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    AP Euro Chap 1 "The Italian Renaissance"

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    Italian Renaissance
    A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a ‘rebirth’ of Greco-Roman culture. From roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century followed by this movement spreading into the Northern Europe during 1400-1600
    Major City States in Italy
    Genoa, Milan, Rome, Naples, and Venice, and Florence
    Jacob Burckhart
    Claimed the Renaissance period was in distinct contrast to the Middle Ages; coined the term “Renaissance”
    different sections of land owned by the same country but ruled by different rulers
    despots who controlled much of Italy by 1300.
    the rule of merchant aristocracies– possessed constitutions but only a small class controlled the functions of government. (rule by a few)
    military leaders hired by city-states to engage in warfare for them (called for Mercenary States)
    Republic of Florence
    A moderately large Italian city that was central to the Italian Renaissance because of its gifted individuals; Dante, Pretrach, Boccaccio, Machiavelli, Brunelleschi, Donatello, Masaccio, Boticelli and others. The city was ruled by the Medici familly, a family of great wealth. Still, the city continued to produce new ways of thinking and helped progress the Renaissance further.
    Medici family
    powerful banking family who ruled Florence in the 1400s; patrons of the arts
    Cosimo de Medici
    Italian financier and statesman and friend of the papal court (1389-1464); ruled Florence
    Lorenzo de Medici (The Magnificent)
    Italian statesman and scholar who supported many artists and humanists including Michelangelo and Leonardo and Botticelli (1449-1492)
    Duchy of Milan
    Ruled by Sforza Family after 1450; Milan was a principal adversary of Venice and Florence until the Peace of Lodi created a relative 40- year period of peace among the Italian city states
    Sforza family
    Milanese family who, through despotism, came to power in 1450; ruled without constitutional restraints or serious political competition; produced one of Machiavelli’s heroes, Ludovico il Moro
    Republic of Venice
    Longest lasting of the Italian states because it did not succumb to foreign powers unit Napoleon. Also one of the world’s great naval and trading powers during the 14th and 15th centuries
    Papal States
    A group of territories in central Italy ruled by the popes from 754 until 1870. They were originally given to the papacy by Pepin the Short and reached their greatest extent in 1859. The last papal state—the Vatican City—was formally established as a separate state by the Lateran Treaty of 1929.
    Naples, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
    Backwards monarchy; most of Southern Italy & Sicily; fought over between the Aragonese and the French; not very Renaissance-touched
    Charles VIII
    French king, invited by Ludovico Sforza to invade Florence, fought over Italy with Ferdinand of Aragon in the first Italian war, 1480s
    Girolamo Savonarola
    a Dominican friar in Florence who preached against sin and corruption and gained a large following; he expelled the Medici from Florence but was later excommunicated and executed for criticizing the Pope; wanted to overthrow the Medici Dynasty
    Renaissance writer; formerly a politician, wrote The Prince, a work on ethics and government, describing how rulers maintain power by methods that ignore right or wrong; accepted the philosophy that “the end justifies the means.”
    The Prince
    A short political treatise about political power how the ruler should gain, maintain, and increase it. Machiavelli explores the problems of human nature and concludes that human beings are selfish and out to advance their own interests
    Cesare Borgia
    Son of Pope Alexander VI; the hero of Machiavelli’s “The Prince” because he began the work of uniting the peninsula by ruthlessly conquering and exacting total obedience from the principalities making up the Papal States
    Sack of Rome, 1527
    May 5, 1527 – A military event carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in Rome, then part of the Papal States. It marked a crucial imperial victory in the conflict between Charles I of Spain Holy Roman Emperor, and the League of Cognac (1526-1529) — the alliance of France, Milan, Venice, Florence and the Papacy.
    Charles V
    Holy Roman emperor (1519-1558) and king of Spain as Charles I (1516-1556). He summoned the Diet of Worms (1521) and the Council of Trent (1545-1563).
    a Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
    Civil humanism
    Idea that education should prepare leaders who would be active in civic affairs; if you’re smart you should be in politics
    “Father of Humanism.” studied classical Greek and Latin. introduced emotion in “Sonnets to Laura”
    Decameron, Italian writer famous for his vernacular prose, in particular the Decameron, which reveals stories of society during the plague
    Leonardo Bruni
    1. First to use the term “humanism”
    2. Among the most important of the civic humanists
    3. Served as a chancellor in Florence
    4. Wrote a history of Florence, perhaps the first modern
    history, and wrote a narrative using primary source
    documents and the division of historical periods
    Lorenzo Valla
    Elegances of the Latin Language; On the False Donation of Constantine;, An expert on the Latin language, he also exposed the Donation of Constantine (the Church claimed it was granted vast territories by the Roman emperor Constantine) as a fraud. Eventhough he was a devoted Catholic, his work helped those challeging the Churches authority. Founder of textual criticism.
