In relevance to anthropology, the interest arises in the relations between tourists and groups of hosts. The tourists can place demands on services performed by the host population, Nash (1999, p. 23) whereas MacCannell (1999, p. 24) argue that in areas new to tourism the understanding can be limited with misunderstandings on cultural differences. Ultimately this can result to the loss of culture, Burns (1999, p. 33) claims that the tourist industry is a quest for the illusion of authenticity through the experience of social and cultural simulation:
“The very existence of tourism rules out the possibility of authentic cultural experience. ” According to Taylor (2001, p. 9) the attempts to locate the original and ‘true’ Maori, New Zealand culture in “pre-European” past have been evident in a variety of social institutions, including museums, anthropology and tourism. The common link between the findings is the conception of time that has emerged. “Western thought has developed alongside ideas of sociocultural evolution.
” This can suggest that although the culture has been preserved, it is just an interpretation that is primarily targeted to the western societies therefore over time has been commodified for attraction which has lost genuine value. Technological development has grown rapidly since the 20th century for tourism. The environmental change is evident in both the supply environment and the changing nature of consumer behaviour, Cooper (2006, p. 47). This can be used as a competitive tool for the ‘host’ and ‘guest’ in the tourism industry as the knowledge can predetermine the system and value of the representation.
The can ultimately ensure the tourist does not go anywhere real, hence the tourist bubble, Burns (1999). This suggests that with the broader understandings of what may be considered real, authentic or staged with promotion of technology information, it provides tourists to seek for more adventure. O’Reilly (2006, p. 998) declares over the past few decades, independent travel has grown in popularity. Associating adventure tourism with young people who want to experience “freedom, personal development and fulfilment”, it has become part of education.
Whereas, Cater (2006, p. 317) suggests that with adventure tourism is a rapidly expanding market segment it has contributed $220 billion annually to the US economy alone. To support, Eurostar (2011) high-speed passenger service, launched a new campaign “exploring is beautiful” to inspire travellers to explore Europe through connecting trains to city centre destinations. This shows that transportation links are becoming easier for tourists to explore, yet as a consequence this could suggest that adventure tourism is evolving into mass tourism.
The term ‘adventure’ can be associated with many people and images that connect with the imagination and emotions of the adventure experience, Swarbrooke et al (2003, p. 7). According to Buckley (2003, p. 8) the pressures of the market demand have commercialised adventure activities that have now evolved from hard to soft adventure in some destinations. For example, Brazil relies on the natural resources such as rivers, waterfalls, beaches, national parks/forests as a comparative advantage to strengthen their economy, ranked 58/ 139 in travel and tourism competitiveness report (see appendix: Figure 2 ).
The activities such as canoeing and horse riding over ‘time’ have become more controlled as the growth and knowledge of tour guide/reps have placed limits on the extent of adventure, Filho (2009, p. 1)The social and technological changes are suggested to make it easier and cheaper to visit remote parts of the globe and reduce some risks. The soft adventurer is in some senses parallel with mass tourism as it appeals to novices and involves low risks. Whereas, the hard adventurer is required to have commitment and advanced skills and is more likely to be involved with physical activity, Buckley (2003, p. 9).
This can put forward that the anthropology of knowledge may possibly be required in order to become more adventurous. In contrast, Swarbrooke et al (2003, p. 36) displays the typology of adventure tourism is complex and “consumer and suppliers do not confine themselves to one category”. (See appendix: Figure 3). This suggests that the soft adventure tourists can be portrayed as more ‘independent’ and internationally seeking for the natural environment, whereas the hard adventure tourists seek for artificial and commercial which contradicts adventure tourist as evidently pursuing inauthentic destinations.
Although the hard tourist striving for more wilderness as the soft tourist more urban. Ingold (1992) suggests the term “urban beings” have evolved from technology and improvement from humans that have begun to change the way people perceive the environment, detaching them from their natural surroundings. Through such a perspective, physical activity as well as relaxing when in touch with nature can be vitally important to quality of life. This has led to a revaluation of some types of activities, especially those which bring humans closer to nature (Brown & Kasser, 2005; Watson & Landres, 1999).
According to Pearce (2005, p. 52) an adventure traveller will be motivated by intrinsic, self – satisfying goals and at other times motivated by extrinsic socially controlled rewards to visit a destination. So, by more destinations becoming available it widens the variety of intrinsic needs of adventure tourists. This can be identified in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (see appendix: Figure 4) citied in Reisinger, Y. (2009 p. 272) it can be shown that people have a range of motives for seeking out holiday experiences.
By analysing the different levels, especially the self-actualization and ego needs which relates back to Smith (2000) portraying adventure as high status, it can help to understand the motivation of adventure tourism in anthropology. The ego needs can be seen as the main factor if these are met. If they feel recognition and achievement, the judgment will be based on the interpretations between the host and guest as tourists. As adventure tourism is an emerging field (O’Reilly 2006; Carter 2006) this can suggest that it has become a popular trend to pursue adventure worldwide.
The increasing amount of tourism niches interlink with adventure activities (see appendix: Figure 5) gives the potential opportunities to expand on niche tourism adventure. Culture tourism such as backpackers or spiritual tourists, reflect the origins of work on cultures through anthropology. McCabe (2005, p. 87) claims the tradition of the study of isolated local communities has often set up an uneasy relationship with tourism and tourists, where their presence is seen as a threat to local identity. This shows the effect that cultural study of tourism can be seen as eroded by homogenous inauthentic, consumer culture.