ends is typical of the age of Kafka and is seen being worn by men in miniature paintings of the time.

Women ear veils, not caps, and appear to have used fine-quality cotton and worn multiple layers of fine cloth. Kafka also renamed garments using the Hindi language. Jam (coat) became Saratoga, “covering the entire body’; izard (pants) became yard-piranha, “the 65 companion of the coat”; amanita Jacket) became tanned; fat (belt) became patgat; burqa (veil) became chitchat guppy; kulak (cap) became sis sob’s; mum-ABA (hair ribbon) became Hessian; pat (sash) became Katz; shall (shawl) became paranormal; and bazaar (shoes) became charlatan.

Kafka realized that in order to intermingle the wow cultures, strong racial associations with different lifestyles had to be overcome, and the combining of Hindu and Muslim dress was one important way to do this. Babul Faze describes how the emperor took the audacity, an unlined Indian coat with a slit skirt and tied at the left, and had it made with a round skirt and tied at the right. It was typical of Kafka to alter the form of a garment that was identified with or acceptable to the Hindu community.

He probably planned to make the Jam acceptable to both Hindus and Muslims, though he was also conscious of the need to prevent misunderstandings. People could be recognized at a glance by the manner in which it was tied (to the left for Hindus and to the right for Muslims). It had been compulsory during the Sultanate period, and continued to be so under the early Mussels, for local rajas, maharajah, and cards to present themselves in the dress of the ruling court. This must have caused resentment. Saba’s aggressive attempts to assimilate Hindu dress into the courtly code led to a greater sense of acceptance.

A study of miniatures from his time gives some indication of the changing styles. Special items were created by the emperors themselves. Just as Kafka designed the Daschle, a pair of shawls stitched together so that there was no wrong side, Changer (reigned 1605-1627) designed a special coat known as nadir’, which he mentions in his memoirs. Persian and Central Asian influences became far less important during this period. Garcia Sat women in their traditional dress and Jewelry. Ketch, Gujarat, India, 1982. Photograph by Asleep Domain. COUNTRIES OF SOUTH ASIA affluent but effete style was that of Outdo at Locknut.

Though the dress formula remained the same?lama, angora, fairish pajama?its style became a trifle exaggerated. Angoras became much wider and trailed on the ground. Women’s churchyard pajamas gave way to the fairish pajama, which was so voluminous that young pages were required to gather and carry them. The Kurt, a loose tunic made of fine cotton with rich china, white-on-white embroidery, was introduced, as was the embroidered topic, or cap, often worn at a rakish angle. The story associated with the invention of the topic is that the innumerable women in the nab’s harem could attract his attention only by creating an unusual cap.

The Sherwin, a tight, calf-length coat, and cancan, a long, fitted coat for formal wear, came part of the dress of the Muslim elite. It continues to be worn in the early twenty-first century as formal wear by Hindus, Sikhs, and Muslims. Kafka having married a Hindu princess, many Hindu traditions were introduced at court. Nor Johan was known as a great designer in her own right and was responsible for a range of innovations. Toward the end of sixteenth century, the Jam was being made of cloth so diaphanous as to allow the pants worn underneath it to be seen. This was a garment for summer wear.

Most Restaurants’ men, both upper- and middle-class, wore the court styles, including a variety of Jams; the most moon of these reached below the knee. Another type was almost long enough to cover the pants underneath it entirely. Sometimes the Jam had full sleeves. Most women in northern India, however, were hesitant to copy exotic dress and continued to prefer the half-sleeved bodice (chili), the ankle-length skirt (gharry), and the head scarf (Odin/Danni). The upper garment was fully embroidered at the neck and on the sleeves and the tasseled ends of the transparent Odin were decorated with pomp-pomp of wool or silk.

Pomp-pomp were also found on the strings tying armlets ND bracelets and on shoes, at the ends of tassels, and they were also worn in the hair. Wives of noblemen and officials and high-ranking ladies, bewitched by the beauty of the McHugh style, adopted the Jam with flowing skirt, tight pants, and Odin. The emperor Changer, himself a painter, possessed a fine aesthetic sense. From the range of garments seen in miniatures from his reign, it is obvious that he was a fastidious dresser. He wore a colored turban with gold fringe at the top or a screech, a Jeweled, feathered turban.

A pearl string encircled these turbans. His coats were invariably of brocaded silk. The paths were woven with butts, a floral pattern. The diaphanous Jam went out of fashion around 1610, thought to be unfit for public wear and used only by entertainers. During this time beards also went out of fashion; Changer followed the example of his father and ordered his courtiers to shave. Nor Johan, meanwhile, created her own dresses. The English diplomat Sir Thomas Roe was overwhelmed by the brilliance of the diamonds and pearls she wore. Dress under Shah Johan (reigned 1628-1658) became even more elegant and luxurious.

The emperor’s turban had, besides the Changer’ string of pearls, a Jeweled aigrette and a further border of Jewels hanging from the sides. The turban itself was constructed from gold cloth. Shah Khan’s one surviving coat boasted extraordinary embroidery. His sash, sandbank or pat, and slippers were also lavishly decorated. Rearrange (reigned 1658-1707) was a pious Muslim as well as an active, aggressive ruler. The overly luxurious life at court had fostered a certain laxity in government, which he tried to control, curbing opulence and reining in festive celebrations.

Some historians have accused him of banning music and painting and prohibiting the wearing of silk at court. He could not have done so as he himself dressed magnificently. His turban was Jeweled, his Jam was elaborately patterned, and he wore pearl bracelets, armlets, precious necklaces, Jeweled pendants, several rings, and a beautiful Jade-handled dagger, which hung from a pendant clustered with pearls. During his reign, the skirt of the Jam was widened and lengthened, and turbans became voluminous. Rearrange revived the beard but limited its size by ordering that no Muslim should wear one longer than the width of four fingers.

The eighteenth century saw the disintegration of the McHugh Empire under weak rulers ho were unable to control court intrigues and unrest. Regional courts became more powerful and attracted artists, craftsmen, and traders. One court known for an COLONIAL PERIOD The Portuguese, Dutch, French, and English arrived in India to ask for trading concessions from the McHugh rulers and were overwhelmed by their grandeur and wealth. According to Sir Thomas Roe, the English presented a sorry sight with their dull clothing, lack of entourage, and meager gifts, which they were afraid to present. Even the minor Indian princes were better e

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