    Latin Vulgate
    the authorized version of the Bible for the Catholic Church
    Marsilio Ficino
    Founded the Platonic Academy at the behest of Cosimo de’ Medici in the 1460s. Translated Plato’s works into Latin, giving modern Europeans access to these works for the fist time.
    Pico Della Mirandola
    Oration on the Dignity of Man, Oration on the Dignity of Man. Stated that humans were created by God and therefore given tremendous potential for greatness, and even union with God if they desired it.
    Baldassare Castiglione
    The Book of The Courtier. Described the ideal of a Renaissance man who was well versed in the Greek and Roman classics, and accomplished warrior, could play music, dance, and had a modest but confident personal demeanor. It outlined the qualities of a true gentleman.
    The striving for excellence and being a virtuous person. Humanistic aspect of Renaissance.
    Johann Gutenberg
    printing press, moveable type, German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468) (Gutenberg Bible)
    Italian, literally “four hundred”; it refers to the 1400s— the fifteenth century, especially in reference to Italian art of this time (the late Middle Ages and Early Renaissance).
    Giorgio Vasari
    Italian painter and art historian (1511-1574); wrote The Lives of the Artists. Massive patronage of the arts came from this and was lead by families like the Medici’s and also the churches, who saw art as a means of glorifying God.
    the 1500s; the High Renaissance in Rome
    Pope Alexander VI
    A corrupt Spanish Renaissance pope whose immorality sparked debate about the integrity of the Catholic Church.
    The treatment of light and shade in a work of art, especially to give an illusion of depth.
    Painting technique in which contours are enveloped in a suggestive, smoke-like haze
    Greek temple architecture
    triangular pediments, Greek columns, Roman arches, domes. Simplicity, symmetry, balance.
    Florentine painter who gave up the stiff Byzantine style and developed a more naturalistic style
    Il Duomo, Italian architect celebrated for his work during the Florentine Renaissance. His greatest achievement is the octagonal ribbed dome of the Florence cathedral.
    Lorenzo Ghiberti
    “gates of paradise”, winner of the north doors competition for the Baptistery of Florence cited as the beginning of Renaissance Art
    David, (1386-1466) Sculptor. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature.
    Expulsion of Adam & Eve, 1401-1428 painter that worked on perspective in his cycle of frescoes in the Brancaci Chapel (“Tribute Money.”), used realistic style
    Sandro Botticelli
    Birth of Venus, Italian painter of mythological and religious paintings (1444-1510)
    “High Renaissance”
    The time between 1400 and 1500 when the Renaissance was at its peak. This was when cultural values were formed, artistic and literary achievements occurred, and Renaissance style was largely defined, da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo
    started St. Peter’s Basilica, had a giant circular dome (138 ft. in diameter) greatest building in High Renaissance, architect
    Leonardo da Vinci
    Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
    (1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens.
    An Italian painter, sculptor, and architect of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Among many achievements in a life of nearly ninety years, Michelangelo sculpted the David and several versions of the Pietà, painted the ceiling and rear wall of the Sistine Chapel, and served as one of the architects of Saint Peter’s Basilica, designing its famous dome. He is considered one of the greatest artists of all time.
    Greatest Renaissance painter in Venice, used vivid color and movement, which was the opposite of the subtle colors and static figures in Florentine paintings.
    Artistic movement against the Renaissance ideals of symetry, balance, and simplicity; went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art. Used elongated proportions, twisted poese and compression of space.
    El Greco
    Spanish painter (born in Greece) remembered for his religious works characterized by elongated human forms and dramatic use of color (1541-1614), La Vista de Toledo, El Entierro del Conde de Orgaz, San Martin y el Pordiosero
    Northern Renaissance
    More concerned with theology and personal morality, Cultural and intellectual movement of northern Europe; began later than Italian Renaissance c. 1450; centered in France, Low Countries, England, and Germany; featured greater emphasis on religion than Italian Renaissance
    Christian humanism
    a movement that developed in Northern Europe during the Renaissance combining classical learning (humanism) with the goal of reforming the Catholic Church
    In Praise of Folly, (1466?-1536) Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not suport the idea of a Reformation. Wrote Praise of Folly.
    Thomas More
    Utopia, He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society.
    Jacques Lefevre d’Etables
    leading French humanist and good example of how Northern Christian humanists focused on early Church writings; produced five versions of the Psalms that challenged a singe authoritative version of the Bible
    Francesco Ximenes de Cisneros
    (1436-1517) Grand inquisitor of the Spanish Inquisition. A Spanish humanist who reformed the Spanish clergy and church so that many of the Church abuses that were highlighted during the Reformation did not necessarily apply to Spain. Made Complutensian Polyglot Bible, which placed Hebrew, Greek, and Latin versions of the Bible in parallel columns.
    Francois Rabelais
    Gargantua and Pantagruel, A French Humanist (1494-1553.) He was the author of Gargantua (satire), which made fun of the church using giants to represent the church. Instead of true monks there were swimming pools, maids, and no clocks.
    Michel de Montaigne
    skepticism, essay, Michel de Montaigne is the finest represent of the early modern skepticism. Montaigne developed a new literary genre: the essay. He rejected the claim that one culture may be superior to others and by doing this he inaugurated a new era of doubt.
    William Shakespeare
    English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)
    Miguel de Cervantes
    Spanish writer best remembered for ‘Don Quixote’ which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form (1547-1616)
    Flemish style
    a Northern Renaissance Art, More detail throughout painting, use of oil paints, more emotional that the Italian style, and works often preoccupied with death
    Jan van Eyck
    Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting, The Arnolfini Wedding
    A surrealist painter of the Netherlands who focused his works on symbolism, fantasy, confusion, death and the torments of Hell. Most famous work = “Death and the Miser” (1490)
    Peter Brueghel, the Elder
    not influenced by the Italian R. focused on lives of ordinary people (Peasant Dance, Peasant Wedding), Northern Renaissance painter
    Albrecht Durer
    Famous Northern Renaissance artist, he often used woodcutting along with Italian Renaissance techniques like proportion, perspective and modeling. (Knight Death, and Devil; Four Apostles), known for engravings and woodcuttings
    Hans Holbein the Younger
    German Painter noted for his portraits and religious paintings, and painted for Erasmus, More, and King Henry VIII.
    Famous work = “The Ambassadors” (1533), which portrayed the major themes of the era, including exploration, religious discord, preoccupation with death, and the rising tide of international relations in an age of expansion.
    Fugger family
    German Family (esp. Jacob Fugger, 1459-1525) that was significant in patronizing art of the Northern Renaissance. Their fortune was the result of international banking, which was similar to the Medici family in Florence.
    Christine de Pisan
    (? 1363-1434)
    A wealthy woman who chronicled the accomplishments of great women of history. Wrote the Renaissance’s woman’s survival manual (‘The City of Ladies,’ 1405), was extremely well-educated in France, and was possibly Europe’s first feminist.
    Isabella d’Este
    “First Lady” of the Renaissance; set an example for women to break away from their traditional roles as mere ornaments to their husbands; rule Mantua after her husband died; well-educated; patron of the arts; founded school for young women
    Artemesia Gentilleschi
    Perhaps the first female artist to gain recognition in the post-Renaissance era. First woman to paint historical and religious scenes
    The belief that religion should not play a role in government, education, or other public parts of society
    Renaissance found interest with classical Greek and Roman culture. In Northern Europe the pagan humanism was rejected in favor of classical literature
    Giovanni de Medici (1429)
    Merchant and Banker of Florence, founder of Medici dynasty. Ignored church’s prohibitions of lending for interest and changed the world economy
    Author of “The Divine Comedy” in which he helped define the vernacular of what is now italian
    Pope Leo X
    Son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, he failed to realize the importance of the Reformation and excommunicated Luther.
    Revived the idea of heliocentric idea from his book “On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres”
    Habsburg-Valois Wars (1494-1559)
    The Italian Wars, at various times, most of the city-states of Italy, the Papal States, most of the major states of Western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Scotland) as well as the Ottoman Empire. Originally arising from dynastic disputes over the Duchy of Milan and the Kingdom of Naples, the wars rapidly became a general struggle for power and territory among their various participants, and were marked with an increasing degree of alliances, counter-alliances, and regular betrayals, ended by the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
    Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
    The Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, issued by King Charles VII of France, on July 7, 1438, required a General Church Council, with authority superior to that of the pope, to be held every ten years, required election rather than appointment to ecclesiastical offices, prohibited the pope from bestowing, and profiting from, benefices, and limited appeals to Rome. The king accepted many of the decrees of the Council of Basel without endorsing its efforts to coerce Pope Eugene IV.
    Converted Christians in Spain
    New Monarchs
    A new monarch is A king or queen who had real control over their kingdom. Basically before new monarchs the nobility had most of the control. The new monarchs however were able to subdue to the nobility which aided them in becoming powerful kings and queens

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